Background 6 The Imperators 6



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Background 6

The Imperators 6

Pompy the Great, Proconsul, murdered in 48 B.C. 6

Scipio, Imperator 47-46 B.C., commited suicide 46 B.C. 6

Cato Uticensis, Propraetor, committed suicide in 46 B.C. 6

Julius Caesar, Dictator, assassinated March 44 B.C. 6

Brutus, Proconsul and Imperator, commited suicide 42 B.C. 7

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Triumvir, died 13 B.C. 7

Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, committed suicide in 30 B.C. 7

Lucius Antonius, Consul 41 B.C. 7

Octavian, Augustus 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D. 7

The Twelve Caesars 8

Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D. 8

Livia, wife of Augustus, Died in 29 A.D 9

Caius and Lucius, Died 4 and 2 A.D 9

Antonia, Died around 37 A.D 9

Antonia, Died around 37 A.D 9

Agrippa - Military commander and friend of Augustus, Died 12 B.C 9

Germanicus 10

Agrippina Senior, Died 33 A.D 10

Drusus, son of Tiberius, born 13 B.C., died 14 September 23 A.D. 10

Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D. 10

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D. 10

Nero Claudius Drusus, born 38 B.C., died 9 B.C., father of Claudius 11

Britannicus, son of Claudius, born 42 A.D 11

Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. 11

Agrippina Junior, Died 59 A.D 12

Octavia, wife of Nero, daughter of Claudius 53 A.D – 62 A.D 12

Poppaea, wife of Nero 65 A.D 12

Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D. 12

Otho, 15 January 69 - 17 April 69 A.D. 13

Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D. 13

Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D. 13

Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 14

Julia Titi, Augusta c. 79 - 90 or 91 A.D. 15

Domitia, wife of Domitian, who reigned 81-96 A.D. 15

The Adoptive Emperors 16

Nerva, 18 September 96 - 25 January 98 A.D. 16

Trajan Pater (father of Trajan) 17

Matidia, 112 A.D – 119 A.D 18

Plotina, Died in 129 A.D 18

Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D. 18

Sabina, Died in 173 A.D 18

Aelius, Caesar July or August 136 - 1 Jan 138 A.D. 18

Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D. 18

Faustina Senior, died 141 A.D., wife of Antoninus Pius 20

Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161- 17 March 180 A.D. 20

Faustina Junior, died 176 A.D, wife of Marcus Aurelius 21



Lucius Verus, 7 March 161 - February 169 A.D. 21

Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus, daughter of Marcus Aurelius 21

Pertinax, 31 December 192 - 28 March 193 A.D. 22

Didius Julianus, 28 March - 2 June 193 A.D. 22

Manlia Scantilla, wife of Didius Julianus 23

Pescennius Niger, April to 1 June 193 - March, April or May 194 A.D. 23



Clodius Albinus, fall 195 or early 196 - 19 February 196 A.D. 23

The Severan Period 25

Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D. 25

Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D. 26

Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D. 26

Plautilla, Augusta 202 - 22 January 205 A.D., wife of Caracalla 27

Geta, 209 - c. 26 December 211 A.D. 27

Macrinus, 11 April 217 - 8 June 218 A.D. 27

Diadumenian, 218 A.D. 27

Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D. 27

Julia Paula, first wife of Elagabalus, who reigned 218-222 A.D. 28

Aquilia Severa, Augusta 220-221 and 221-222 A.D. 28

Julia Soaemias, Augusta 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D. 28

Julia Maesa, Augusta 8 June 218 - 224 or 225 A.D. 28

Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - February or March 235 A.D. 28

Orbiana, Augusta late 225 - 227 A.D. 28

Orbiana, Augusta late 225 - 227 A.D. 29

Crisis and Decline 30

Maximinus I Thrax, mid March 235 - late May 238 A.D. 30

Maximus, Caesar 235-238 A.D 30

Paulina (wife of Maximinus I, who reigned AD 235-238) 30

Gordian II Africanus, c. 18 or 22 March - c. 12 April 238 A.D 30

Balbinus, April - June 238 A.D. 30

Pupienus, April - June 238 A.D. 30

Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D. 30

Tranquillina, Augusta 241- 244 A.D. 31

Philip I, first half of 244 - end of September 249 A.D. 31

Otacilia Severa, Augusta Feb or Mar 244 - Sep or Oct 249 A.D. 31



Philip II, July or August 247- late 249 A.D. 31

Trajan Decius, July 249 - June or July 251 A.D. 31

Herennia Etruscilla 32

Herennius Etruscus, May/Jun - Jun/Jul 251 A.D. 32

Hostilian, 251 A.D. 32

Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - April or August 253 A.D. 32

