Balance design

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2. About the word “balance”

2.1- The balance of the world

2.2- A constant phenomenon: a piece of history about balance

2.3- Balance NOW: between natural and society

3. Balance in design

3.1-Visual interest

3.2-Visual balance

3.3-Types of balance

3.31-Symmetrical balance

3.32-Asymmetrical balance

3.33-Radial balance

3.34-Crystal graphic balance

3.35-Formal and informal balance

3.4-Rules of being balance

3.41-Rule of Thirds and balance

3.42-Visual Center and balance

3.43-Grids and balance

3.44-Balance by shape and texture

3.45-Balance by value and color

3.46-Balance by position and eye direction

4- Balance in product Design- different types of balance






4.7-Vary century

4.8-By friction

5- Projects

4.1- 3D GO/Wei Qi

4.11-About GO/Wei Qi

4.12-Balance Design in the GO/Wei Qi

4.13- From 2D to 3D

4.2- Coat Rack & Coffee Table

4.21- In its own balance

4.22- The balance system

4.3- One-leg Chair

4.31-The beauty of incomplete

4.32-The “incomplete” design

4.4- Lamp

4.41-Inspiration:Steelyard balance

4.42- The balance design from steelyard

5. Conclusion
6. Biography

1. Abstract
Balance is a theme that the human being has began to search in thousands of years ago. Us human being was inspired by the nature, o they can call it the universe,to see the amazing balance system around us. they are surprised to notice that it could work all on it own, like balance of nature, conservation of mass, chemical balance, dynamic balance and so on. So if the balance is all round us, so does it make it easier to find the “balance point”, is there exist one fiscal point named “balance point”? In this thesis, I start from the visual design: analysis the different types of balance to see the what kind of the “image”can give the person who have seen it get the ideal of “balance”o“uni-balance”; from the different point of view to achieve the balance point.
From the stand point of biomechanics, balance is an ability to maintain the line of gravity (vertical line from centre of mass) of a body within the base of support with minimal postural sway.Sway is the horizontal movement of the central of gravity even when a person is standing still. A certain amount of sway is essential and inevitable due to small perturbations within the body, like breathing, shifting body Weight from one foot to the other or from forefoot to rear foot,or from external triggers . An increase in sway is not necessarily an indicator of dysfunctional balance so much as it is an indicator of decreased sensor motor control.Maintaining balance requires coordination of input from multiple sensory systems including thevestibular, somatosensory, andvisual systems.
Maintaining balance requires coordination of input from multiple sensory systems including the vestibular, somatosensory, and visual systems.

Vestibular system: sense organs that regulate balance (equilibrioception); directional information as it relates to head position (internal gravitational, linear, and angular acceleration).

Somato sensory system: senses of proprioception and kinesthesia of joints; information from skin and joints(pressure and vibratory senses); spatial position and movement relative to the support surface; movement and position of different body parts relative to each other.

Visual system: Reference to perpendicularity of body and head motion; spatial location relative to objects.As a basic principle of design, the definition of balance refers to the ways in which the elements (lines, shapes, colors, textures, etc.) of a piece are arranged. balance is one of those useful terms to know, if one is to employ Art Speak.balance can be symmetrical ("formal"), where elements are given equal "Weight" from an imaginary line in the middle of a piece. For the most basic example of symmetry, think of your eyes in relation to either side of your nose.balance doesn't necessarily mean symmetry, though. Asymmetrical ("informal") balance occurs when elements are placed unevenly in a piece, but work together to produce harmony overall.

