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Tooth Wear Literature Index – General Occlusion Papers


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Agerberg G, Sandstrom R

JDP, 1988

Vol. 59, pp 212- 217

Frequency of occlusal interferences: a study of teenagers and young adults.

88-89% nonworking contacts in non-patient population of teenagers and young adults.

These subjects had a least one unilateral nonworking contact.




Baba K, et al

JPD 2000

Vol. 83, No. 1, pp83-89

Reliability, validity and utility of various occlusal measurement methods and techniques

There is a need for additional research on all diag­nostic procedures used in dentistry. This research should be directed at identifying the test-retest preci­sion of all methods and instruments. A cost-benefit analysis assessment of all ancillary documentary proce­dures and devices is needed, especially for those instru­ments or methods that have a substantial cost associat­ed with their use. When advocates of an instrument put forth a claim that a specific device has diagnostic poten­tial, a rigorous scientific protocol must be followed that tests these claims.

The only current diagnostic criteria (gold standard) for occlusal disorders is a global clinical examination—thorough history performed by an expert examiner. For the time being, none of the instruments reviewed in this report (occlusal contact recording methods, surface EMG monitoring of the jaw closers, jaw-tracking devices) can be said to be more than ancil­lary documentation devices. They have no proven reliability or diagnostic validity and their use is not proven by the research.






Baker PS et al

2005, JPD,

Jan93:1, 86-90

Maxillomandibular relationship philosophies for prosthodontic treatment: A survey of dental educators.

Summarized results for each question reflect whether the clinicians philosophically believed patients were better off with the elimination of an existing occlusal interference between MI and CO or not. There was no statistically significant difference seen between the pre and post doctoral responses.

In the opinion of the authors, because both treatment modalities are feasible, it would seem prudent to avoid occlusal equilibration of natural teeth and to restore patients to the existing MI positions when possible. There is no evidence to confirm that MI-CO occlusal interferences are either harmful or beneficial.




Ciancaglini Riccardo et al

JPD, 2003

Vol. 89, No 2, pp 180 - 185

Unilateral temporomandibular disorder and asymmetry of occlusal contacts.

The young adults with complete natural dentition and normal occlusion tested in this study demonstrated a weak association between unilateral signs and symptoms of TMD and asymmetry in the number of occlusal contacts.

(RGP – photographs of inter-occlusal was records in MI showed a dominant Non-function

load which they must consider normal. NO reference was made otherwise.)






Clark Glen T. et al

JPD, 1999

Vol. 82, No 6 pp 704 - 713

Sixty-eight years of experimental occlusal interference studies: What have we learned?

Although occlusal therapy may be justified for reasons of esthetics, gross occlusal instability or dental disease, the data do not exist showing that occlusal interferences are the cause of chronic jaw dysfunction problems.

Conversely, this review suggests that when a patient’s complaint is tooth pain or mobility, occlusal interferences are a potential and likely contributing factor.




Dao TTT, Feine JS and Lund JP

1988, JDP,

Oct, Vol. 60, Num 4, pp 509 - 514

Can electrical stimulation be used to establish physiologic occlusal position?

Our data, which strongly suggest that the distal axons of the motorneurons are directly stimulated, lend support to the previous studies showing that the stimulus does not cause reflex activity of the jaw closing muscles.







Granger ER

Northwestern Univ., 1952, Syllabus

Functional relations of the stomatognathic system

It is the repeated tooth contacts during nonmasticating movements which cause most of the damage.

If the metabolism is equal to the task, the teeth will simply wear out.

Teeth wear with age, and no doubt here are certain adaptive changes which take place as wear slowly progresses, to compensate for that wear.



The slow wearing of teeth by attrition accompanied by adaptive changes which to some extent compensate, is not the same as literally wearing out the teeth rapidly by haphazard grinding (OA procedures – RGP)

Properly executed, reconstruction is a method of choice; improperly executed, it is worse than no treatment at all.



These functional relations are also influenced by the degree of harmony between the occlusal forms of the teeth and the functional movements of the TMJ.

A healthy arrangement of teeth thus requires that the form of the cusps be in harmony wit the supporting structures, and the functional movements of the cusps be in harmony with the functional relations of the TMJ.

