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Parental:

Authors & Publication year

Reference

Design

Striatum

Reward system

Other brain regions

Behavioral/Hormonal variables

Lorberbaum et al. 1999

1

7 mothers (children 4 years old) Stimuli: infant cry Vs control sound




right SgACC (+)

right MFG (+), r SFG (+)







Lorberbaum et al., 2002

2

10 mothers 4-8 weeks post-partum

Stimuli: infant cry Vs control sound

straitum: right putamen (+), caudate (+), NAcc (+)

ACC (+),

Midbrain (+), hypothalamus (+), substantia nigra (+), VTA(+), OFC (+)



insula (+), DLPFC (+)




Bartels &Zeki, 2004

3

20 mothers (children 9 month-6 year old)

Stimuli:

own Vs familiar child picture. partner Vs acquaintance adult picture



Own>Familiar:

Putamen (+), head of the caudate nucleus (+).


Own child+Own partner (overlapping regions): putamen (+),caudate nucleus (+).

Own>Familiar:

lOFC (+),substantia nigra (+) ,subthalamic regions (+), postero-ventral thalamus (+), globus pallidus (+).


Own child-Own partner (maternal regions): lOFC (+).
Own child+Own partner (overlapping regions): globus pallidus (+), dACC (+).

Own>Familiar: medial insula (+), cingulate gyrus (+) dorsal, ventral of the genu (+),lateral prefrontal cortex (+), occipital cortex (+), lateral fusiform cortex (+), PAG (+). Lateral prefrontal cortex (-), lateral parietal cortex (-), mSTS (-), mSTG (-), temporal pole (-), PCC (-) amygdala (-), precuneus (-).
Own child+Own partner (overlapping regions): middle insula (+).
Own child>Own partner (maternal regions): PAG (+).




Leibenluft et al. 2004

4

7 mothers (children 5-12 year old)
Stimuli:

own Vs familiar and unknown children face pictures



Own>Familiar child:

putamen (+).



Own>Familiar child:

Thalamus (+), globus pallidus (+).


Own>Familiar and Familiar thalamus (-).

Own>Familiar child: bilaterally anterior paracingulate (+), dlPFC (+), left insula (+),left posterior fusiform gyrus (+), left STS (+), right PCC (+), precuneus(+), right amygdala (+), cerebellum (+).
Familiar>Unfamiliar child: right anterior paracingulate (+), left insula (+), left STS (+),posterior cingulate/precuneus (+),ventral occipital regions bilaterally (-), right fusiform gyrus (-),the left amygdala (-).
Unknown children> unfamiliar adults: left fusiform gyrus (+), right STS (+), left posterior cingulate/precuneus (+),left insula (+).
Own>Familiar and Familiar bilateral paracingulate cortex (+), left pSTS (+) , right PCC/precuneus (+), and left anterior insula (+), intraoccipital sulcus (-).




Nitschke et al., 2004

5

6 mothers (children 4-6months old)
Stimuli:

own infant Vs unknown infant pictures.







Own>Unknown: OFC (+).

Own>Unknown: bilateral cuneus (+), precuneus (+), fusiform gyrus (+), cerebellum (+).




Ranote et al. 2004

6

10 mothers (4-8 months)
Stimuli:

own Vs unknown infant and control videos









Infant>Control:

bilateral cerebellum (+), Middle occipital gyrus (+),left MTG (+)., STG (+), postcentral (+).


Own>Unknown infant: right anterior temporal pole (+), right middle occipital gyrus (+), left amygdala (+).




Strathearn et al. 2008

7

28 mothers (children 11 month old)
Stimuli:

own Vs unknown infant faces (sad, happy and neutral)



Own>Unknown:

Ventral striatum (+), caudate (+), putamen (+).


Happy- Own>Unknown: bilateral putamen (+)

Own>Unknown:

VTA (+), substantia nigra (+), thalamus (+), hypothalamus (+), ACC (+).


Happy- Own>Unknown:, left substantia nigra (+), right thalamus (+). .

Own>Unknown: medial prefrontal (+),insula (+), dlPFC (+), primary motor area (+),inferior, middle, and superior temporal gyri (including the fusiform gyrus and temporal pole) (+), lateral amygdala (+).
Happy- Own>Unknown: left lateral superior amygdala (+).




Kringelbach et al. 2008

8

12 non-parents-5 male/7 female
Stimuli:

MEG study: happy, neutral and sad faces of infant and adult







Infant>Adult:

medial OFC, in 12-20Hz after 165ms post-stimulus.









