Ascj 2006 [abstracts]



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ASCJ 2006
[ABSTRACTS]

Session 1: Koreans and the Japanese Empire: New Historical Perspectives .……………….….……….. 2

Session 2: Reproducing Modernities: Race, Gender, and Labor in Making Nations across the Pacific ... 4

Session 3: How Will Japan’s International Identity Be Affected by New Security Issues? ….….…….... 6

Session 4: Shibusawa Keizō and the Possibilities of Social Science in Modern Japan …….….……….. 8

Session 5: Poets, Audience, and Court Spectacle: Facets of the Fujiwara Patronage of Poetry in
Late Tenth-Century Waka ….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….…………. 10

Session 6: Individual Papers on Japanese Literature and Art .….….….….….….….….…….….……... 12

Session 7: “Japaneseness” in Transwar Japan: Assimilation and Elimination .….….…....….….……… 14

Session 8: The Social Dynamics and Political Ramifications of “Scientific” Knowledge in India,


Japan, Taiwan, and Vietnam ….….….….….….….….….….….….….…...….….….….….……... 17

Session 9: Roundtable: Economic Planning of Japan in Historical Perspective ….….…..….….………. 19

Session 10: Mobilizing the Urban Experience of Tokyo .….….….….….….….….….….….….………. 20

Session 11: Roundtable: The Future of Basic Textual Research in Classical Japanese Literature ……... 22

Session 12: The Other and the Same in Recent Japanese Literature and Film ….….…...….….………. 22

Session 13: Individual Papers on Modern Chinese History .….….….….….….….….…….….……….. 25

Session 14: Gender and Ethnicity in Contemporary Japan .….….….….….….….….….….….……….. 27

Session 15: Good Times, Bad Times: New Perspectives on Chinese Business and Family


Adaptations to Changing Regimes in Indonesia ….….….….….….….…...….….….….…………. 29

Session 16: Roundtable: Cultures of Nature and of (Social) Science: Making Forests and


Mountains for Matsutake Mushrooms across the Asian Pacific ….….….….….….….….…........... 31

Session 17: Roundtable: From Local History to Global History: Learning from Regional Japan ……... 32

Session 18: The Utopian Impulse in Taishō Literature ….….….….….….….….….…..….….………… 33

Session 19: (Ani)Mimetic Representation: The Comic Spectacle and the Paragon of Animals in


Asian Modernity ….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….……….….….….….….………. 35

Session 20: Individual Papers on Contemporary Asian Society and Politics ….….…...….….…............ 37

Session 21: Maintaining and Transforming Identities through Religion: Identity Negotiation of
Korean Society in the Early Twentienth Century ….….….….…...….….….….….….…………… 39

Session 22: Gendering of Work in Comparative Context .….….….….….….….….….….……………. 41

Session 23: The Socio-Political Internet in Asia .….….….….….….….….….….….…….…………… 43

Session 24: Roundtable: Writing Lives in Early Modern and Modern Japan: Diaries, Memoirs,


and Autobiographies as Historical and Literary Sources .….….….….….….….….….…………… 45

Session 25: Travel and Transnationality: Discourses of Identity in Latter Twentieth-Century


Japanese Travel Writings .….….….….….….….….….….….….….…..….….….….…………….. 46

Session 26: Mass Utopia in East Asia .….….….….….….….….….….….….….……….……………… 48

Session 27: Individual Papers on Asian Interactions .….….….….….….….….….….….……………… 50

Session 28: Japanese Youth and Deviance: Representations in Print and Visual Media ………………. 52

Session 29: Women’s Mobility and Emancipation in Asia .….….….….….….….….….……………… 54

Session 30: Newspapers and Journals in Republican-Era Tianjin and Shanghai .….….….…………… 56

Session 31: From Edo to Tokyo: The Dissolution of Urban Society in Early Modern Japan .…………. 57

Session 32: Transformation as Innovation: The Uses of China in Eighteenth- to Twentieth-Century Japanese Artistic Practice .….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….….…………. 59

Session 33: Individual Papers on Writing and Language in Japanese History .….….…….………….... 61
Session 1: Koreans and the Japanese Empire: New Historical Perspectives