Jemt T etal

JPD, 2004, 91:5, 403-408; Classic reprint JPD 82, 48: 719-24

Group Function or Canine Guide

The effect of the type of occlusion on mandibular chewing patterns was tested on five subjects rehabili­tated with fixed complete implant dentures in the maxillae. The chewing pattern was registrated by LED (Selspot system) attached on a mandibular tooth and on spectacle frames as a reference, and the light impulses were analyzed in a computer.

The test subjects received a canine protection occlusion, and the chewing pattern was recorded after a 4-month adaptation period. The occlusion was altered to group function, and a second registration was made after S months. An analysis of the recordings indicated certain common findings for most of the test subjects.





1. The angle of departure was steeper than the approach angle, and these angles were slightly greater with group function occlusion than with canine protection.

2. The mean maximal lateral displacement, as well as the total displacement of the mandible, was greater with group function occlusion than with canine protection.




3. The mandibular velocity was greater with group function occlusion than with canine protection.

4. The variation in the most cranial position of the chewing cycle was greater at group function than at canine protection.

5. The duration of the chewing cycle varied among the rest subjects but was stable intra-individually between the two registrations.

(RGP – all ranges of motion and function were greater with group function than canine guidance.)



All these results indicate that the chewing pattern may be influenced by the type of occlusion irrespective of the existence of the maxillary canines. Two of the test subjects received a canine protection occlusion a second time, and a registration was made after 6 months. The results for one of the subjects fit well in the expected pattern, while those for the other person were in some part contradictory

Kahn J et al

JPD, Oct 1999

Vol. 82 No 4, pp 410 - 415

Prevalence of dental occlusal variables and intraarticular temporomandibular disorders: Molar relationship, lateral guidance and nonworking contacts.
Paper suggests the normalcy and possible protective nature of non-working contacts

Within the limits of this study, no clear relationship was established between the prevalence of molar relationship, lateral guidance and nonworking side contacts and intraarticular temporomandibular disorders.

This would suggest that canine guidance may not protect a person from developing intraarticular TMD’s
It was concluded that there is no simple relationship between occlusal contacts and signs and symptoms of TMD.

In our study, symptomatic patients with normal joints (group 3) and symptomatic patients with DD (group 4) had fewer nonworking contacts compared with volunteers with normal joints (Tables IV and V).

In our study 80% in group I and 50% in group 4 (had nonworking contacts).

Kazuyoshi Baba, et al

JPD 200o

Vol. 83, No. 1, pp83-89

Reliability, validity and utility of various occlusal measurement methods and techniques.

RGP - Jaw tracking devices, muscle stimulators, T-Scan, and EMG did not practical value in measuring and determining jaw movement patterns.

None of the instruments reviewed can be said to be more than ancillary documentation devices and they have been inadequately tested for reliability and validity.




Kirveskari P et al

JPD 1998

Vol. 79, No. 4, pp433-438

Occlusal adjustment and the incidence of demand for TMD treatment.

Elimination of the presumed structural risk from the dental occlusion appeared to significantly reduce the incidence of TMD in a select group of young subjects.

However, such a causal role of occlusion, without further clarification of cost effectiveness and possibilities to identify risk groups, does not justify generalized prophylactic occlusal adjustment

(RGP – no indication as to the tooth contacts that were considered to be traumatic or incident inducing.)

Landi Nicola et al

JPD, 2004

Vol. 92 No. 2 pp190 – 195

Quantification of the relative risk of multiple occlusal variables for muscle disorders of the stomatognathic system.

Nevertheless, there is no consensus among investigators. Some authors still consider occlusal alterations necessary for the onset of TMD symptoms, while others suggest that occlusal features are only one of a number of factors that can be related to TMD

A review of the literature showed that many occlusal features have been related to TMD, but none seems to be strongly associated with TMD.

..others have suggested that such interferences (mediotrusive) may act as a protective factor.




In contrast, Minagi et al found a lower prevalence of mediotrusive interferences with clicking sounds and disc displacement than in a sample of asymptomatic patients.

The findings of the present study confirmed the findings of Pullinger and Seligman, who deemphasized the importance of the association of occlusal factors with TMJ disorders (arthrosis, arthritis and DD)

Lucia Victor

Mosby Text 1961. pp292-295

Modern Gnathological Concepts

About 1950, some of the original proponents of balanced occlusion began to question the desirability of cross-mouth balance. Dr. Charles E. Stuart, Ventura, California, and Dr. Harvey Stallard, San Diego California, making use of the observations of the late Dr. D. M. Shaw arid of Dr. Angelo D’Amico, Stockton, California, began to advocate instead the desirability of cusp-to-fossa balance and mutual protection.