Noriuchi, Kikuchi &Senoo, 2008

9

13 mothers (children 1.5 year old)
Stimuli:

own Vs unknown-separation & play videos



Own>Unknown: putamen (+).

Separation-Own>Unknown: putamen (+).

Play-

Own>Unknown: left putamen (+).
Own Separation>Play: caudate nucleus (+),



Own>Unknown: OFC (+),hypothalamus (+), thalamus (+).
Play-

Own>Unknown: hypothalamus (+).
Own Separation>Play: L OFC (+),thalamus (+),substantia nigra (+).
Own Separation
: hypothalamus (+). Own>Unknown-Joy correlation: left OFC. Own>Unknown-Anxious correlation: right OFC.

Own>Unknown: IFG (+),dmPFC (+), MFG (+) , MTG (+), anterior insula (+), left precentral gyrus (+), posterior cingulate gyrus (+),PAG (+) .
Own: bilateral postcentral gyrus (+) ,right frontal pole (+),STG (+),left IPL (+), precuneus (+), fusiform gyrus (+),parahippocampal gyrus (+).
Separation-Own>Unknown: bilateral MFG (+), SFG (+), angular gyrus (+), posterior cingulate gyrus (+), MTG (+), precuneus (+), fusiform gyrus (+),dmPFC (+).
Play-

Own>Unknown: right MFG (+), inferior temporal gyrus (+), MTG (+), STG (+), inferior occipital gyrus (+).
Own Separation>Play: bilateral SFG (+), DMPFC (+), MFG (+), STS (+), STG (+), IPL (+), precuneus (+) , right IFG (+), MTG (+), anterior cingulate gyrus (+), posterior cingulate gyrus (+),precentral gyrus (+), ITG (+) ,SPL (+), angular gyrus (+), cuneus (+).
Own Separation
: right MTG(+), left precentral gyrus(+), cuneus (+), supramarginal gyrus(+).
Own Separation>Play- Love correlation: left STS.
Own Separation>Play- Excitement correlation: right STS.

intensity of feelings during watching the videos(joy, anxiety, love, excitement)

Swain et al., 2008

10

12 mothers- 6 vaginal delivery (VD)/6 caesarian section (CSD) ( 2-4 weeks post-partum)

Stimuli: own Vs unknown infant cry

Covariates:

parental preoccupation (AITHAR) and depression measure (BDI)



Cry>Control/VD>CSD

Caudate (+), putamen (+),


Own>Unknown/VD>CSD

Caudate (+), putamen (+)



Cry>Control/VD>CSD

Thalamus (+), ACC (+).


Own>Unknown/VD>CSD

Hypothalamus (+)



Cry>Control/VD>CSD

pons (+), cerebellum (+), anterior insula (+), STG (+)


Own>Unknown/VD>CSD

Pons (+), cerebellum (+), STG (+), SPL (+)





AITHAR-Own cry correlation:

bilateral lenticular nuclei (+)


BDI- Own cry correlation: SFG (+)

Glocker et al. 2009

11

16 non-parent women
Stimuli:

Infant Vs cross-hair, across baby schema levles




Infant>cross-hair:

Caudate (+), putamen (+).


Increase baby schema-

NAcc (+)


Infant>cross-hair:

Thalamus (+), globus pallidus (+), ACC (+).


Increase baby schema-

ACC (+)



Infant>cross-hair:

Insula (+), SFG (+), cerebellum IFG (+), precuneus (+), IPL (+), IFG (+)



Increase baby schema-

fusiform gyrus (+)

precuneus (+)





Lenzi et al. 2009

12

16 mothers (children 6-12 months old)
Stimuli:

own Vs unknown infant face expression ( joy, distress, ambiguous, neutral)






Joy- Own>Unknown:

right thalamus (+),basal ganglia bilaterally (+).