The senses must detect changes of spacial orientation with respect to the base of support, regardless of whether the body moves or the base is altered. There are environmental factors that can affect balance such as light conditions, floor surface changes, alcohol, drugs, and ear infection.
There are balance impairments associated with aging. Age-related decline in the ability of the above systems to receive and integrate sensory information contributes to poor balance in older adults. As a result, the elderly are at an increased risk of falls. In fact, one in three adults aged 65 and over will fall each year.
In the case of an individual standing quietly upright, the limit of stability is defined as the amount of postural sway at which balance is lost and corrective action is required. Body sway can occur in all planes of motion, which make it an increasingly difficult ability to rehabilitate. There is strong evidence in research showing that deficits in postural balance is related to the control of medial-lateral stability and an increased risk of falling. To remain balance, a person standing must be able to keep the vertical projection of their center of mass within their base of support, resulting in little medial-lateral or anterior-posterior sway. Ankle sprains are one of the most frequently occurring injuries among athletes and physically active people. The most common residual disability post ankle sprain is instability along with body sway. Mechanical instability includes insufficient stabilizing structures and mobility that exceed the physiological limits. Functional instability involves recurrent sprains or a feeling of giving way of the ankle. It is found that nearly 40% of patients with ankle sprains suffer from instability and an increase in body sway.[8] Injury to the ankle causes a proprioceptive deficit and impaired postural control. Individuals with muscular, occult instability, and decreased postural control are more susceptible to ankle injury than those with better postural control.
balance can be severely affected in individuals with neurological conditions. Patients who suffer a stroke or a spinal cord injury for example, can struggle with this ability. It has also been determined that impaired balance is strongly associated with future function and recovery in some cases, particularly in stroke patients. Additionally, balance problems have been identified as the strongest predictor of falls.
Another population where balance is severely affected is Parkinson's disease patients. A study done by Nardone and Schieppati (2006) showed that individuals with Parkinson's disease problems in balance have been related to a reduced limit of stability and an impaired production of anticipatory motor strategies and abnormal calibration.
balance can also be negatively affected in a normal population through fatigue in the musculature surrounding the ankles, knees, and hips. Studies have found, however, that muscle fatigue around the hips (glutes and lumbar extensors) and knees have a greater effect on postural stability (sway). It is thought that muscle fatigue leads to a decreased ability to contract with the correct amount of force or accuracy. As a result, proprioception and kinesthetic feedback from joints are altered so that conscious joint awareness may be negatively effected.
While balance is mostly an automatic process, voluntary control is common. Active control usually takes place when a person is in a situation where balance is compromised. This can have the counter-intuitive effect of increasing postural sway during basic activities such as standing. One explanation for this affect is that conscious control results in over-correcting an instability and "may inadvertently disrupt relatively automatic control processes."[citation needed] While concentration on an external task "promotes the utilization of more automatic control processes."
2. About the word“balance

2.1- the definition of balance

To know the whole ideal of“balance”,they could start from the beginning, the definition of“balance”.

In general and physical, it means :a stable condition in which forces cancel one another, o a state or feeling of mental balance; composure. In physics, more like “thermodynamic balance”, any unchanging condition or state of a body, system, etc, resulting from the balance or canceling out of the influences or processes to which it is subjected. In Chemistry, it means: The state of a chemical reaction in which its forward and reverse reactions occur at equal rates so that the concentration of the reactants and products does not change with time.
Thinking of balance, biologically speaking, one can refer to stasis along evolutionary lines, but there is also a sociological basis to balance theory that most systems existing in an extended period of stasis where there is little change in development or ways of living. It is common knowledge that evolution is a very long process but is occurring as this is being written; inadvertently organisms are developing better means with which to cope in the world that they occupy while others are being weeded out either because of spreading human populations or because they have not been able to compete as successfully as others. balance then would be re-established between the varieties of organisms within a given ecosystem as those areas re-establish a new sense of order.
balance on a human scale would entail the equalization of human relationships to offset troublesome periods and undo stress. In Russia polygamy has been suggested because of the high women to men ratio in certain regions; there is already a defecated relationship between the husband, his wife and mistress. Currently because of the extra relationship in non-Islamic republics, there is a high divorce rate. This brings in another factor, the traditional precepts of Islam where the woman is less likely to divorce because polygamy is more common in Islamic compared to Catholic ones. One wonders whether polygamy would be a solution to the extra relationship the man has in so far as it has been known that he could still have favorite wives and that in itself does not favor equality in the way they are all treated.
In terms of economics they live in a world that is jostled; having an excess produce on the market that goes to waste, as prices then drop because the demand drops and a world where there isn’t enough to supply foreign needs or our own. This is a world where the law of supply and demand balance each other when there is market balance but retailers don"t want that; their desire is for consumables to be cleared off the market, to be used so that the market can be replenished and employment is guaranteed to manufacture those items. One can think of the balance price, below which items are cleared from the market place, which could lead to a shortage of the item. This could of course stimulate the black market trade, which steps in and produces the item at a competitive price and put government pricing in a quandary.
Philosophers have touched on the need of an balance in life which is difficult to obtain because of a concept that one is generally constrained in this life; although people strive to liberal minded in western societies, they cannot obtain true happiness because of those constrains enforced through the social contract they had settled for centuries earlier. Obviously that contract has been modified over the years allowing for degrees of happiness, women can now hold political posts and are more independent, the quality of life has improved in the west as has longevity but what about the quality of life in overpopulated regions of the world? Some have been so bold as to blame the Darwinian theory of survival for a potential lack of caring by those who would consider themselves as more fit to survive. The fact is human populations have always had factions that have survived better than others because of their ingenuity and prowess and this is independent of being selfish or not.
Psychologically speaking that balance is understood as a balance between one"s primitive desires, or id, ones ego, or one"s real world and one"s superego, or ones morals and values. These elements were characterized by Freud"s understanding of the human psyche. There would then be upsets in ones psyche should one or more of those elements be out of balance with the others as in the case of animalistic urges where the id is largely uncontrolled by the ego and the superego. His model was understood as characteristic of the mind and not associated to the somatic parts of the body.