From the first lectures on this subject to the present, there have been many interpretations and misinterpretations. Some of the latter have stemmed from the fact that there have been revisions in the original concepts. Unfortunately, these misinterpretations have caused considerable confusion.

In the pages to follow, a sincere effort has been made to correct the misunderstanding that exists and to clarify these newer concepts. Much of the information has been obtained directly from Stallard, Stuart, and Thomas The observations are based on experiences with practical restorations up to the present time (1961) and are subject to change as more experience is gained.




Personally, I have been building restorations to full cross-mouth balance for twelve years and for twenty years have observed such restorations built by others. The majority have been very successful. Patients have been comfortable, their periodontal condition has improved, and joint disturbances have disappeared. A very small percentage were successful for perhaps five to ten years and then began to show signs of trouble. There appeared a lack of harmony between the centric relation and the centric occlusion—the very thing that I had started out to correct when the patient were first treated. I had no explanation for this difficulty

Stuart and associates reported somewhat different results. They claimed that the majority of their restorations built in cross arch balance were unsuccessful. They reported that their failures were due to excessive wear and that the finely articulated surfaces became traumatic just as soon as any wear took place.





(RGP – my suspicion is that the articulations were too steep in regard to the existing medial guidance, the cases were made in CRO and there was no freedom in centric. All these factors combine to have excessive lateral pressure on the restrained occlusal form. Much like what we will soon see in the new muscularly controlled systems of today.)

Marklund S, Wanman A

J Oral Rehabil, 2000

Vol 27: pp 553-62

A century of controversy regarding the benefit or detriment of occlusal contacts on the mediotrusive side.

During the first half of this century, most authors advocated the advantage of these contacts, while in the last 50 years mediotrusive side contacts/interferences have mostly been regarded as a disturbing factor in the functioning mandible

Recently, it has been proposed that mediotrusive side contacts have a protective effect on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

We conclude that, at present, there is no uniform body of scientific evidence supporting a balanced occlusion in favor of a mutually protective occlusion or vice versa.

McNeill Charles

Text Quintessence, 1997

Science and Practice of Occlusion

Hannam –

Notwithstanding structural] variations and the remodeling that occurs in the craniofacial region, the most plastic and adaptable parts of the masticatory apparatus are the muscles and the way the~ are controlled b~’ the CNS. This adaptive capacity may be presumed to be advantageous. When muscle use is altered for reasons unrelated to adaptation, when muscles function on an anatomic substrate inappropriate for that pattern, or when muscle use exceeds the remodeling capacity, one might expect the development of a pathologic condition.




Thus it can be tentatively assumed that each subject has a unique structural arrangement of intramuscular connective tissue intimately related’ to contraction characteristics defined by skeletal form and functional demand. The inference is that internal muscle mechanics are individualized in human populations.


the masseter’s superficial and deep parts display distinctly different activity during tooth use on the contralateral side. Here, the superficial masseter and contralateral temporalis may be very active, while the deep masseter and ipsilateral temporalis may be relatively inactive. This pattern contrasts with that during chewing on the contralateral side. Here, the shearing action of the masticatory stroke invokes both deep and superficial masseter fibers (albeit at different times), as well as both temporal muscles..


These forces are asymmetric during unilateral biting largely because muscle contraction is asymmetric. For example during first molar clenching the balancing side condyle may typically be subjected to a thrust of about 334 N, compared with a working side load of 210 N.

Tension from jaw muscles responsible for closing, tooth grinding, chewing, and lateral and protrusive jaw movements can be presumed to maintain an appropriate range and direction of dynamically changing compressive loads through the disc under normal circumstances

A significant structural rearrangement of anatomic components must have immediate effects on functional correlates, and it will be reflected throughout the entire system since it is completely integrated. It would be naive to believe that skeletal or dental occlusal changes have no effect on the masticatory system.

McNeill Charles

Text Quintessence, 1997 - 02

Science and Practice of Occlusion

Roberts

The teeth, periodontium, basilar bone and the TM articulation are the structural axis of the stomatognathic system. The masticatory mechanism is remarkably adaptive to changing functional patterns and retains a high degree of regenerative capability.




The skeletal support of the stomatognathic system is a classic example of form following function.