Emotional>Neutral: vPMC (+), bilateral insula (+), amygdala (+), IPL (+), STS (+).
Own>Unknown: bilateral vPMC (+), right IFG (+), right IPL (+), right STS (+), right anterior insula (+).
Joy- Own>Unknown: right temporal pole (+), ITG (+), STG (+), hippocampus (+), insula (+), fusiform gyrus (+),amygdala (+).
Ambiguous-Own>Unknown: left anterior MFG (+) , left presupplementary motor area (+), right anterior cingulum (+), left precuneus (+).
All Face>Rest- Reflective function correlation: right anterior insula.

maternal reflective function via AAI

Strathearn et al. 2009

13

30 mothers (infants 11 month old)
Stimuli:

Own Vs unknown faces (sad, happy and neutral)




Happy-Own>unknown: substantia nigra (+), dorsal putamen (+), caudate nuclei (+).
All- Own>unknown: ventral striatum, substantia nigra (+),dorsal striatum (+).
Secure>Insecure (own sad): right ventral striatum (+).
Own neutral- OT correlation: right ventral striatum

Happy-Own>unknown: thalamic nuclei (+).
All- Own>unknown:

VTA (+)
Secure>Insecure (own): hypothalamus/pituitary region (+).


Secure>Insecure (own happy): OFC (+).



Happy-Own>unknown: insular cortex (+), STG (+), pre- and postcentral gyri (+).
Secure>Insecure (own): lateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally (+), left mPFC (+).
Secure>Insecure (own happy): mPFC bilaterally (+),

dlPFC (-).


Secure>Insecure (own sad):

dlPFC (-)




Plasma OT
adult attachment classification via AAI

Bos et al., 2010

14

16 non-parent women

Stimuli:

infant cry Vs control sound

Testosterone ADM Vs placebo





Drug × Stimulus interaction:

Thalamus (+)



Cry>Control:

STG (+)
Drug × Stimulus interaction:

right PCC (+)

right insula (+)

left cerebellum (+)



Testosterone ADM Vs placebo

Kim et al., 2010

15

26 mothers 2-4 weeks post-partum

Stimuli:

infant cry Vs control noise + VBN








Cry>Control:

SFG (+), MFG (+), IFG (+),

Insula (+), cuneus (+), occipital gyrus (+)

Cry>Control/ high PMC> low PMC:

DLPFC (+), MFG (+), STG (+), fusiform (+), left hippocampus (-)



VBN increase: high PMC> low PMC:

SFG, orbital gyrus, STG, MTG, fusifirm, cerebellum



VBN increase: low PMC> high PMC:

Parietal cortex, inferior parietal cortex



perceived maternal care (PMC), Subjective perception of parenting and baby (YIPTA-R)

Moses-Kolko et al. 2010

16

30 mothers-14 PPD/16 healthy (12 weeks post-partum)
Stimuli:

emotional face matching task










Face>Shape: bilateral amigdala (+), left dmPFC (-).
Face- Healthy >Depressed:left dmPFC (+).
Correlations for Depressed: depression measures were negatively correlated with face-related left amygdala activity. Less hostility toward the infant was associated with greater right amygdala activity.
(FC)-Healthy (face>shape): - left dmPFC and left amygdala.

Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores and Parent-to-Infant Attachment Questionnaire scores

Kim et al. 2011

17

17 mothers- 9 breastfeeding/8 formula-feeding (2-4 weeks post-partum)

Stimuli:

own Vs unknown infant cry



Own baby cry > control baby cry / Breastfeeding > Non-breastfeeding:

Putamen (+).





Own baby cry > control baby cry / Breastfeeding > Non-breastfeeding:

globus pallidus (+).


Cry activation-Maternal sensitivity correlation:

Globus pallidus (+)



Own baby cry > control baby cry / Breastfeeding > Non-breastfeeding:

Amygdala (+), Precuneus (+),cuneus (+), insula (+), IFG (+), MTG (+), fusifirm (+), STG(+), cerebellum (+)



Cry activation-Maternal sensitivity correlation:

SFG (+), amygdala (+).



sensitivity via CIB (obtained at age 3-4 months)

Landi et al., 2011

18

54 mothers- 28 control/26 substance abuse (2 months post-partum)

Stimuli:

high intense and low-intense infant cry vs control sound + happy and sad Vs neutral infant faces





Sad faces-SA:

mOFC (+)
Neutral faces-SA:

right amygdala /parahippocampal gyrus (+), globus pallidus (+).