2.2- constant phenomenon: a piece of history about balance

In sociology, a system is called to be social balance when there is a dynamic working balance among its interdependent parts (Davis & Newstrom, 1985).

Each subsystem will adjust to any change in the other subsystems and will continue to do so until an balance is retained. When different groups start to work in relative ease and harmony instead of working against each other. Let's put it into an example, often times there are cliques in high school where the groups are very different but they work together in that they don't grate against each other. Most times the jocks will keep to themselves and the nerds will keep to themselves. When you put a bunch of people into a room, after a couple of hours, groups will start to form. This slow forming is social balance.
The process of achieving balance will only work if the changes happen slowly, but for rapid changes it would throw the social system into chaos, unless and until a new balance can be reached.
The Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) was an imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD). It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han.
The Religion of the Han Dynasty was largely Taoism. Taoism is the belief of opposites such as there can be no love without hate. The central idea of Taoism could be generalized into two in Chinese: 无为(wu wei). Wu Wei is an important concept in Taoism that literally means non-action or non-doing. In the Tao Te Ching, Lao Zi explains that beings (or phenomena) that are wholly in harmony with the Tao behave in a completely natural, uncontrived way. In a sense that when the planets revolve around the sun, they effortlessly do this revolving without any sort of control, force, or as an attempt to revolve themselves, instead the planets just revolve around the sun in an effortless and spontaneous movement. The goal of spiritual practice for the human being is, according to Lao Zi, the attainment of this natural way of behaving.
Several chapters of the most important Taoist text, the Tao Te Ching, attributed to Lao Zi, allude to "diminishing doing" or "diminishing will" as the key aspect of the sage's success. Taoist philosophy recognizes that the Universe already works harmoniously according to its own ways; as a person exerts their will against or upon the world they disrupt the harmony that already exists. This is not to say that a person should not exert agency and will. Rather, it is how one acts in relation to the natural processes already extant. The how, the Tao of intention and motivation, that is key.
“Wu Wei” is often associated with water and its yielding nature. Since it is an element that adapts itself to reality, instead of an attempt to fight, argue, oppose, or change reality. In illustration, its nature itself is assuming any form or shape it inhabits through any container it is being filled. Droplets of water, when falling as rain, gather in watersheds, flowing into and forming as a collective group, joining the proverbial sea. In a sense that while it at times diverge itself from its source, it also goes back again to where it came from. Showing its cyclical nature.
According to Lao Zi, the importance of being o finding balance is always at the first place for a country. And to finding the social balance, the best way is just let it to be itself and give enough time and space for every subsystems to adjust and regulate.
Not only as big as a country, when they focus on human nature, each person also has its own balance to follow. From the history, the relationship between religion and politics is complex, religion will affect the law. Religion is also a social ideology, is part of the superstructure. Historically, the religious ruling class is often used as a tool for the ruling spirit of the people. On the other hand, religion has often been used by rebel as a tool to against oppression.
In the Middle Ages, there are many countries in the world have adopted the theocratic regime, state power and religion union into one, religious leaders are heads of state, they have the power to control the whole state directly; Religious rules is the law of the land, citizens must believe in and abide. Citizens do not have the freedom of religious belief, otherwise it will be considered "infidels" and persecuted.
Because that, when the economic situation fell down, people"s life became suffering, lots of riots and revolutions have been held. To pacify and solace, o even comfort the people from lower hierarchy, the religion become more advocate people to bear the suffer, and gave people the hope --- Reincarnation.
In Buddhist doctrine the evolving consciousness, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new aggregation. At the death of one personality, a new one comes into being, much as the flame of a dying candle can serve to light the flame of another.The consciousness in the new person is neither identical to nor entirely different from that in the deceased but the two form a causal continuum or stream. Transmigration is the effect of karma or volitional action. The basic cause is the abiding of consciousness in ignorance: when ignorance is uprooted, rebirth ceases.
The Buddha's detailed conception of the connections between action (karma), rebirth and causality is set out in the twelve links of dependent origination. The empirical, changing self does not only affect the world about it, it also generates, consciously and unconsciously, a subjective image of the world in which it lives as "reality". It "tunes in" to a particular level of consciousness which has a particular range of objects, selectively notices such objects and forms a partial model of reality in which the ego is the crucial reference point. Vipassana meditation uses "bare attention" to mind-states without interfering, owning or judging. Observation reveals each moment as an experience of an individual mind-state such as a thought, a memory, a feeling or a perception that arises, exists and ceases. This limits the power of desire, which, according to the second noble truth of Buddhism, is the cause of suffering (dukkha), and leads to Nirvana (nibbana, vanishing (of the self-idea)) in which self-oriented models are transcended and "the world stops".Thus consciousness is a continuous birth and death of mind-states: rebirth is the persistence of this process.
Karma continues to exist and adhere to the person until it works out its consequences. For the Sautrantika group, each act "perfumes" the individual or "plants a seed" that later germinates. Tibetan Buddhism stresses the state of mind at the time of death. To die with a peaceful mind will stimulate a virtuous seed and a fortunate rebirth; a disturbed mind will stimulate a non-virtuous seed and an unfortunate rebirth. The medieval Pali scholar Buddhaghosa labeled the consciousness that constitutes the condition for a new birth as described in the early texts "rebirth-linking consciousness" .

