Arab5008m muslim Intellectual Encounter with Contemporary Thought Module summary

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1.3 Hadiths of Shi'a Imams

One of the essential characteristics of Imams in Shi'a belief is possession of knowledge of hidden meanings of Qur'an. Although it is believed by Shi'a Muslims that they revealed only a small portion of their knowledge. All hadiths of Imams are considered sources of conventional interpretation of Qur'an, tafsir, in Shi'a Islam.

Shi'a Muslims sometimes refer to the twelfth Shi'a Imam , Mahdi, as Baqiyyat Allah (Arabic: بقیه الله‎) literally meaning that which is left by God, the term is originally derived from a Qur'anic verse (Sura 11:86 , [3]) according to an esoteric interpretation.[4]

There are many esoteric interpretations presented by Shi'a Imams, most of them by Ja'far al-Sadiq and Muhammad Baqir. These hadiths usually interpret certain verses in connection with Mohammad's house, Ahlul Bayt.[5]

A Shi'a hadith attributed to Ja'far al-Sadiq, which is an esoteric comment on sura Al-Qadr:

  • One who understands the true meaning of the night of fate, has understood the mystery concealed in Fatima.

1.4 References

    1. ^ The Teachings of the Qur'an (

    2. ^ The Discussion of the Individual Letters


    1. ^ Sufi Tafsir and Isma'ili Ta'wil

( )

    1. ^ – The Tafsirs - التفاسير


2. Muslim doctrinal and legal thinking in the pre-modern period

Madhhab (Arabic: مذهب‎ mahab, IPA: [ˈmæðhæb], "doctrine"; pl. مذاهب maāhib, [mæˈðæːhɪb]; transliterated Urdu: mazhab or mezheb) is a Muslim school of law or fiqh (religious jurisprudence). In the first 150 years of Islam, there were many such "schools". In fact, several of the Sahābah, or contemporary "companions" of Muhammad, are credited with founding their own. The prominent Islamic jurisprudence schools of Damascus in Syria (often named Awza'iyya), Kufa and Basra in Iraq, and Medina in Arabia survived as the Maliki madhhab, while the other Iraqi schools were consolidated into the Hanafi madhhab. The Shafi'i, Hanbali, Zahiri and Jariri schools were established later, though the latter school eventually died out.
Established schools
While most madh'hab are present in various regions, some regions has specific madh'hab school as their dominant or even official madh'hab.

The four mainstream schools of Sunni jurisprudence today, named after their founders (sometimes called the A’immah Arba‘a or four Imaams of Fiqh[1]), are not generally seen as distinct sects, as there has been harmony for the most part among their various scholars throughout Islamic history.

Generally, Sunni Muslims prefer one madhhab out of the four (normally a regional preference) but also believe that ijtihad must be exercised by the contemporary scholars capable of doing so. Most rely on taqlid, or acceptance of religious rulings and epistemology from a higher religious authority in deferring meanings of analysis and derivation of legal practices instead of relying on subjective readings.[2][3]

Experts and scholars of fiqh follow the usul (principles) of their own native madhhab, but they also study the usul, evidences, and opinions of other madhhabs.

2.1 Hanafi

The Hanafi (Arabic: حنفي‎ anafī ) school is one of the four Madhhab (schools of law) in jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. The Hanafi madhhab is named after the Persian scholar Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (Arabic: أبو حنيفة النعمان بن ثابت) (699 - 767CE /89 - 157AH), aTabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani. This is the most prominent among all Sunni Schools and it has the most adherents in the Muslim world.

2.1.1 Overview

Among the four established Sunni schools of legal thought in Islam, the Hanafi school is the oldest and by far, the largest. It has a reputation for putting greater emphasis on the role of reason and being more liberal than the other three schools. The Hanafi school also has the most followers among the four major Sunni schools. This is largely to its being adopted as the official madhab of The Abbasid Caliphate, theOttoman Empire and the Mughal Empire. As such, the influence of the Hanafi school is still widespread in the former lands of these empires. Today, the Hanafi school is predominant in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, China as well as in Mauritius, Turkey, Albania,Macedonia in the Balkans. It is also practiced in large numbers in other parts of Muslim world, particularly in parts of the Levant and Iraq.