Organizer: David Palmer, Flinders University

Koreans had a crucial role in underpinning the Japanese empire, both in the colony of Korea and within Japan itself. These three papers consider issues of class, politics, and culture that affected Koreans and that shaped Japan’s militarized economy of the first half of the twentieth century. Two papers focus on those Koreans who worked as forced laborers in Kyushu and Hiroshima-ken during World War II. One emphasizes the class links between Koreans and native Japanese, while the other argues that the Japanese political economy required a dual system of free wage- and forced slave-labor based on ethnic differences. The third paper, using the example of Japanese political cartoons on the 1910 annexation of Korea, reveals how imperialist consciousness was ingrained in the Japanese people through popular cultural forms that had precedents in the Meiji regime. All three demonstrate differing aspects of how the Japanese empire impacted on Koreans, with theoretical implications that challenge currently dominant interpretations of the history of Japanese imperialism.


1) Jung-Sun N. Han, Korea University

Will to Empire: Modern Japanese Cartoons and the Visual Representation of the Korean Annexation of 1910

This paper revisits Japanese political cartoons that represented the moment of the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910. Since the formation of the new Meiji government, the ‘Korea problem’ was at the heart of Japanese foreign affairs. When the problem was finally solved in the form of annexation, Japanese society expressed its excitement and enthusiasm through the cartoon media. By looking at how the moment of annexation was captured and caricatured in Japanese society, this paper attempts to sketch the popular mode of thought of who the Japanese were and what the Japanese empire should be. I argue that the will to create an empire was the central aspect of modern Japanese national identity at the popular level. In analyzing the cartoons on annexation, I categorize them into five recurring patterns of imagination that used the metaphors of light, train, animal, gender, and heroes. By imagining Japan-Korea relations through these five metaphors, the Japanese populace came to the consensus that enlightened and technologically advanced Japan must lead Korea into the modern world. To rationalize Japan’s leadership over Korea, the cartoons visualized an animalized and feminized Korea. By arbitrarily recollecting past heroes of foreign invasions and associating them with the annexation, the cartoons attempted to render annexation continuity with Japan’s own past. Developing a distinctively Japanese yet unmistakably modern style of visual representation, the cartoons on Korean annexation contributed in creating a visual culture that molded Japanese will to empire.


2) W. Donald Smith, Independent Scholar

Korean Forced Labor in Wartime Coal Mining

Wartime Japan, much like Nazi Germany, used coercive means to obtain and hold onto foreign workers, and subjected them to worse conditions than native workers, often for the benefit of leading corporations that are still household names today. This paper will demonstrate, however, that conditions in coal mining—an essential industry that employed about half the foreign workers, mostly Koreans, mobilized for labor in Japan—represented more of an intensification of already poor prewar conditions than a wartime aberration, and that class trumped ethnicity and gender in shaping the character of exploitation in the mines.

There is no question that Korean mineworkers were treated worse than Japanese, the vast majority of whom were free wage workers. Koreans were paid less (and were often unable to receive their wages at all), were under more pressure to show up for work despite their concentration in more injury-prone locations, were provided inferior medical care and housing, and, most critically, suffered higher death rates than Japanese. Coal industry records show that Koreans were about 20 percent more likely than Japanese to die in the mines. This is a significant difference, but even the Japanese death rate in the wartime mines was roughly double the already high prewar rate, suggesting that the gap between Korean and Japanese working conditions was a matter of degree rather than one of fundamental character. Mine owners and the state were perfectly willing to sacrifice Japanese working class lives along with those of Koreans, letting maintenance slip, speeding up the pace of work, and sending women back into the pits just six years after female underground work had been banned as too dangerous. The point of this paper, focusing on the Chikuhō coal field in northern Kyūshū, is not that Koreans were treated fairly or equally (they were not) but that wartime exploitation had a fundamental class basis, with some variations due to ethnicity, gender, and location within the Japanese empire.
3) David Palmer, Flinders University

Slave Labor under Imperial Fascism: The Korean Forced Laborers of Hiroshima-

ken

Were Koreans who were brought forcibly to Japan for work from the 1930s to 1945 “slave laborers?” Was this labor system an integral part of fascism internationally during this era—and was Japan therefore fascist? The questions have deeply divided scholars of modern Japanese history and of international fascism. Generally, Japanese history scholars hold that Korean forced laborers (kyōsei rentō) were not subjected to slavery and that during this era Japan was not fascist, but instead a military oligarchy. Most scholars of international fascism hold that fascism existed only in Europe and not in East Asia. To date, no studies exist that focus on the common political economic dynamics between Japan and Germany, in terms of foreign forced laborers, as the basis for their conclusions.

