Appendix trials of Treatments for the Prevention of Dental Caries



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Appendix B7. Trials of Treatments for the Prevention of Dental Caries

Author, Year, Title

Study Type

Interventions

Population Characteristics

Eligibility Criteria

Number Approached, Eligible, Enrolled, Analyzed

Country
Setting


Sponsor

Followup Duration

Outcomes

Adverse Events/ Harms

Attrition

Quality Rating


Topical Fluoride


Chu et al., 200269
Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and sodium fluoride varnish in arresting dentin caries in Chinese pre-school children

Controlled clinical trial

A: Removal of carious tissue plus 38% silver diamine fluoride solution every 12 months

B: 38% silver diamine fluoride solution every 12 months

C: Removal of carious tissue plus 5% sodium fluoride every 3 months

D: 5% sodium fluoride varnish every 3 months

E: Placebo (water)


Age, mean: 4 years

Female: 44%

Race: NR (study conducted in China)
dmfs score: 3.92

Used fluoridated toothpaste: 73%



Children from 8 kindergartens with caries in upper primary anterior teeth

Number approached: NR

Number eligible: NR

Number enrolled: 375 (76 vs. 77 vs. 76 vs. 73 vs. 73)

Number analyzed: 308 (61 vs. 62 vs. 62 vs. 61 vs. 62)



China
recruitment setting: Kindergarten

Water fluoridation status: <0.2 ppm



University of Hong Kong

2.5 years

A vs. B vs. C vs. D vs. E

New caries surfaces: 0.26 vs. 0.47 vs. 0.89 vs. 0.70 vs. 1.58, p for ANOVA <0.001 (E vs. others)

Arrested caries surfaces: 2.49 vs. 2.82 vs. 1.45 vs. 1.54 vs. 1.27; p for ANOVA <0.001 (E vs. others)

Absolute reduction in caries increment: 1.32 vs. 1.11 vs. 0.69 vs. 0.88 vs. E as comparator (vs. others)

Reduction in caries increment: 84% vs. 70% vs. 44% vs. 56% vs. E as comparator (vs. others)


No adverse events detected

Overall

18%; 20% vs. 19% vs. 18% vs. 16% vs. 15%



Poor

Jiang et al., 200570
The effect of a bi-annual professional application of APF foam on dental caries increment in primary teeth: 24-month clinical trial

Cluster RCT (15 clusters)

A: 0.6-0.8 g of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride foam applied every 6 months, max 4 applications

B: Placebo foam



Age, mean: 3.5 vs. 3.6 years

Female: 46% vs. 46%

Non-white: 100%
Chinese
dmft, mean: 1.6 vs. 1.7
dmfs, mean: 2.4 vs. 2.8

Use of fluoride toothpaste: 23% vs. 20%

Tooth-brushing at least once a day: 42% vs. 50%


Children from

4 kindergartens



Number approached: NR

Number eligible: NR

Number enrolled: 392 (209 vs. 183)

Number analyzed: 318 (167 vs. 151)



China
recruitment setting: Kindergarten

Water fluoridation status: 0.1-0.3 ppm



National Key Technologies R&D Program of the Tenth-five Year Plan, Ministry of Science and Technology, China

2 years

A vs. B

No increase in

dmfs: 38% (64/167) vs. 26% (40/151)

dmfs increase of 1

to 5: 34% (56/167) vs. 38% (58/151)

dmfs increase of 6

to 10: 17% (28/167) vs. 18% (27/151)

dmfs increase of >10: 11% (19/167) vs. 17% (26/151)

Net dmfs increment (all surfaces):

3.8 vs. 5.0; p=0.03

Absolute reduction in caries increment:

1.2


Reduction in caries increment: 24%

No adverse events detected

A vs. B: 20% (42/209) vs. 17% (32/183)

Good

Lawrence et al., 200847
A 2-year community-randomized controlled trial of fluoride varnish to prevent early childhood caries in Aboriginal children

Cluster RCT (20 clusters)

A: 0.3-0.5 ml 5% sodium fluoride varnish applied

to full primary dentition every 6 months

B: No fluoride varnish


A vs. B

Age, mean: 2.5 years overall

Female: 50% vs. 52%

Race: 100% aboriginal


dmft, mean: 7.2 vs. 6.5 (p=0.80)

Caries experience: 73% vs. 69% (p=0.50)