Volusian, c. November 251 - spring or summer 253 A.D. 32

Cornelia Supera (wife of Aemilian, who reigned A.D. 253) 33

Mariniana (wife of Valerian I, who reigned A.D. 253-260) 33

Gallienus, 253 - 24 March 268 A.D. 33

Salonina, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D. 34

Saloninus, 259 A.D. 34

Macrianus, 260-261 A.D. 35

Quietus, 260 - c. 261 A.D. 35

Regalianus, usurper in Austria, c. 260 A.D. 35

Recovery of the Empire 35

Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D. 35

Quintillus, August or September - October or November 270A.D. 36

Domitianus, usurper, 270 A.D? 36

Aurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D. 36

Severina, Augusta spring 274 - November 275 A.D. 36



Tacitus, 275-276 A.D. 36

Florian, 276 A.D. 37



Probus, summer 276 - September 282 A.D. 37

Carus, early September 282 - c. July or August 283 A.D. 38

Carinus, 283-285 A.D. 39

Magnia Urbica, Augusta middle 283 - middle 285 A.D. 39

Numerian, Feburary or March 283 - October or November 284 A.D. 39

The Secessionist Empires 39

Vabalathus, 271-272 A.D. 39

Postumus, 259-268 A.D. 39

Marius, 268 A.D. 40



Victorinus, summer to November 268 - 271 A.D. 40

Tetricus I, mid 271 - spring 274 A.D. 40

Tetricus II, Caesar 270 - 273 A.D. 40

Carausius, 286 or 287 - summer 293 A.D. 40



Allectus, summer 293 - 296 or 297 A.D. 41

The Tetrarchy 41

Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D. 41

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D. 42

Domitius Domitianus, c. 296-297 A.D. 42

Constantius I, May 305 - 25 Jul 306 A.D. 42

Theodora 43

Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D. 43

Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D. 43

Galeria Valeria, 2nd wife of Galerius, who reigned 305-311 A.D. 43

Severus II, 306-307 A.D. 44

Maximinus II Daia, late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D. 44

Maxentius, 306-312 A.D. 44

Romulus, son of Maxentius who reigned 306-312 A.D. 44

Alexander, 308-311 A.D. 44

Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. 44

Licinius II, Caesar 317-324 A.D. 45

Martinian, c. August - late September or early October 324 A.D. 45

Constantinian Era 45

Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. 45

Roman City Commemoratives, 330-346 A.D. 46

Fausta 46

Crispus, Caesar 317-326 A.D. 46

Delmatius, Caesar 335-337 A.D. 46

Hanniballianus, Rex Regum 335 - 337 A.D. 46

Constans, 9 September 337-19 January 350 A.D. 47

Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D. 47



Magnentius, 18 January 350 - 10 August 353 A.D. 48

Decentius, Caesar July or August 350 - 18 August 353 A.D. 48

Vetranio, 1 March - 25 December 350 A.D. 48

Julian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D. 48

Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D. 49

The Late Empire 50

Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. 50

Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. 50

Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D. 50

Gratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D. 50



Valentinian II, 17 November 375 - 15 May 392 A.D. 50

Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. 50

Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 Jaunuary 379 - 386 or 388 A.D. 50

Magnus Maximus, July 383 - 28 July 388 A.D. 50

Flavius Victor A.D. 387-388 51

Eugenius, 392-394 A.D. 51

Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D. 51

Eudoxia, wife of Arcadius, who reigned 383-408 A.D. 51

Honorius, 22 January 393 - 15 August 423 A.D. 51

Constantine III, 407-411 A.D. 51

Jovinus 411 - August 413 A.D. 51

Johannes, 20 November 423 - May 425 A.D 51

Theodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D. 51

Eudocia, Augusta 2 January 423 - 20 October 460 A.D. 51

Pulcheria, Augusta 4 July 414 - July 453 A.D. 51

Valentinian III, 23 October 425- 16 March 455 A.D. 52

Marcian, 24 August 450 - 31 January 457 A.D. 52

Leo I, 7 February 457 - 18 January 474 A.D. 52

Verina 52

Anthemius, 12 April 467 - 11 July 472 52

Zeno, 18 January - 17 November 474 and August 476 - 11 April 491 A.D. 52

Anastasius I, 11 April 491 - 1 July 518 A.D. 52



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