2.1.2 Sources and methodology

The sources from which the law is derived, in order of importance and preference, are: the Qur'an, the authentic narrations of the Prophet (Hadith), Consensus (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas), qiyas only being applied if direct material cannot be found in the Qur'an or Hadith. As the fourth Caliph, 'Ali, had transferred the Islamic capital to Kufa, and many of the companions of the Prophet had settled there, the Hanafi School had based many of its rulings on Prophetic narrations (Hadith) transmitted by companions residing in Iraq, thus it came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. Hence 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud formed much of the base of the school, as well as other personalities from the household of the Prophet with whom Abu Hanifa had studied such as Muhammad al-Baqir,Ja'far al-Sadiq, and Zayd ibn 'Ali. Many jurists and Hadith transmitters had lived in Kufa including one of Abu Hanifa's main teachers, Hammad ibn Sulayman.
According to Abdalhaqq Bewley:
"Hanafi methodology involved the logical process of examining the Book and all available knowledge of the Sunna and then finding an example in them analogous to the particular case under review so that Allah's deen could be properly applied in the new situation. It thus entails the use of reason in the examination of the Book and Sunna so as to extrapolate the judgments necessary for the implementation of Islam in a new environment. It represents in essence, therefore, within the strict compass of rigorous legal and inductive precepts, the adaptation of the living and powerful deen to a new situation in order to enable it take root and flourish in fresh soil. This made it an ideal legal tool for the central governance of widely varied populations which is why we find it in Turkey as the legacy of the Uthmaniyya Khilafa and in the sub-continent where it is inherited from the Moghul empire."

2.1.3 Some distinctive opinions of the school

  • It is prohibited or disliked to eat some forms of non-fish seafood based on the hadith of Muhammad : "Two types of dead meat and two types of blood have been made lawful for your consumption [without being slaughtered]: fish and locust, liver and spleen". (Reported by Ahmed and Ibn Majah).

  • Except for at Hajj, every salah (each of the five daily prayers) needs to be made in its regular time. (Some non-Hanafi scholars allow a person who is travelling to adjust certain prayer times for convenience).

  • The beginning of the time for asr prayer (and the end of the time for zuhr prayer) is later than in the other schools (roughly when shadows are twice the length of their objects).

  • The hands are not raised while going to ruku and after it, whereas this is practised in the Shafi'i and Hanbali schools

  • A sixth daily prayer called witr is wajib/required (but not at the same level of obligation as the five daily prayers).

  • Abū Ḥanīfa, taking a literal view (harfiyyah), held that "wine" (خمر/Khamr in Quranic/classical Arabic), i.e. the fermented juice of dates or grapes, was absolutely prohibited but it was permissible to drink small non-intoxicating amounts of other alcoholic beverages (e.g. made from honey or grains). Later Hanafi scholars tend to rule that all alcoholic beverages are prohibited regardless of source.

  • Bleeding can break one's wudu

  • Merely touching a member of the opposite sex does not break one's wudu.

  • A Muslim is allowed to work in Church construction and building thereof, whose wages considered lawful by Hanafis.

2.1.4 See also

  • Islamic schools and branches

( )

  • List of major Hanafi books

    • Bahar-e-Shariat by Mufti Amjad Ali Aazmi.

    • Fatawa Rashidiya by Rashid Ahmad Gangohi.

    • Fatawa Razawiyya by Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi.

    • Fatawa Mustafwiyah by Mustafa Raza Khan.

    • Hidayah by Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani.

    • Radd al-Muhtar ala al-Dur al-Mukhtar by Ibn Abidin.

  • List of notable Hanafis

The following is the list of religious personalities who followed the Hanafi Islamic madhab, in chronological order:

  • Abu Hanifah

  • Abu Yusuf

  • Muhammad al-Shaybani

  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi

  • Yahya ibn Ma'in

  • al-Marghinani

  • al-Maydani

  • Abu Mansur Al Maturidi

  • Ali al-Qari

  • Ali Hujwiri

  • Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi

  • Farid al-Din Attar

  • Ibn Abidin

  • Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari

  • Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi

  • Shah Waliullah

  • Shah Ismail

  • Syed Ahmad Shaheed

  • Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

  • Stephen Suleyman Schwartz

  • Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi

  • Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi

  • Maulana Mehmud Hasan

  • Shabbir Ahmad Usmani

  • Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri

  • Maulana Sarfaraz Khan Safdar

  • Yousuf Ludhianvi

  • Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi

  • Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi

  • Muhammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqi Qadri

  • Khayr al-Din al-Ramli

  • Allama Iqbal

  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah

  • Muhammad Ilyas Qadri

  • Turab-ul-Haq Qadri

  • Tahir ul qadri

  • Ahmad Saeed Kazmi

2.1.5 Further reading

  • Branon Wheeler, Applying the Canon in Islam: The Authorization and Maintenance of Interpretive Reasoning in Ḥanafī Scholarship, SUNY Press, 1996

2.1.6 External links

  • Hizmet Books ( Hanafi books in English (free online)

  • Hanafi Fiqh ( SunniPath Answers

  • Hanafi website (

  • Shariah Board ( (Hanafi) Audio Fatawa in many languages (free online)

  • Sahih al Islam ( Over 2,000 Collection of Islamic Information

  • Islami Education (

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