Children ages

6 months-5 years, with at least 1 primary tooth, residing

in First Nations community in study region, with signed consent from primary caregiver
Excluded children with

no teeth, stainless steel crowns only, ulcerative gingivitis, stomatitis or allergy to colophony component



Number approached: 1,793

Number eligible: 1,275

Number enrolled: 1,275

Number analyzed: 1,146 (818 vs. 328)



Canada
recruitment setting: Rural Aboriginal communities

Water fluoridation status: No fluoridation



Institute of Aboriginal Peoples'

Health/ Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Toronto Hospital for Sick Children Foundation



2 years

A vs. B

Dental caries in aboriginal cohort:

72% (595/832) vs. 75% (247/328), adjusted OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.42 to 1.25); NNT 26

Dental caries in those caries free at

baseline: 44% (157/354) vs. 58% (73/126); adjusted

OR 0.63 (95% CI 0.33 to 1.1); NNT 7.4

Net dmfs increment in aboriginal cohort, mean: 11 vs. 13.4; adjusted difference, mean (SE) 2.4 (2.0), p=0.24; prevented fraction 18%

Net dmfs increment in those caries free at baseline, mean (SE): 4.3 (0.5) vs. 6.1 (0.8); adjusted difference, mean (SE): 1.8 (1.3); p=0.18; prevented fraction 29%

Absolute reduction in caries increment:

2.4 (1.8)

Reduction in caries increment: 18% (29%)


One child allergic to lanolin experienced an adverse event

11% (96/915) vs. 9% (32/360)

Good

Slade et al., 201148
Effect of health promotion and fluoride varnish on dental caries among Australian Aboriginal children: results from a community-randomized controlled trial

Cluster RCT (30 clusters)

A: 0.25 ml of 5% sodium fluoride varnish to maxillary

anterior teeth/ molars,

mandibular molars/incisors every 6 months, education/

advice to caregiver with toothbrush/

paste provided, community oral health promotion program

B: No intervention



A vs. B

Age, mean: 34 vs. 33 months

Female: 50% vs. 48%

Race: All aboriginal


dmfs >0: 64% vs. 65%
d3mfs (mean): 4.9 vs. 4.6

Fluoride concentration in drinking water <0.6 ppm F: 92% vs. 81%



Aboriginal identity, permanent residency in community,

18-48 months old, no history

of asthma, signed informed consent of caregivers


Number approached: 685

Number eligible: 666

Number enrolled: 666

Number analyzed: 666 (344 vs. 322)



Australia
recruitment setting: Rural Aboriginal communities

Water fluoridation status: See population characteristics



Australian National Health and Medical Research Council

2 years

A vs. B

Net dmfs increment per child, (mean)

Adjusted for cluster effects: 6.9 vs. 9.9, difference 3.0 (95%

CI 1.2 to 4.9), prevented fraction 31%

Adjusted for cluster effects plus fluoride concentration in water: 6.2 vs. 9.7, difference 3.5 (95% CI 1.9 to 5.1), prevented fraction 36%

Adjusted for cluster effects plus child's age and baseline d3mfs: 7.0 vs. 9.4, 2.4 (0.6 to 4.3), prevented fraction 26%

Adjusted for cluster effects plus loss to followup: 7.3 vs. 9.6, difference 2.3 (0.8 to 3.7), prevented fraction 24%

Absolute reduction in caries increment: 2.3

Reduction in caries increment: 24%


No adverse events detected

A vs. B: 19% (60/322) vs. 18% (63/344)

Good

Weinstein et al., 200171
Equivalence between massive versus standard fluoride varnish treatments in high caries children aged 3-5 years

RCT with 3 treatment groups

A: One application of 5% fluoride varnish

at baseline and 6 months

B: Three applications of 5% fluoride varnish within 2 weeks of

baseline


C: Three applications of 5% fluoride varnish within 2 weeks of

baseline and 6 months



Age: NR

Female: 46%

Race: 90% Hispanic, 10%
Caucasian

or


Native American
Clinical dmfs, mean: 11 vs. 13 vs. 10

Radiographic dmfs, mean: 3.5 vs. 3.1

vs. 3.4

Mean dmft



for entire population: 6.0

Children ages 3-5 years, with >1 carious lesion in primary molars and no fluoride treatment in

the previous 6 months



Number approached: NR

Number eligible: 156

Number enrolled: 156 (51 vs. 52 vs. 53)

Number analyzed: 111 (32 vs. 36 vs. 43)