2.3- balance NOW

In modern society, as it"s identity of fast development and high efficiency. The “mission” of finding balance remain and become more difficult and specific.

Considered as a whole, they find that the process of reproduction is a process of constant disturbance and reestablishment of balance between society and nature. Marx distinguishes between simple reproduction and reproduction on an extending scale.Let us first consider the case of simple reproduction. they have seen that in the process of production, the means of production are used up (the raw material is worked over, various auxiliary substances are required, such as lubricating oil, rags, etc.; the machines themselves, and the buildings in which the work is done, as well as all kinds of instruments and their parts, wear out); on the other hand, labor power is also exhausted (when people work, they also deteriorate, their labor power is used up, and a certain expenditure must be incurred in order to reestablish this labor power). In order that the process of production may continue, it is necessary to reproduce in it and by means of it the substances that it consumes.
For example, in textile production, cotton is consumed as a raw material, while the weaving machinery deteriorates. In order that production may continue, cotton must continue to be raised somewhere, and looms to be manufactured. At one point the cotton disappears by reason of its transformation into fabrics, at another point, fabrics disappear and cotton reappears. At one point, looms are being slowly wiped out, while at another they are being produced. In other words, the necessary elements of production required in one place must be produced somewhere else; there must be a constant replacement of everything needed in production; if This replacement proceeds smoothly and at the same rate as the disappearance, they have a case of simple reproduction, which corresponds to a situation in which the productive social labor remains uniform, with the productive forces unchanging, and society moving neither forward nor backward.
It is clear that this is a case of stable balance between society and nature. It involves constant disturbances of balance ,disappearance of products in consumption and deterioration and a constant reestablishment of balance; but this reestablishment is always on the old basis: just as much is produced as has been consumed; and again just as much is consumed as has been produced, etc., etc. The process of reproduction is here a dance to the same old tune.
But where the productive forces are increasing, the case is different. Here, as they have seen, a portion of the social labor is liberated and devoted to an extension of social production ,new production branches; extension of old branches. This involves not only a replacement of the formerly existing elements of production, but also the insertion of new elements into the new cycle of production. Production here does not continue on the same path, moving in the same cycle all the time, but increases in scope.

“This is production on an extending scale, in which case balance is always established on a new basis; simultaneously with a certain consumption proceeds a larger production; consumption consequently also increases, while production increases still further. balance results in each case in a wider basis; they are now dealing with unstable balance with positive indication.”

---Nikolai Bukharin
The third case is that of a decline in the productive forces. In this case, the process of reproduction falls asleep: smaller and smaller quantities are reproduced. A certain quantity is consumed, but reproduction involves a smaller quantity still; less is consumed; and still less is reproduced, etc. Here again, reproduction does not repeat the same old cycle in each case; its sphere grows narrower and narrower; society's condition of life becomes poorer and poorer. The balance between society and nature is reestablished on a level that goes lower and lower each time.
Society meanwhile is adapting itself to this continually narrowing standard of living, which can only be done by the partial disintegration of society. they are here dealing with unstable balance with negative indication. The reproduction in this case may be termed negatively extended reproduction, or extended insufficiency of production.

