2/28/11 Good Manufacturing Practices
Good manufacturing practices (GMP’s) specify many of the production and process controls to prevent contamination of products. The objective of GMPs is to prevent adulteration (or contamination). Adulterated products are defined as products that “are manufactured under such conditions that are unfit” or products that “have been prepared, packed, or held under unsanitary conditions whereby they have become contaminated with filth, or whereby they may have been rendered injurious to health”.
Two main categories of GMPs:
Employee practices and good personal hygiene
Equipment and plant cleanliness.
Employee practices and good personal hygiene include:
Hairnets and beard snoods should be kept at all production entrances allowing easy access by all employees and visitors. Everyone, employees and visitors, will wear-head covering restraints to contain their hair in the manufacturing plant.
Hairnets must be worn over your ears. Hairnets are to cover the entire head (front, back, and sides) and include all hair: Often bangs or hair in the back of the head is excluded from coverage within the hairnet. This practice is to be avoided. Caps or hats can be worn over hairnets if they are clean. All employees in production, packaging or other plant areas should be trained on proper hairnet usage:
Hair restraints are required by Wisconsin law (ATCP 80.10(2)(a) and should be worn at all times in production areas or all areas where product may be exposed within the plant. Hair itself and its microorganisms may contribute to product contamination.
Employees are not allowed to wear jewelry or watches in the production areas with the following exceptions: medical alerts and hand rings as long as gloves are worn.
Visitors are not allowed to wear jewelry or watches in the production areas with the exception of hand rings (as long as gloves are worn), medical alerts and ear rings that do not hang below the bottom of ear lobe.
Medical alert bracelets / necklaces:
By no means should and employee stop wearing this type of life saving jewelry.
Necklaces are a better alternative than bracelets and should always be kept underneath clothing. Shirts should be tucked in to prevent the necklace from being lost if it falls from around the neck.
3.0. Fingernails Recent scientific studies have proven that fingernails are a common source of contamination. Dirt and bacteria build up underneath fingernails. The longer the fingernails, the greater the concentration of dirt and bacteria. Men and women both should keep their fingernails short (no longer than ¼ inch) to help prevent bacterial contamination.
Short fingernails facilitate washing and reducing dirt accumulation.
Fingernails should be kept clean and trimmed (no longer than 1/4”) at all times.
Longer fingernails cause holes in gloves.
Fingernails should remain free from fingernail polish, decals or false fingernails:
Polish or decals may chip off and fall into the product and may lead to bacterial or physical contamination.
Visitors entering the production area who are wearing fingernail polish or artificial nails should wear gloves.
Uniforms and Clothing
Uniforms and clothing are a common way to introduce contamination into the plant and the product. Contamination can be of both a biological and physical nature. Outside clothing can introduce hair, bacteria, dirt, buttons, or other contaminants. To reduce clothing from cross-contaminating products, management will provide laundered uniforms and designated footwear for all employees, particularly those involved in production areas. Additional measures of food safety protection are provided when the uniforms are professionally laundered and otherwise not allowed to leave the premises. A locker is provided for changing and uniform storage. Under no circumstances are uniforms to be stored in bathrooms. The plant will provide an area for uniform storage.
White pants and shirts are for production personnel. When maintenance on equipment is performed during production, there is a greater opportunity for other employees to notice and follow up with sanitation procedures prior to restarting production on that piece of equipment. Maintenance personnel must wear lab coats when working in production areas.
Lab coats are required for all visitors and contractors.
Uniforms should be cleaned daily:
A clean uniform shall be worn at the start of each production day and placed in a designated container at the end of production day.
Locker rooms are provided:
Employees shall change into their clothes and footwear upon arriving at work.
Clothing should remain at work.
Hand Washing, Hand Sanitation and Glove Use
People normally carry 150 different types of bacteria on their bodies and over 400 different types of bacteria within their bodies. Many of these bacteria cause food borne diseases if transferred to food. When bacteria are not washed off the hands after using restrooms, they have the potential to make not only that person sick, but others sick as well.
Therefore, when a person touches food, any bacteria on the skin will be transferred to the food. People who eat that food may become quite ill and in some cases die depending on the type of bacteria that are transferred (cross contamination). To avoid illness due to cross contamination, proper hand washing is essential. Gloves are required when touching finished products that are not yet packaged.