The historical experience of Korean forced laborers in Hiroshima prefecture brings into question these dominant assumptions when compared with the experiences of foreign forced laborers in Nazi Germany. The Japanese labor system, seen in detail in Hiroshima, was structurally similar to Germany’s system, and also was essential to the war economy of Japan. Hiroshima’s Korean forced laborers worked in the core big business sector of Japan’s military production, including at the Mitsubishi shipyard works in the port of Hiroshima. They also worked in a range of other types of labor and economic sectors. This presentation will show how this system was in fact slave labor, as well as a fundamental part of what can only be understood as imperial Japan’s political economy of fascism.
Discussant: Yoichi Hirama, The Military History Society of Japan
Session 2: Reproducing Modernities: Race, Gender, and Labor in Making Nations Across the Pacific

Organizer: Denise Khor, University of California, San Diego

This panel interrogates the intersection of racialization, gendering, and labor in the (re)production of modernity in the Asia Pacific. Examining both the production of US modernity through the bodies of the Asian Other, as well as the constitution of a Japanese colonial modernity posited against the Korean colonial other, the panel explores the meaning of “Asia” within the context of modern nation-making. Our panel proposes to understand and question the figuration of Asia in the production of modernity in three locales across the Pacific. We explore the genealogies of making modern nations by excavating the technologies of domination as they are iterated in the realms of law, politics, and culture. Since the role of East Asia, especially China and Korea, in perceptions of a newly millennial global community has become an increasingly important question, the panel proposes an examination of the reproduction of modernity through a lens critical to processes of race, gender, and labor. Our panel brings together the fields of Area Studies and Ethnic Studies and draws upon interdisciplinary approaches to analyze the histories of modern nations and empires.


1) Su Yun Kim, University of California, San Diego

Colonial Intimacy and Reproduction of Family: Interracial Unions in Colonial Korea

This presentation investigates colonial intimacy and modern subjectivity in the context of transnational romance and inter-racial marriages through an examination of Korean popular literature and discourses during the Japanese colonial period (1910–1945). It is also a part of my work-in-progress dissertation on the topic, and here, I focus on Japanese colonial policy on interracial marriage between Koreans and Japanese (Japanese: naisen kekkon, Korean: naesŏn tonghon) as a part of on-going discourses of (re)producing a colonial modern family.

Previously known to be exceptional cases, interracial marriages between Koreans and Japanese, as recent scholarship shows, were far more widely practiced, and formed influential discourses at the last stage of the Japanese colonialism. Naesŏn ilche (J: naisen ittai, E: Japan and Korea as a single body) uniquely existed only in colonial Korea departing from the earlier Tonghwa (J: dokka, E: assimilation) policy in the 1920s which was promoted more widely throughout the Japanese Empire. At the discursive level, Naesŏn ilche policy gave a hope to Korean intellectuals achieving a modern liberal “equal” subjectivity, by “becoming Japanese,” despite the obvious disguising of the brutality of forced assimilation and war mobilization.

In this presentation, I explore popular discourses which include newspaper opinion pieces, magazine articles, and short stories by Korean writers, in order to examine: 1) how Korean intellectuals interpreted the Naesŏn ilche as a positive assimilation policy; 2) how interracial marriage brought new articulation of modern marriage/family/romance; 3) how the concept of race and gender/sexuality were interconnected in the discourses of interracial romance/coupling.