U.S.
recruitment setting: Head Start programs

Water fluoridation status: NR (Yakima voters approved fluoridation in 1999)



NIDCR, NIH grants

1 year

A vs. B vs. C

Radiographic dmfs increment, mean: 0.9 vs. 0.5 vs. 0.1, p=0.28

Clinical dmfs increment, mean: 4.6 vs. 3.2 vs. 4.7, p=0.65

Absolute reduction in caries increment: Not calculated

Reduction in caries increment: Not calculated


Study states no loss to followup from

adverse events



A vs. B vs. C: 33% (17/51) vs. 27% (14/52) vs. 13% (7/53)

Note: Study states 119 subjects examined at 1- year visit, but analysis shows 111



Fair

Weinstein et al., 200972
Randomized equivalence trial of intensive and semiannual applications of fluoride varnish in the primary dentition

RCT with 2 treatment groups

A: One 5% fluoride varnish treatment and 2 placebo treatments every 6 months

B: One set of three 5% fluoride varnish treatments over

2 weeks once per year and 3

placebo


treatments over

2 weeks 6 months later



A vs. B

Age, mean: 55 vs. 56 months

Female: 48% vs. 51%

Race: All

Hispanic
>7 dmfs at baseline: 22% vs. 33%

dmfs, mean (SD): 5.3 (9.8) vs. 7.2 (9.3)



Hispanic children ages 36-71 months, living in study county, with at least one sound primary tooth surface present
Children were excluded if they were

developmentally unable to participate in

the study


Number approached: 787

Number eligible: 600

Number enrolled: 600 (306 vs. 294)

Number analyzed: 515 (264 vs. 251)



U.S.
recruitment setting: Head Start programs

Water fluoridation status: NR (Yakima voters approved fluoridation in 1999)



NIDCR, NIH grants

3 years

A vs. B

New tooth decay in primary surfaces (number of surfaces per child): 7.4 vs. 9.8, p=0.001; adjusted

rate ratio 1.13 (95%

CI 0.94 to 1.37)

Absolute reduction in caries increment: 2.4

Reduction in caries increment: 24%



No adverse events detected

A vs. B: 27% (84/306) vs. 29% (86/294);

38% (230/600) not followed entire 3 years



Fair

Weintraub et al., 200649
Fluoride varnish efficacy in preventing early childhood caries

RCT

A: 0.1 mL of 5% sodium fluoride varnish per arch applied twice per year with 4 intended applications

B: 0.1 mL of 5% sodium fluoride varnish per arch applied once per year with 2 intended applications

C: No fluoride varnish


Age, mean: 1.8 years

Female: 53%

Race:

47% Hispanic, 46% Asian, 7% other race/ethnicity



All caries

free at baseline,

see eligibility criteria


Children ages 6-44 months with 4 erupted maxillary incisors, all primary teeth caries-free without

demineralized, white spots, born in San Francisco or fluoridated community in the San Francisco Bay Area, planning to reside in San Francisco for at least 2 years, parent

providing informed consent
Excluded children with medical problems or medications affecting oral health (e.g., cleft lip or palate)


Number approached: NR

Number eligible: NR

Number enrolled: 376

Number analyzed: 280 (87 vs. 93 vs. 100)





U.S.
recruitment setting: Family dental center and public health center

serving primarily low-income, underserved Hispanic and Chinese populations

Water fluoridation status: ~1 ppm


NIDCR; National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities; UCSF Department

of Preventive

and Restorative Dental Sciences


2 years

A vs. B vs. C

Caries lesions at 12 months: 11/83 vs. 13/86 vs. 27/92; RR 0.45 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.83) NNT 7 for A vs. C and 0.52 (95% CI 0.28 to 0.93)

NNT 8 for B vs. C

Caries lesions at 24 months: 3/70 vs.

10/69 vs. 15/63; RR 0.18 (95% CI 0.06

to 0.59) NNT 6 for A vs. C and 0.61 (95% CI 0.30 to 1.26)

NNT 11 for B vs. C

dmfs, mean: 0.7 vs. 0.7 vs. 1.7; p<0.01 for A vs. C and B vs. C

dmfs + precavitated lesions, mean: 1.4 vs. 1.3 vs. 2.7; p<0.01 for A vs. C and B vs. C

Absolute reduction in caries increment:

1.0

Reduction in caries increment: 59%



(A + B vs. C)

No adverse events detected

A vs. B vs. C: 31% (39/126) vs. 25% (31/124) vs. 21% (26/126)

Fair


Xylitol 


Alamoudi et al., 201274
Effects of xylitol on salivary mutans streptococcus, plaque level, and caries activity in a group of Saudi mother-child pairs

RCT

A: Xylitol chewable tablets (1.2 g, 84% xylitol) chewed

for 5 minutes 3 times daily

B: Fluoride

varnish, every 6 months throughout study



Age: 2- 5 years

Female: NR

Race: NR (conducted

in Saudi Arabia)

High mutans streptococci (>=105 CFU): 100% vs. 100%

Baseline

dmft score: 8.37 vs.