Low intense cry-SA:

thalamus (+)



Happy face-SA: vmPFC (+), right dlPFC/MFG (+),dmPFC, middle occipital gyrus (+), right hippocampus/parahippocampuss (+), cerebellum (+).
SA>Control: left posterior parahippocampal gyrus (+).
Sad faces-SA: right and left dlPFC/MFG (+), right IFG (+) , sensorimotor regions (+), the middle/superior temporal gyrus (+), PCC (+), right occipital gyrus/cuneus (+), right amygdala (+), parahippocampal gyrus (+).
Nuetral faces-SA: dmPFC/medial, superior frontal gyri (+), vmPFC (+), dlPFC (+), right IFG (+), cuneus (+), PCC (+).
Low intense cry-SA: right superior/middle temporal ight superior/middle temporal gyri (+),MFG/pre-SMA (+), insula (+), bilateral
amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus (+).
High intense cry-SA: left superior/MFG (+), sensorimotor regions (+), insula (+), mid cingulate gyrus/precuneus (+), bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus (+)




Laurent, Stevens &Ablow, 2011

19

22 mothers- 11 depressed/ 11 control (children 18 months old)

Stimuli:

own Vs unknown infant cry



Own cry activation-Cortisol quadratic terms correlation: striatum (+)

Own cry activation-Cortisol quadratic terms correlation: midbrain-PAG (+), thalamus (+), lateral OFC (+).
Own cry activation-Cortisol quadratic terms correlation: ACC(+).

Own cry activation-Cortisol slopes correlation: right anterior vlPFC/frontal pole (+) , right superior parietal lobe (+), occipital pole (+).
Own cry activation-Cortisol quadratic terms correlation: cerebellum (+), anterior insula (+), dmPFC (+), angular gyri (+).

Salivary cortisol sampling

Riem et al. 2011

20

43 non-parent women (twin pairs)

Stimuli:

infant cry Vs control sound









Cry>Control- placebo group: bilateral superior and middle temporal gyrus (+), right amygdala. OT
right amygdala (+). OT>Placebo: IFG (+), insula (+).

OT ADM Vs placebo

Atzil, Hendler& Feldman, 2011

21

28 mothers (children 4-6 months old)
Stimuli:

own Vs unknown infant video




Own Infant >Unknown:

Caudate (+), NAcc (+)


Synchronous>Intrusive (own>unknown):

left NAcc (+)


Synchronous mothers: exhibited significantly higher left NAcc activations than right amygdala activation. Plasma oxytocin levels were significantly correlated with the left NAcc and right amygdala.
(FC)-seed region Nacc: Intrusive mothers: higher correlations in occipital, lateral–frontal, temporal and cerebellar cortices. Synchronous mothers: higher cortical correlation in mPFC.

Own Infant >Unknown:

ventro-lateral thalamus (+)



Own Infant >Unknown: right IPL (+), right ITG (+), precentral gyrus (+), claustum (+), precuneus (+),medial FG (+), SFG (+), cingulate gyrus (+), postcentral gyrus (+), infirior occipital gyrus (+), , insula (+), supramarginal gyrus (+), and IPL (+).
Synchronous>Intrusive (own>unknown): right amygdala (-).
(FC)-seed region right amygdala: Intrusive: higher cortical correlation in mPFC, cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum. Synchronous: higher correlations in temporal, occipital, insular, lateral–frontal, and cerebellar cortices.

Plasma OT
mother-infant synchrony and intrusiveness during interaction via CIB

Barrett et al. 2011

22

22 mothers 3 months post-partum
Stimuli:

own Vs unknown infant pictures (positive and negative emotion)




Negative-Own>Unknown infant:

ventral putamen (+)


Own infant- Positive>Negative:

Caudate (+), putamen (+)



Positive-Own>Unknown infant:

Thalamus (+)



Positive-Own>Unknown infant: amygdala (+), middle and superior temporal gyri (+), cerebellum (+).

Negative-Own>Unknown infant: postcentral gyrus (+), sgACC (+),STG (+).
Own- Positive>Negative: parietal cortex (+), insula (+),temporal gyri (+),medial and lateral frontal cortices (+).




Directory: cms -> attachment
attachment -> Combined antegrade-retrograde recanalization of a completely obstructed esophagus. All authors have no conflicts of interest. We will be discussing a 76-year-old woman with htn
attachment -> Ocular manifestations of the Johanson-Blizzard syndrome
attachment -> Supplementary Material, File 2
attachment -> Supplemental Table S4: Genes Tested in Detail
attachment -> Radiofrequency ablation is a treatment option for early stages of verrucous esophageal carcinoma
attachment -> Supplementary Table gene expression of tyrosine kinases and phosphatases during disease
attachment -> Successful removal of an esophageal submucosal tumor by submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection technique. This is a 32-year-old male with a history of dysphagia
attachment -> Supplemental data
attachment -> Supplementary Table 1: Enriched genes in early mitosis
attachment -> Supplemental material expedition trials mri data acquisition


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