Bone adaptation (modeling and remodeling) is controlled by an interaction of metabolic and mechanical signals. Under most circumstances, bone modeling is primarily controlled by biomechanics (functional and therapeutic loads).

Over a lifelong spectrum of growth, maturation, and aging, bone modeling and remodeling allow for continuing adaptation for functional optimization of the stomatognathic system. A critical understanding of the skeletal adaptation and the labile nature of the alveolar and condylar processes is essential to clinical management of occlusion.

Minagi S, Wantanabe H, Sato T, Tsuru H

J Cranio Disorders, 1990

Vol 4: pp 251-6

Relationship between balancing-side occlusal contact patterns and temporomandibular joint sounds in humans: proposition of the concept of balancing-side protection

Correlational analysis revealed that there was a highly significant positive correlation between the absence of balancing side contacts and an increasing relevance of joint sounds with age (r-0.9775).

These data support he hypothesis that certain types of balancing-side contacts may be protective of the temporomandibular joint.




Minagi S, Wantanabe H, Tsuru H


Hiroshima J Med Sci 1989

Vol 38, pp 117-120

Accurate evaluation of balancing-side contacts to Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: possible role of balancing side protection.

These results strongly suggest that balancing-side protection might play an important role as a regulating mechanism in the etiology of internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint.







Mingai S et al

J Craniomand Disord Facial Oral Pain, 1990

Vol 4, pp 251- 56

The relationships between balancing side occlusal contact patterns and TMJ sounds in humans: proposition of the concept of balancing side protection.

Mediotrusive contacts and guides protect the TMJ complex.







Nishigawa K, Nakano M, Bando E

J Oral Rehábil, 1997

Vol 24: pp 691-6

Study of jaw movement and masticatory muscle activity during unilateral chewing with and without balancing side molar contacts

The results show more asymmetrical levels of jaw closing muscle activity during unilateral chewing in the group with balancing side contacts when compared with the group without these contacts







Ogawa T

1998, JPD

July, 80:1, 67-73

Pattern of occlusal contacts in lateral positions: Canine protection and group function validity in classifying guidance patterns.

When the subject’s mandible was moved 0.5 mm right from the intercuspal position, the presence or ab­sence of an occlusal contact was examined. The teeth holding the shim stock were considered to have occlusal contact.

The same procedure was performed in the 1, 2, 3mm right and 0.5, 1, 2, 3 mm left positions.

Table II. Result of classification system 2

(n = 172)

Canine protection 16 -9.3%

Group function 78 - 45.3% ~



Balanced occlusion 72 - 41.9%

Unclassifiable pattern 6 –



3.5%


Canine protection and group function have been used when describing occlusal contact patterns during lateral excursion and are simple and useful concepts to outline the occiusa! guidance pattern. They are widely accepted as types of therapeutic occlusion in natural dentition. However, much confusion and inconsistency has accom­panied the interpretation of these terms. On the basis of the results of this study, it does not seem appropriate to describe and classify the patterns of occlusal contact using only these terms in clinical and research fields. The following problems need to be resolved: (1) a clear description regarding nonworking side contact, including a clear and modified definition of balanced occlusion; (2) consistency of the lateral position when occlusal contact is examined; and (3) how to deal with contact patterns, such as single tooth contact on other than canines in a total range of lateral excursion.



Ogawa T, et al

J Oral Rehabil, 1998

Vol 25, pp 430-5

Difference in the mechanism of balancing side disclusion between 1st and 2nd molars

It is concluded that the inclination of the anterior guidance and the cusp angle of the related teeth have a great effect in the occurrence of balancing-side disclusion and that the mechanism of high frequent balancing side contacts at the 2nd molar was characterized by its greater cusp angle compared to the 1st molar.







Okano N, Baba K, Ohyama T

J Oral Rahabil 2005

Vol 32: pp 714-19

The influence of altered occlusal guidance on condylar displacement during submaximal clenching

As cited in literatures, canine protected occlusion has potential to reduce clenching induced temporomandibular joint loadings (??)

When compared with the simulated canine protected occlusion, the simulated group function occlusion caused smaller working side condylar displacement and the simulated bilateral balanced occlusion caused significantly smaller non-working side condylar displacements

These date suggest that the increased working side tooth contacts have a potential to reduce working side joint loadings and a balancing side contact has a potential to reduce non-working side loadings, under laboratory condition where the clenching level is controlled

Preston JD

1979 JDP

June, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp 605 - 613

A reassessment of the mandibular transverse horizontal axis theory.