2) Tomoko Tsuchiya, University of California, San Diego

Memory of Japanese War Brides: Their Images and Experiences between Two Nations

Historically, the images of Japanese war brides have been extremely stereotyped as being associated with the legacy of a defeated Japan. The marriages between American GIs and Japanese women took place in the context of unequal power relations between the conqueror and the conquered, and therefore, the stereotypes that were associated with them differed between the two countries. While their images tended to be positive in the U.S., the war brides were negatively stereotyped in Japan.

There also existed the different stereotypes for the mainstream newspapers and the Japanese American newspapers in Hawaii. Most mainstream newspapers portray them positively. These images are related to the women’s liberation that was brought about by the American occupation of Japanese women. Therefore, they tend to portray that the “liberated” and “saved” Japanese women could live happily with their American husbands. On the other hand, the newspapers of the Japanese American community in Hawaii portray Japanese war brides in the framework of their roles as traditional Japanese women. Those brides who appropriated the traditional norms were portrayed positively, while they were portrayed negatively otherwise.

This paper has revealed that the constructed images did not reflect the actual lives of Japanese war brides by examining their wills and decisions. Some women were able to smoothly adjust to the new ways of life, whereas some were unable to do so. Even after the military regulations and laws were removed, they still faced many difficulties in learning English, making friends, and establishing a good relationship with their in-laws in Hawaii. Despite this, they overcame many obstacles with their strong wills and attempted to discover new ways to live, which differed from the gender roles the war thrust upon them during the war. Their marriages and lives also challenged the gender spheres of the conventional Japanese women.


3) Denise Khor, University of California, San Diego

Discipline and Leisure: Asian Laborers and the Work of the Movies

By the mid nineteenth century, sugar production dominated Hawaii’s economy, rapidly growing into the Island’s largest and most profitable industry. Asian migrants supplied the expanding industry with the necessary workforce to cultivate the labor-intensive crop of sugar cane. While Asian immigrant workers were integral to the economic reproduction and profitability of the plantation, they simultaneously presented sugar planters with a set of problems that undermined the formation of a stable laboring class. In particular, concerns about labor agitation, worker recruitment, and transience prompted planters to devise strategies to discipline laborers and foster proper social values.

Drawing upon historical methods and archival research, this paper details the incorporation of early moving pictures into the social scapes of Hawaii’s sugar plantations. I argue that sugar planters adopted the movies into their policies and practices of managing and reproducing a racialized labor force. In doing so, they fostered the formation of a gendered public sphere that brought together their own interests and an emergent modern national culture.
Discussant: Kazuyo Tsuchiya, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
Session 3: How Will Japan’s International Identity Be Affected by New Security Issues?

Organizer/Chair: Wilhelm M. Vosse, International Christian University

Postwar Japan has often been referred to as the exemplary anti-militarist state. Government policy as well as public opinion strongly supports diplomatic and non-military means and one could get the impression that Japan has learned its lesson from history, from “rich nation, strong army” to “rich nation, without (formal) army”. Peter Katzenstein (1996), Thomas Berger (1996, 1998), Glenn Hook (1996) and others raised the question whether Japan’s anti-militarist attitude is genuine or conditional on U.S. military protection, and the paradox of how we can explain that Japan has learned from its history when it is constantly reinterpreting and reconstructing its own past and has difficulties to face its historical wartime responsibility. This panel will deal with this puzzle by approaching it from four angles: the current political and intellectual debate about Japan’s role in the world, the reinterpretation of Japan’s imperial history, the effect of external actors (particularly the United States) on Japan’s recent defense policies, and a comparative look at public attitudes on peace and security in Japan and other advanced industrial democracies based on recent survey data.


1) Susanne Klien, University of Halle, Germany

Reassessing Japan’s International Contribution in the Wake of 9-11: From Civilian Power to Normal State?

The aim of this paper is to examine how Japan’s national security debate has been affected by the terrorist attacks in 2001 and how it has evolved since then. I will conduct a hermeneutic discourse analysis by focusing on selected Japanese journals such as Shokun, Chuo Koron and Sekai between October 2001 and the present. In Chapter 4 of my doctoral thesis entitled Rethinking Japan’s Identity and International Role: An Intercultural Perspective (Routledge 2002), I distinguished four different schools of thought within Japan’s security debate: Centrists (genjōijishugisha), Independentists (dokuritsushugisha), Pragmatic Multilateralists (takokkanshugisha) and Pacifists (heiwashugisha). In this study I will analyze how these groups have developed since 2001. Special attention will be given to how the individual schools of thought have perceived three key concepts: self, national security and international society. I expect the inherent link between self and alter to provide essential clues about the redefinition of Japan’s international contribution and the trajectory of Japan’s defense policy as such.