It is important to remember that gloves are meant to protect the food from the employee and not protect the employee from the product. Because hands can so easily transfer pathogens, it is necessary to properly wash hands:
Experiments have shown that hands need to be washed for at least 20 seconds to see a significant decrease in microorganisms on the surface of the hand.
When washing, hands need to be scrubbed vigorously in the crevices of the hand, fingertips, under fingernails and the space between the fingers with warm water and soap.
Wash and sanitize hands at the following times (this is not an all inclusive list):
Upon entering production area hands must be washed and sanitized.
Before handling exposed products.
After visiting the restroom.
After touching nose, mouth, face, or hair.
After eating, drinking, using tobacco.
After sneezing or coughing, after blowing or wiping nose.
After any absence from work area or any other reason for leaving the workstation.
After handling garbage, soiled equipment/parts.
After performing any maintenance tasks on equipment.
After handling personal belongings (street clothing, purses, cosmetics, etc.).
6.0 Footwear Proper footwear and properly maintained footfoamers are important aspects of employee, food, and environment safety. Appropriate footwear reduces worker injury due to slipping on wet floors or damage to toes. Footbaths/footfoamers reduce potential cross contamination by removing dirt and debris that would otherwise be tracked throughout the plant. Footfoamers should be checked for proper operation daily. Footfoamers should be turned on first thing daily.
No open toed footwear or sandals worn by visitors or employees are allowed: · For employee and visitor safety, open toed footwear or sandals is prohibited. They do not protect against hot liquids, acids, and caustics used in the facility. Such footwear does not protect the facility from contamination due to feet or against heavy or sharp objects that may accidentally drop on an employee’s foot.
Shoes worn by employees are to have a slip resistant sole:
· Sole grooves should be kept at a maximum of a quarter of an inch. The greater the groove depth, the more dirt and other debris that may become trapped and end up in product or on equipment.
Dedicated Plant footwear:
Plant supplied footwear should not leave the building.
If plant does not provide footwear, employee should carry in footwear and leave footwear at plant. These should not be worn outside of building.
Shoe covers will need to be worn over outside footwear:
Shoe covers are available at the plant entrances.
Visitors entering the plant should wear “in house” footwear or shoe covers.
7.0 Health Practices Employee health and hygiene, directly or indirectly, play an important role in food safety and sanitation. Sick employees and poor hygienic practices rank second in the causes of food borne disease outbreaks.
To avoid the possibility of foods becoming contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms associated with employees who are ill, the following personal hygiene practices should be strictly enforced: Supervisor notification is required when employees report to work with any type of illness including head colds and sinus infections.
The following conditions will strictly prohibit persons from handling products. Special attention should be paid to those employees who handle products after they have been through a heat treatment. This includes those who handle product contact surfaces such as maintenance or sanitation employees.
◦ Persons experiencing diarrhea or vomiting.
◦ Persons with contagious diseases, severe colds or conditions that result in runny noses.
◦ Persons with wounds, boils or sores on hands, arms or face.
Minor cuts on hands or arms should be treated promptly by washing with warm water and soap.
Band aid use must be reported to management.
After washing, cover hands with gloves. Minor cuts on arms should be covered with band-aids. Band aids must be removed at night to allow for the wound to heal.
Injuries on the hands and the lower portions of the arms such as cuts, abrasions, burns and even a hangnail must be cleaned and treated immediately. Often these injuries become infected. As a result, they can contribute to the contamination of food and equipment with disease causing bacteria.
Supervisor notification should be required for those handling finished
products with a rash or sore to determine alternate duties that can be performed until the rash or sore is healed.
8.0 Food, Drink, Gum, Cough Drops The presence of food brought into the plant by employees can be a source of bacterial contamination. Food and crumbs attract rodents and insects that can spread disease causing bacteria, rodent droppings and hair to all parts of the manufacturing facility. Food and beverages are to be consumed in the lunchroom, offices, conference room or other authorized break areas. After breaks, employees need to wash and sanitize their hands when returning to process area.
Food and beverages are absolutely prohibited in production areas.
Food and beverages are not to be kept in toolboxes.
Food is not to be kept in plant coolers or freezers.
Candy, gum, toothpicks, all tobacco products, and cough drops should only be consumed / used on break and disposed of properly before returning to work. These types of items require hand to mouth action and increase the potential for bacterial contamination.