1. Within the limits of accuracy imposed by individual operators, equipment and patient varia­tions, a single transverse horizontal axis can usually appear to be located.

2. Location of a kinematic axis is a worthwhile clinical procedure to transfer an arc of rotation in the sagittal plane from the patient to an articulator.




3. Past experiments have been useful but none have proved or disproved the presence of colinear or noncolinear condyle arc. Only the arc of the rigid clutch and its associated mechanism is located Such an apparent arc may result from the resolution of compound condylar movements,

4. The right angle - nonright angle concept is misleading and generally is not applicable to clinic& procedures.



5. The anatomic asymmetries of the axis transfer procedure may result in cast dislocations that may produce undesirable alteration’ in esthetic tooth positions.


6. The single transverse horizontal axis exists as a fact in articulating instruments and as a theory in the human craniomandibular complex.

7. The terms ‘transverse horizontal mandibular axis’ and “intercondylar axis” should not he confused or used as synonyms. ‘Ihe term, ‘transverse horizontal mandibular axis” (hinge axis’) should be used instead of “condylar” or intercondylar axis.


Sato Yuuji, et al

JPD 2002

Vol. 88, No. 6, pp 644-5

An Alternative procedure for discrimination of contacts in centric occlusion and lateral excursions.

The article describes the use of two colors of articulating paper to discern the static from the dynamic contacts. In all photographs, there are static non-working contacts.







Schuyler Clyde

JPD 1963

Vol. 13, pp 1011-29

The function and importance of incisal guidance in oral rehabilitation.

In the study of occlusion, we are more interested in the limited movements made by the condyles occurring while the teeth are in functional contact than we are in the condylar movements made during the compete cycle of mastication.

The condyle on the side of mastication shows an irregular or indefinite pattern of movement both anteroposteriorly and vertically. The condyle on the nonmasticating side functions with little stress under normal conditions. Its pattern of movement may be more definite than that of the working side condyle because it is influenced by the forward and medial inclines of the glenoid fossa.

The steepness of the functioning tooth inclines on the working side (i.e., the tooth [cusp] inclines from the central fossae to the buccal cusps of the upper teeth and the tooth [cusp] inclines from the central fossae to the lingual cusps of the lower teeth) are controlled by the lateral incisal guide component and the rotation and lateral (Bennett) movement of the working side condyle. The steepness of the balanc­ing side inclines (i.e., the tooth [cusp] inclines from the central fossae to the lingual cusps on the upper teeth and from the central fossae to the buccal cusps on the lower teeth) are controlled by the forward and medial incline of the balancing side glenoid fossa and the opposite lateral incisal guide component (Fig. 6). The steepness of posterior contacting inclines in the protrusive relation (i.e., the anteroposterior occlusal contour is influenced by the incisal guidance and the anterior inclines of the glenoid fossae).


Schuyler Clyde

JPD 1963_02

Vol. 13, pp 1011-29

The function and importance of incisal guidance in oral rehabilitation.

We have heard much about the “cuspid protected occlusion.”78 This philosophy recognizes the fact that excessive lateral stresses can produce pathosis of the structures supporting the posterior teeth. It does not recognize the fact that a functional stress distributed between the lateral incisal guidance and the coordinat­ed working inclines of the posterior teeth may be sufficiently distributed so that it is not traumatogenic.

The incisal guidance of the natural dentition is normally concave. The steepness of the eccentric guiding inclines diminishes as centric occlusion is approached. When the convex or parabolically contoured incisal guidance of an articulating instrument is used, the eccentric guiding inclines increase in steepness as centric occlusion is approached. This is contrary to Nature, but is it an improvement upon Nature? It creates a locked occlusion of the teeth in centric relation rather than the desired freedom of the occlusion in the centric relation. The guiding components of the condylar movement, the glenoid fossae and the meniscus, repre­sent a concavity in the region of centric relation. The parabolic incisal guidance is, therefore, the only means of developing convex or parabolic occlusal contours on the posterior teeth. Is this the ideal tooth form as many would have us believe, or is it undesirable? The occlusal surface of the newly erupted tooth may have a slight degree of convexity which may promote an improved interocclusal relationship at the time of tooth eruption. The lateral eccentric occlusal contours lose their con­vexity with the initial occlusal wear and soon they have straight or concave contours.