10.27 (p=0.191)



Mothers and children with high count of salivary MS

(> 105), presence of

one or more

decayed or

filled primary teeth in mothers
Excluded children with systemic disorders such as diabetes, hyperglycemia or sleeping disorders; irregular medications; removable dental prosthesis, or prone to TMJ complaints;

and children attending clinics without mothers, or reared by a nanny



Number approached:

62

Number eligible: 60



Number enrolled: 60

(30 vs. 30)

Number analyzed: 34 (21 vs. 13)


Saudi Arabia
recruitment setting: Well baby clinics and dental clinics

Water fluoridation status: NR



Deanship of Scientific Research,

King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah,

Saudi Arabia


18 months

A vs. B

dmft score at 6 months (mean):

8.95 vs. 13.00, p=0.024

dmft score at 12 months (mean):

9.64 vs. 13.12, p=0.041

dmft score at 18 months (mean):

9.19 vs. 14.69, p=0.001

dmft, mean: 0.8 vs. 4.4; p=NR

Absolute reduction

in caries increment:

3.6

Reduction in caries increment: 82%



NR

A vs. B
30% (9/30) vs. 57% (17/30)

Poor

Kovari et al., 200351
Use of xylitol chewing gum in daycare centers: a follow-up study in Savonlinna, Finland

Cluster RCT (11 clusters)

A: 65% Xylitol gum 3 times per day, chewed for 3-5 minutes, for total

of 2.5 g/day

B: Toothbrushing with Aquafresh

with 0.05% NaF after lunch



Age: 3-6 years

Female: 46.9% (184/392) vs. 46.7% (247/529)

Non-white: NR

Risk level:

NR


Children in the town of Savolinna, Finland, ages

3-6 years attending daycare centers



Number approached: NR

Number eligible: NR

Number enrolled: 921

Number analyzed: 786 (392 vs. 529)



Finland
recruitment setting: Daycare centers

Water fluoridation status: NR



NR

3-6 years (up to age 9 years)

A vs. B

Caries-free at 7 years old: 69% (218/316)

vs. 65% (278/427),

RR 1.06 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.17)

Caries-free at 9 years old: 57% (177/310)

vs. 49% (213/434),

RR 1.16 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.33)

Decayed/missing/

filled teeth: 1.1 vs. 1.0 at 7 years, 1.2 vs. 1.6 at 9 years

dmft, mean: NR

Absolute reduction in caries increment:

NR

Reduction in caries increment: NR



NR

A vs. B:
16.3% (64/392) vs. 13.4% (71/529) at age 9 years followup

Fair

Milgrom et al., 200973
Xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to prevent dental caries

RCT

A: Xylitol 8 g/day syrup, divided into 2 doses (4 g per dose)

B: Xylitol 8 g/day syrup, divided into 3 doses

(2.67 g per dose)

C: Xylitol 2.67 g dose syrup, 1 dose per day



Age: 15.9 vs. 13.7 vs. 15.6 months

Female: 58% vs. 56% vs. 48%

Non-white: NR

Risk level:

NR


Children ages

9-15 months


Excluded for history of esophageal or digestive disease, congenital craniofacial malformations

or history of adenoidectomy, or lower than 10th percentile of U.S.

standard weight and height


Number approached: 110

Number eligible: 108

Number enrolled: 100

Number analyzed: 94 (33 vs. 32 vs. 29)



Marshall Islands

Recruitment setting: Community- based

Water fluoridation status: Drinking

water not fluoridated (supple-mental and topical fluoride not available)



HRSA’s Maternal and Child Health Bureau and NIDCR

1 year

A vs. B vs. C

Tooth decay: 24.2% (8/33) vs. 40.6% (13/32) vs. 51.7% (15/29), RR 0.47 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.94) for A vs. C

and 0.79 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.1.4) for B vs. C

Mean decayed

teeth: 0.6 vs. 1.0 vs. 1.9; p<0.05 for A or B vs. C; incidence rate ratio 0.30 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.66)

for A vs. C and 0.50 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.96)for B vs. C