As terms such as identity and national discourse indicate, my theoretical tenets are primarily constructivist in nature.
2) Wilhelm M. Vosse, International Christian University

Are Americans from Mars and Japanese from Venus? A Comparative Look at Public Attitudes on Peace and Security

Originally comparing foreign and security policy attitudes among Americans and Europeans before the war against Iraq in 2003, Robert Kagan (2002, 2003) concluded that both continents had developed almost opposite views. While Americans see the world from the viewpoint of the only remaining hegemon and behave accordingly, Europeans argue and behave like middle powers with more limited military options who might have learned their lesson from history. Japan seems to be very much like the Europeans, it often seemed they had also learned their lesson from history, embracing the war renouncing article 9 of the constitution, generally favoring diplomatic, non-military, and multilateral approaches to deal with international conflicts, and by constructing a state-pacifism. With the end of the Cold War and growing awareness of new threats from international terrorism, market liberalization, to scarcity of essential resources, the question is whether the anti-militarist attitudes shared by most Japanese were conditional—good as long as the United States prevented direct military attacks, but new threats demand new responses. Based on a survey that was fielded in Japan and the United States in late 2004 (SAGE 2004), this paper will illustrate how Japanese view threats to their nation and to them personally, and the types of responses they favor. Although anti-militarist attitudes are still very strong in Japan, the data provides empirical evidence as to how militarist sentiment might increase with rising nationalism.


3) Alexander Bukh, Hosei University

Japan’s National Identity, Historical Memory, and History Textbooks

The controversy over history textbooks in Japan has received tremendous attention from domestic, Asian and broad international media since its first exposure to the international scrutiny in 1982. While the history textbooks have been the target of a countless number of publications in Japanese (most of which tend to have a strong ideological bias) the English language academia has seen very few publications on the issue. Furthermore, most of the existing research tends to focus on the controversial new history textbooks published by the revisionist Japan Society for Textbook Reform (Atarashii Rekishikyōkasho o Tsukuru Kai) largely ignoring the dominant historical narrative.

The main purpose of this paper is to make an inquiry into the nature of historical memory construction in Japan through examining the most widely used junior high school and high school history textbooks. Historical memory is perceived here as being one, if not the most important component of national identity. By promoting a certain historical narrative it provides interpretations of the “national” past interactions with other nations. These interpretations in turn, serve as an important component on which understanding of the present understanding of the self and the numerous “others” is based. This paper will engage in a comparative analysis of the discourses on Japan’s interaction with China and Korea on one side, and with Russia on the other, as seen in the most widely used history textbooks.
4) Andrew L. Oros, Washington College

External Actors and State Identity: Securing Japan through Missile Defense

The gradual evolution of Japan’s state foreign policy identity towards a more openly military power is not the result solely of domestic political forces responding to a changing international environment. External actors also play an important role in how Japan crafts its international contribution. Foremost among such actors is the United States, as a collective entity and also as individual bureaucratic actors within the United States, most importantly the Department of Defense (aka, the Pentagon) and the individual military services.

U.S. pressure for Japan to share in the development challenges and costs of creating a workable ballistic missile defense (BMD) system is one case in point. Coordination with the United States in this important and costly defense initiative requires Japan to address core aspects of its Cold War state identity related to such issues as the export of weapons components, the military use of outer space, the overall defense budget, civilian control, and coordination among the Self-Defense Forces (SDF), the Japan Defense Agency (JDA), the Cabinet Office, and the civilian bureaucracy. This article will examine the alliance politics of missile defense with an eye towards the effect of this debate and resulting decisions on Japan’s evolving post-Cold War state identity.
Discussant: Tadashi Anno, Sophia University
Session 4: Shibusawa Keizō and the Possibilities of Social Science in Modern Japan

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