Arab5008m muslim Intellectual Encounter with Contemporary Thought Module summary



Download 1.46 Mb.
Page1/42
Date conversion03.02.2017
Size1.46 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   42
ARAB5008M

Muslim Intellectual Encounter with Contemporary Thought




Module summary

Contemporary Muslim thought reflects a spectrum of intellectual trends and methodological frameworks which have developed in the post-industrial period and aim at reinvigorating the Muslim community and its intellectual tradition.


The module acquaints students with the ideas and contributions of some of the most dynamic contemporary thinkers and reformers who have sought to define what it means to be a Muslim and who have made substantial efforts to contemporize Islamic legal theory, politics and theology.


Syllabus
The topics covered in this module include:
- Thinking about interpretation
- Muslim doctrinal and legal thinking in the pre-modern period
- The challenge of modernity and the initial stages of intellectual reaction
- Muslim Liberal Thought (Iqbal, Fazlur Rahman et al)
- Alternative Paradigms (Arkoun, Shahrour, Wadud)
- Political Islamist Thought (Mawdudi, Sayyid Qutb, Shariati, Yassine)
- Case Studies (Pakistan, Iran, Egypt, Turkey)
- Militant Islamism
- Islamic Economics
- Future trends

Table of Contents


ARAB5008M 1

Muslim Intellectual Encounter with Contemporary Thought 1

Table of Contents 1

1. Esoteric interpretation of the Quran 2

1.1 Islamic legitimacy 2

1.2 Sufism 3

1.2.1 Mystic interpretations 4

1.2.2 Philosophic interpretations 5

1.2.3 Other esoteric interpretations 5

1.3 Hadiths of Shi'a Imams 5

1.4 References 6

2. Muslim doctrinal and legal thinking in the pre-modern period 7

2.1 Hanafi 8

2.1.1 Overview 8

2.1.2 Sources and methodology 8

2.1.3 Some distinctive opinions of the school 9

2.1.4 See also 10

2.1.5 Further reading 11

2.1.6 External links 11

2.2 Hanbali 11



2.2.1 Principles 11

2.2.1.1 God's attributes 11

2.2.1.2 Annihilation of the eternals 12

2.2.1.3 God's word 12

2.2.1.4 The Qur'an 12

2.2.2 Notable rulings 12

2.2.3 List of Hanbali scholars 13

2.2.4 References 14

2.2.5 External links 14

2.3 Maliki 14



2.3.1 The basis for the School of the City of Light, Medina Munawwarah 14

2.3.2 Notable differences in prayer from other madhabs 16

2.3.3 Notable Mālikīs 17

2.3.4 Notes 17

2.3.5 External links 18

2.4 Shafi'i 18



2.4.1 Principles 18

2.4.2 The Imam 19

2.4.3 Importance of the Shafi'i School 20

2.4.3.1 Demographics 20

2.4.3.2 Historical 20

2.4.3.3 Famous Shafi'i's 20



2.4.4 Contemporary Shafi'i Scholars 22

2.4.5 Notes 23

2.4.6 References 24

2.5.7 External links 24

2.5 Ja'fari jurisprudence 25



2.5.1 Branches 25

2.5.1.1 Usuli 25

2.5.1.2 Akhbari 25

2.5.2 Sub-articles 25

2.5.2.1 Non-controversial fields 25

2.5.2.2 Controversial fields 26

2.5.3 Notes 28

2.5.4 External links 28

2.6 Zaidiyyah 28



2.6.1 Five Zaidi Imāms 29

2.6.2 Law 29

2.5.2.1 Theology 29

2.5.2.2 Beliefs 29

2.6.3 History 31

2.6.3.1 Status of caliphs and sahaba 31

2.6.3.2 Dynasties 31

2.6.3.3 Community and former States 32



2.6.4 See also 32

2.6.5 References 33

2.6.6 External links 34

2.7 Ibadi 34



2.7.1 Origin 34

2.7.2 Views 34

2.7.2.1 Doctrinal differences with Sunni Islam 34

2.7.2.2 Views on Islamic history and caliphate 35

2.7.2.3 View of hadith 35



2.7.3 Demographics 36

2.7.4 References 36

2.7.5 External links 36

2.8 Ẓāhirī 36



2.8.1 History 37

2.8.2 Principles 37