Decayed primary

teeth per year: 0.66 vs. 1.10 vs. 2.20

Absolute reduction in caries increment:

1.3 vs. 0.9 vs. C as comparator (vs. others)

Reduction in caries increment: 68% vs. 47% vs. C as comparator (vs. others)


A vs. B vs. C

Withdrawals due to adverse events: NR

Loose stool

or diarrhea: 11.7% vs. 10.6% vs. 11.4% (p>0.05)



A vs. B vs. C: 17.1% (6/35) vs. 15.2% (5/33) vs. 15.6% (5/32)

Fair

Oscarson et al., 200652
Influence of a low xylitol-dose on mutans streptococci colonisation and caries development in preschool children

RCT

A: One 0.48 g xylitol tablet at bedtime after brushing for 6 months; then 1 tablet twice daily to age 3 years and 6 months

B: No tablets



Age: 25 vs. 25 months

Female: 49% vs. 46% (p>0.05)

Non-white: NR

Seldom/


Irregular tooth-brushing: 7% vs. 3% (p>0.05)

High (>100 CFU) mutans streptococci counts: 11% vs. 6% (p>0.05)

Daily sugary soft drinks: 17% vs. 27% (p>0.05)

Daily sugars sweets: 0% vs. 2% (p>0.05)



Healthy children age 2 years
Excluded children with severe disabilities or uncooperative for oral exam

Number approached: NR

Number eligible: NR

Number enrolled: 132 (66 vs. 66)

Number analyzed: 115 (55 vs. 63)



Sweden
recruitment setting:

Public dental clinic

Water fluoridation status: NR


County of Vasterbotten, The Patent Revenue

Fund for

Dental Prophylaxis and Swedish Dental Society


2 years

A vs. B

Dental caries: 18% (10/55) vs. 25% (16/63), OR 0.65 (95% CI 0.27 to 1.59)

dmfs, mean:

0.38 vs. 0.80 (p>0.05)

Absolute reduction

in caries increment: 0.42

Reduction in caries increment: 52%


A vs. B

Withdrawals due to adverse events: NR



A vs. B:
16.7% (11/66) vs. 4.5% (3/66)

Fair

Seki et al., 201153
Effect of xylitol gum on the level of oral mutans streptococci of preschoolers: block-randomized trial

Cluster, non-randomized controlled clinical trial (3 clusters)

A: Xylitol

chewing gum (100% xylitol); 1 pellet chewed 5 minutes 4 times daily

B: No intervention


Baseline data only reported by group for children who completed followup

Age 4 years old: 66% vs. 72%

Female: 46% vs. 48%

Race: NR (conducted

in Japan)

dfs index (mean): 2.5 vs. 4.2 (p=0.07)

Individual plaque mutans streptococci score:

0.5 vs. 0.7

Salivary mutans streptococci score >0: 25% vs. 42%


Attending preschool in

one region in Tokyo



Number approached: NR

Number eligible:432

Number enrolled: 248 (142 vs. 106)

Number analyzed: 161(76 vs. 85)



Japan
recruitment setting: Preschool

Water fluoridation status: Not reported (states fluoridation "limited" in Japan)



Uemura Fund, Nihon University School of Dentistry from the Ministry

of Education, Science, Sports,

Culture and Technology, Japan


1 year

A vs. B

Development of caries from baseline to 6 months:

1.7 vs. 1.6 (p>0.05)

Development of caries from 6 months to 1 year: 1.6 vs. 1.8 (p>0.05)

Mean development of caries:

3.3 vs. 3.4; p>0.05

Absolute reduction in caries increment:

0.1


Reduction in caries increment: 3%

Diarrhea in 11% (8/76) in xylitol group

A vs. B

46% (66/142) vs. 20% (21/106)



Poor

Zhan et al., 201250
Effects of xylitol wipes on cariogenic bacteria and caries in young children

RCT

A: Xylitol wipes,

2 at a time, 3 times per day (estimated daily dosage 4.2 g) every 3 months

B: Placebo wipes


Age: 6-35 months vs.