Having discussed the subject from all angles, they have found the same result always, each case depending on the character of the balance between society and nature. Since the productive forces serve as a precise expression of this balance, these forces enable us to judge its character. Our remarks would apply just as well if they were speaking of the technology of society.

The "only indispensable global environmental politics reader"—Green Planet Blues: Four Decades of Global Environmental Politics—has been newly revised and updated. Co-edited by University of Maryland Professor Ken Conca and ECSP Director Geoff Dabelko, the book was made available January 10 from westview Press. "It is essential reading to understanding the dynamics shaping international environmental law and institutions now and in the foreseeable future," says Carl Bruch of the Environmental Law Institute. "This edition builds gracefully from the must-read classics of the 1970s to today's need-to-know issues," says Robin Broad of American University. The 4th edition covers key debates about climate, water, forests, toxics, energy, food, biodiversity, and other environmental challenges of the twenty-first century. 

Ken Conca is a professor of government and politics at the University of Maryland, where he directs the Harrison Program on the Future Global Agenda. He is the author or editor of several books on environmental politics, peacebuilding, and global governance. Geoffrey D. Dabelko is director of the Environmental Change and Security Program (ECSP) at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC, and an adjunct professor at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. 
In this updated edition of their classic textbook, Conca and Dabelko have produced a volume that stimulates and challenges. The diverse views represented in the volume challenge orthodox thinking, making for stimulating reading and class discussion. The fourth edition reflects recent trends and new knowledge. It is essential reading to understanding the dynamics shaping international environmental law and institutions now and in the foreseeable future. Green Planet Blues remains the only indispensable global environmental politics reader.

This is a book that has stood the test of time, and it remains an invaluable guide to past and present debates in global environmental politics. It is notable for its clear introduction, concise chapters, and strong representation of voices from the South, and this makes it a book for globally minded students everywhere.
As a professor of environment and development, I would be lost without Conca and Dabelko's Green Planet Blues. This edition builds gracefully from the must-read classics of the 1970s to today's need-to-know issues—such as globalization, the WTO, and the role of local and global civil society. Using a political economy lens to bring together a multiplicity of voices, Conca and Dabelko have assembled a spectacular volume. This is the best and most lively introduction to the study of global environmental politics. The editors have assembled a rich and diverse array of voices that capture all of the key ideas, actors, conflicts and themes in this burgeoning field. The fourth edition of Green Planet Blues also confirms, yet again, the editors' finely honed skills in talent spotting. The fourth edition of Green Planet Blues provides a thorough overview of global environmental policy and politics since the 1972 Stockholm summit. This up-to-date revised version is one of the few essential books for anyone interested in environmental issues, and particularly an excellent resource for students and teachers in this field. Highly recommended.

True to its habits, science promptly took the hint from the new historical experience and reflected the emerging mood in the proliferation of scientific theories of chaos and catastrophe. Like Zygmunt Bauman said in “Liquid Modernity”:Once moved by the belief that 'God does not play dice', that the universe is essentially deterministic and that the human task consists in making a full inventory of its laws so that there will be no more groping in the dark and human action will be unerring and always on target, contemporary science took a turn towards the recognition of the endemically indeterministic nature of the world, of the enormous role played by chance, and of the exceptionality, rather than the normality, of order and balance.

Also true to their habits, the scientists bring the scientifically processed news back to the realm in which they were first intuited, to wit to the world of human affairs and human actions. And so they read, for instance, in David Ruelle's popular and influential rendition of contemporary science-inspired philosophy, that 'the deterministic order creates a disorder of chance' :
“Economic treatises make an impression that the role o f the legislators and the responsible government officials is to find out and implement an balance particularly favourable to the community. Examples of chaos in physics teach us, however, that instead of leading to an balance, certain dynamic situations trigger temporarily chaotic and unpredictable developments. The legislators and responsible officials should therefore face the possibility that their decisions, meant to produce a better balance, will instead produce violent and unanticipated oscillations, with possibly disastrous effects.”
For whichever of its many virtues work had been elevated to the rank of the foremost value of modern times, its wondrous, nay magical, ability to give shape to the formless and duration to the transient figured prominently among them.
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