2.8.3 Notable Zahiris 37

2.8.3.1 Sympathizers with the Zahiri School 37

2.8.3.2 Followers of the Zahiri School 38

2.8.4 See also 38

2.8.5 References 38

3 The Challenge of modernity and the initial stages of intellectual reaction 38

3.1 Views on globalization 39



3.1.1 The Arab and Muslim intellectuals 39

3.1.2 The Jihadists 40

3.2 Reactions to globalization 40

3.3 Who is influencing whom? 41

3.4 Terrorism made easy: 9/11 42

3.5 Globalization in the future 43

3.6 See also 44

3.7 References 44

4 Islam and modernity 45

4.1 Islam's First Encounters with European Modernity 45



4.1.1 Modernization Reforms in the Ottoman Empire 46

4.2 Islamic Modernism 46

4.3 History of Islamic modernism 47

4.3.1 Islamic modernists until 1918 47

4.3.2 Impact of early Islamic modernists 48

4.3.3 1918-1968 48

4.3.3.1 Continued modernization 48

4.3.3.2 Arab socialism 48

4.3.4 1968-present 49

4.4 The Middle East, Modernity and the proliferation of Islamic fundamentalism 49

4.5 People 50

4.6 See also 50

4.7 References 51

4.8 External links 52

4.9 Further reading 53

5 Muslim Liberal Thoughts 53

5.1 Reform 54

5.2 Central tenets 54

5.3 Contemporary and controversial issues 54



5.3.1 Ijtihad 55

5.3.2 Human rights 55

5.3.3 Feminism 56

5.3.4 Secularism 57

5.3.5 Tolerance and non-violence 57

5.3.6 Reliance on secular scholarship 57

5.6.7 Anarchism 57

5.6.7.1 Historical anarchist tendencies in Islam 57

5.6.7.2 Contemporary Movements and Figures 59

5.7 Movements 59



5.7.1 Ahmadiyya 59

5.7.2 Quranism 60

5.7.2.1 Etymology 60

5.7.2.2 Doctrine 60

5.7.2.3 Examples 61

5.7.2.4 Overview 62

5.7.2.4 Notable 63

5.7.2.5 Quranist organisations and communities 64

5.7.2.6 Criticism 64



5.7.3 North America 65

5.7.4 Russia and CIS 66

5.7.5 Europe 66

5.8 See also 66



5.8.1 Thinkers and activists 67

5.8.2 Ideologies and institutions 66

5.9 References 68

5.10 Further reading 69

5.11 External links 70



6 Political Islamist Thoughts 70

6.1 Introduction 70



6.1.1 Muhammad, the Medinan state and Islamic political ideals 71

6.1.2 Early Caliphate and political ideals 71

6.1.2.1 Election or appointment 72

6.1.2.2 Majlis ash-Shura 72

6.1.3 Rulers, ulama and the traditional Islamic state 73

6.1.4 Separation of religion and state 73

6.1.5 Shi’a tradition 74

6.1.5.1 Qur'an 74

6.1.5.2 Accountability 74

6.1.5.3 Rule of law 75

6.2 Reaction to European colonialism 76

6.2.1 Modern political ideal of the Islamic state 76

6.3 20th century 77



6.3.1 Contemporary movements 77

6.3.2 Sunni and Shia differences 78

6.4 Modern debates 78



6.4.1 Perception of persecution 79

6.4.2 Reactive Islam 79

6.4.3 Cold War exploitation 80

6.4.4 Role in terrorism 80

6.4.5 Movements described as 'Islamist' 80

6.4.6 Globalization 80

6.4.7 Internationalism 81

6.5 See also 81

6.6 References 82

6.7 Sources 83

6.8 Further reading 83

6.9 External links 84



7 Islamism 84

7.1 Definitions 85

7.2 History of usage 86

7.3 Relation with Islam 87

7.4 Influence 88

7.5 Sources of strength 89



7.5.1 Alienation from the West 89

7.5.2 Patronage of the West 90

7.5.3 Resurgence of Islam 90

7.5.4 Saudi Arabian funding 91

7.5.4.1 Grand Mosque Seizure 92



7.5.5 Dissatisfaction with the status quo 92

7.5.6 Shelter of the mosque 93

7.5.7 Charitable work 93

7.5.8 Power of identity politics 93

7.6 Criticism 93

7.7 History 94

7.7.1 Predecessor movements 94

7.7.2 Early history 95

7.7.3 Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi 95