6-35 months

Female: 36% vs. 40%
Non-white: 90% vs. 95%
Brush teeth daily: 68% vs. 68%
Use fluoride toothpaste: 36% vs. 27%


Mothers with healthy children aged 6-35 months; mothers were primary care givers (>8 hours daily)

and with minimum of 1 active caries lesion within a year


No children with oral or systemic diseases; no mothers or children who took antibiotics or other medication affecting oral flora in previous 3 months


Number approached:

82

Number eligible: 57



Number enrolled: 44

(22 vs. 22)

Number analyzed: 37 (20 vs. 17)


U.S.
Recruitment setting: University pediatric

clinic


Water fluoridation status: NR

California Society of Pediatric Dentistry Foundation, a Graduate Scientific Research Award from AAPD, and

NIH NIDCR grant U54-DEO19285



1 year

A vs. B

Mean new decayed surfaces: 0.05 vs. 0.53 (p=0.01)

New caries lesions at 1 year: 5% vs. 40% (p=0.03); NNT 3

ITT analysis of new caries lesions at 1 year: 5% vs. 32%; RR 0.14 (95% CI 0.02 to 1.07); NNT 4

Absolute reduction in caries increment: 0.48

Reduction in caries increment: 91%



None

A vs. B

9% (2/22) vs. 23% (5/22)



Fair


Other Interventions


Du et al., 200654
A two-year randomized clinical trial of chlorhexidine varnish on dental caries in Chinese preschool children

Cluster RCT (14 clusters)

A: 40% w/w chlorhexidine acetate varnish every 6 months

B: Placebo varnish



Age: NR

Female: NR

Race: NR (study conducted in China)

dmfs-molar, mean: 2.8 vs. 2.6, p=0.39



All children

ages 4-5 years, attending 1 of

4 kindergartens in study district


Number approached: NR

Number eligible: NR

Number enrolled: 334

Number analyzed: 290 (155 vs. 135)



China
recruitment setting: Kindergartens in rural communities

Water fluoridation status:

0.1-0.3 ppm


National Key Technologies R&D Program of the tenth Five-Year Plan; Ministry of Science and Technology; National Committee for Oral Health; China

2 years

A vs. B

dmfs-molar increment, mean: 1.0 vs. 1.6, mean difference 0.6, 37% reduction in caries molar increment,

p = 0.036

Absolute reduction

in caries increment: 0.6

Reduction in caries increment: 37%



No adverse events detected

13% (44/334) overall

Fair

Lopez et al., 200255
Topical antimicrobial therapy in the prevention of early childhood caries: a followup report

RCT

A: 0.2 ml of 10% povidone iodine solution applied every 2 months

B: Placebo

solution


Age, mean (range): 16 (12-19) months

Female: 48%

Non-white: NR

All children high risk (used bottle

at bedtime containing cariogenic liquid, 2 consecutive positive streptococcus mutans cultures)


Infants attending 1 clinic with unremarkable medical history, 4 maxillary primary incisors with no visible defects and were caries

free, who used a bottle at

naptime/

bedtime containing cariogenic

liquid, and had

2 consecutive positive streptococcus mutans cultures from pooled maxillary incisor plaque



Number approached: NR

Number eligible: NR

Number enrolled: 83

(39 vs. 44)

Number analyzed: 83 (39 vs. 44)


U.S.
recruitment setting: Women, infants, and children

clinic in Puerto Rico

Water fluoridation status: NR


National Institute of Health Grants; University of Puerto Rico

1 year

A vs. B

White spot lesions on maxillary primary incisors at 1 year: 8% (3/39) vs. 32% (14/44); RR 0.24 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.8)

Mean white spot lesions: NR

Absolute reduction in caries increment:

NR

Reduction in caries increment: NR



NR

A vs. B:

44% (17/39) vs. 34% (15/44)



Fair


Abbreviations: AAPD = American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry; ANOVA = Analysis of Variance; CI = confidence interval; CFU = colony forming unit; dmfs = decayed, missing, filled surfaces; dmft = decayed, missing, filled teeth; g = gram; HRSA = Health Resources and Services Administration; ITT = intention to treat; mL = milliliter; MS = mutans streptococcus; NaF = sodium fluoride; NIDCR = National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; NIH = National Institutes of Health; NNT = number needed to treat; NR = not reported; OR = odds ratio; ppm = parts per million; RCT = randomized controlled trial; RR = relative risk; SE = standard error; TMJ = temporomandibular joint disorder; UCSF = University of California San Francisco; U.S. = United States.

Prevention of Dental Caries in Children Pacific Northwest Evidence-based Practice Center



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