Posterior occlusal contours formed by the usual incisal guidance which does not have a provision for freedom of movement in centric occlusal will result in a “locked” posterior occlusion (Fig. 14).

Complete oral rehabilitation is one of the most complex services the dentist is called upon to render. Its successful completion requires unusual knowledge, judgment, and dexterity acquired only by diligent study and application. In the hands of most dentists, complete oral rehabilitation can be more satisfactorily accomplished by the functionally generated path tech­nique than by the use of complicated articulating instruments. It can be accomplished in less time, with fewer problems and failures and with less strain on the patient and the dentist.

Currently practiced dental services have done much to preserve natural dentitions. The preservation of nat­ural dentitions has accentuated the need for complete oral, or occlusal, rehabilitation. Modern operative den­tal procedures have reduced the chair hours and patient discomfort associated with restorative den­tistry.

The coordination of the occlusion is recognized as one of the most important and most complicated facets of the practice of dentistry. Many articulating instruments and techniques have been confusing to practicing dentists

Seligman DA, Pullinger AG

J Craniomandibular Disord, 1991

Vol 5: pp 265-79

The role of functional occlusal relationships in temporomandibular disorders: a review

Controlled studies fail to demonstrate an association between occlusal interferences and TMD signs or symptoms

Occlusal guidance patterns are not associated with TMD symptom provocation or, conversely, with health.

Furthermore, parafunction is not provoked by long standing, naturally occurring occlusal variations. Dental attrition is not associated with TMD, and any observed increased in attrition is osteoarthrosis patients is likely the result of age effects and occlusal alterations secondary to condylar position changes

Shore Nathan A

Lippincott Text, 1959

Occlusal Equilibration and TMJ Dysfunction. Pp 60-61, 238-9

In the nonfunctioning position, the buccal cusps of the mandibular posterior teeth contact the lingual cusps of the maxillary posterior teeth while the teeth on the other side are in functioning position.










Wantanabe EK, et al

J Oral Rahabil, 1998

Vol 25: pp 409-15

The relationship between signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and bilateral occlusal contact patterns during lateral excursion

Medial pterygoid muscle pain on palpation showed significant associations with occlusal contact pattern, especially working side contact.

The results show only a weak relationship between some TMD symptomatology and bilateral contact patterns in lateral excursions.




Williamson EH and Lundquist DO

JDP, June 1983

Vol. 49, No 6, pp 816-823

Anterior Guidance: Its Effect on Electromyographic Activity of the Temporal and Masseter Muscle.

Splint made for each of 5 participants. AG was arbitrarily developed on an articulator.

Surface electrodes were placed on the R & L Temporal Muscles 1” posterior and 1” above the outer canthus of the eye. The electrode was placed on the midpoint between the origin and insertion of the masseter as determined by palpation.

Splint was inserted and subject bite against bite plane to establish initial EMG. A laterotrusive move was then made to PU cuspid and EMG dropped.




Only when posterior disclusion is obtained by appropriate anterior guidance can EMG activity of elevating muscles be reduced. This would eliminate all lateral forces to the posterior teeth except those that would be present in the intercuspal position.

Further, it is not the contact of the canines that decreases the activity of the elevator muscles, but the elimination of the posterior contacts.”


Yaffe A, Ehrlich J

JPD 1987

Vol. 57, No 6, pp 730-733

The functional range of tooth contact in lateral gliding movements.

Tooth contacts in lateral excursion are of two distinct types: Canine protected occlusion as described by D’Amico, and others (Stallard and Stuart) when the canines guide the mandibular movement; and group function as described by Beyron and others (Krogh, Pouolson) implying contact on several teeth with or without canine guidance.

Reported studies on canine protected versus group function occlusions were recorded with the teeth in edge-to-edge position, ignoring the functional zone between the intercuspal and the edge-to-edge position. (Shafer, Dawson).

In our study only 1 of 69 patients demonstrated a pure canine occlusion. With regard to group function, it seems that nature dioes not distinguish between anterior and posterior teeth



Glides were recored at MI, 1.0mm, 2.0mm and edge to edge. The closer to MI the greater the tendency to group function.

Therefore, occlusal reconstruction by the canine protected pattern is nit justified unless it is clearly morphologically demonstrated by the patient before reconstructive therapy.

























Tooth Wear Literature Index

General Occlusion Papers



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