7.7.4 Muslim Brotherhood 96

7.7.5 Sayyid Qutb 97

7.7.6 Six Day War of 1967 97

7.7.7 Islamic Republic in Iran 98

7.7.8 Pakistan 99

7.7.9 Afghanistan 99

7.7.10 Persian Gulf War 100

7.7.11 Jihad movements of Egypt 101

7.7.12 Sudan 101

7.7.13 Algeria 102

7.7.14 Afghanistan Taliban 103

7.7.15 Attacks on civilians 104

7.7.16 Hizb ut-Tahrir 104

7.7.17 Turkey 105

7.7.18 London 106

7.8 Counter-response 106

7.9 Other countries 107

7.10 Parties of non-state movements 107

7.11 See also 109

7.12 References 109

7.13 Further reading 115

7.14 External links 116



8 Islamic terrorism 116

8.1 Debate over terminology 117

8.2 History 117

8.3 Motivations and Islamic terrorism 118



8.3.1 Profiles 120

8.3.2 Ideology 120

8.3.3 Interpretations of the Qur'an and Hadith 122

8.3.4 Criticism of Islamic terrorist ideology 123

8.3.5 Identity-based frameworks for analyzing Islamist-based terrorism 124

8.4 Muslim attitudes toward terrorism 125



8.4.1 View of Muslim clerics 125

8.4.2 Opinion surveys 127

8.5 Tactics 128



8.5.1 Suicide attacks 128

8.5.2 Hijackings 128

8.5.3 Kidnappings and executions 129

8.5.4 Internet recruiting 129

8.6 Examples of attacks 129

8.7 U.S. State Department list 132

8.8 See also 133

8.9 Notes 133

8.10 Further reading 142



9 Islamic economics in the world 144

9.1 History 144



9.1.1 Early reforms under Islam 145

9.1.1.1 Social responsibility in commerce 145

9.1.1.2 Legal institutions 145

9.1.1.3 Classical Muslim commerce 147



9.1.2 Classical Muslim economic thought 153

9.1.2.1 Early Islamic economic thinkers 154

9.1.2.2 Riba 155

9.1.2.3 Ibn Khaldun 156



9.1.3 Economy in the Caliphate 157

9.1.4 Post-colonial era 158

9.1.5 Traditional approach 159

9.1.6 Contemporary economics 160

9.1.7 Land reform 160

9.2 Property 160



9.2.1 Public property 161

9.2.2 State property 161

9.2.3 Private property 161

9.3 Market 162



9.3.1 Interference 162

9.4 Monetary & Fiscal Policy 163



9.4.1 In Equilibrium 163

9.4.2 In Transition 163

9.5 Banking 163



9.5.1 Interest 164

9.5.2 Debt arrangements 164

9.5.3 Savings-Investment 164

9.5.4 Money changers 165

9.6 Natural capital 165

9.7 Welfare 165

9.8 Islamic stocks 165

9.9 Economic Modeling & a New Science of Muslim Economics 165

9.10 Popularity and availability 165

9.11 Business Method Patents 166

9.12 Views 166



9.12.1 Criticism 166

9.13 See also 167

9.14 Further reading 167

9.15 Torts 168

9.16 References 168

9.17 External links 170



10 Future trends 171

10.1 Islamic revival 171

10.2 Contemporary Islamic philosophy 172

10.2.1 Key figures of modern Islamic philosophy 173

10.3 Islamistan 176

10.4 Spread of Islam 176

10.4.1 Immigration 177

10.5 A Common Word Between Us and You 177

10.6 Persecution of Muslims 178

10.6.1 United Kingdom 178

10.6.2 United States 178

10.6.3 Israel 179

10.6.4 Persecution of minority/sectarian Muslim groups by other Muslim groups 179

10.6.4.1 Sunni-Shi'a conflicts and persecutions 179

10.6.4.2 Infighting Between Sunni Madhabs 180

10.6.4.3 Persecution of Ahmadis 180

10.6.4.4 Alawites 181

10.6.4.5 Persecution by Takfiris 181

10.6.4.6 Persecution by Ajlaf and Arzal Muslims in South Asia 181

10.6.4.7Persecution of Salafis/Wahhabis by Other Muslims 182

10.7 Islamophobia 185

10.7.1 Trends 185

10.7.2 Further reading 186

10.7.3 References 187



  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   42


The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2016
send message

    Main page