Appendix 4 Character List



Download 45.04 Kb.
Date conversion16.05.2018
Size45.04 Kb.




Appendix 4

Character List
Skull roof and braincase

  1. Anterior tectal (accessory dermal bone associated with naris having surface ornament and no lateral line canal; may = septomaxilla): present = 0, absent = 1

  2. Anterior tectal: narial opening ventral to it = 0: narial opening anterior to it = 1

  3. Basioccipital: indistinguishable from exoccipitals = 0, separated by suture = 1

  4. Basioccipital: ventrally exposed portion longer than wide = 0, shorter than wide = 1

  5. Basioccipital: condyle present = 1, vs notochordal = 0

  6. Basipterygoid junction: basipterygoid process fits into socket recessed into epipterygoid = 0, pterygoid/epipterygoid forms narrow bar and clasps basipterygoid process fore and aft = 1

  7. Ectopterygoid reaches adductor fossa: no = 0, yes = 1

  8. Exoccipitals: meet skull table: no = 0, yes =1

  9. Exoccipital contributes to condyle: no = 0, yes = 1

  10. Intertemporal present: present = 0, absent = 1

  11. Intertemporal lateral edge: not interdigitating with cheek = 0, interdigitates = 1

  12. Jugal deep below orbit (vs narrow process): 50% - > 50% orbit diam = 0, <50% = 1

  13. Jugal alary process on palate: no = 0, yes = 1

  14. Lacrimal contributes to narial margin: no, excluded by anterior tectal = 0: yes = 1, no, excluded by nasal/maxillary or prefrontal/maxillary suture = 2

  15. Lacrimal reaches orbit margin (= prefrontal/ jugal suture): yes = 0, no = 1

  16. Maxilla meets quadratojugal: yes = 0, no = 1

  17. Maxilla sutures to vomer: no = 0, yes = 1

  18. Maxilla external contact with premaxilla: narrow contact point not interdigitated = 0, interdigitating suture - 1

  19. Median rostral (=internasal) mosaic = 0, paired = 1, single = 2, absent = 3

  20. Nasals contribute to narial margin: no = 0, yes = 1

  21. Opisthotic paroccipital process ossified and contacts tabular below post-temporal fossa: no = 0, yes = 1, paroccipital process absent = 2

  22. Parietal meets tabular: no = 0, yes = 1

  23. Postorbital suture to skull table (intertemporal or supratemporal) interdigitating vs smooth: smooth = 0, interdigitating = 1

  24. Postparietal: longer than wide = 0, approximately square or pentagonal = 1, wider than long = 2

  25. Postparietal occipital flange exposure: absent = 0, present = 1

  26. Prefrontal/ postfrontal suture: anterior half of orbit = 0, middle or posterior half of orbit = 1, absent = 2

  27. Premaxilla posterodorsal process onto snout: absent = 0, present = 1

  28. Premaxilla forms part of choanal margin: broadly = 0, point = 1, not, excluded by vomer = 2

  29. Preopercular present = 0, absent = 1

  30. Squamosal posterodorsal margin shape: convex = 0, sigmoid or approximately straight = 1, entirely concave = 2

  31. Squamosal contact with tabular: smooth = 0, interdigitating = 1, absent = 2

  32. Squamosal suture with supratemporal position: at apex of temporal embayment = 0, dorsal to apex = 1, ventral to apex = 2

  33. Supratemporal forms part of skull margin posteriorly: no = 0, yes = 1

  34. Supratemporal interdigitating suture with squamosal: absent = 0, present = 1

  35. Tabular lateral horn: absent = 0, button = 1, blade = 2

  36. Tabular emarginated lateral margin: no = 0, yes = 1

  37. Tabular facets/ buttresses for braincase ventrally: no = 0, single = 1, double = 2

  38. Tabular occipital flange exposure: absent = 0, extends as far ventrally as does postparietal = 1, extends further ventrally than does postparietal = 2

Palate

  1. Palatine/ ectopterygoid exposure: more or less confined to tooth row = 0, broad mesial exposure additional to tooth row = 1

  2. Pterygoids separate in midline = 0, meet in midline anterior to cultriform process = 1

  3. Pterygoids flank parasphenoid for most of length of cultriform process = 0, not so = 1

  4. Pterygoid quadrate ramus margin in adductor fossa: concave = 0, with some convex component = 1

  5. Pterygoid junction with squamosal along cheek margin: unsutured = 0, half and half = 1, sutured entirely = 2

  6. Parasphenoid grooved ventrally about half of length = 0, vs narrow V-shaped cultriform process along whole length = 1, flat and more or less broad = 2

  7. Parasphenoid depression in body: absent = 0, single median = 1, double = 2

  8. Parasphenoid posterolateral wings: absent = 0, present = 1

  9. Parasphenoid wings: separate = 0: joined by web of bone = 1

  10. Parasphenoid sutures to vomers: yes =0, no = 1

  11. Parasphenoid carotid grooves: curve round basipterygoid process = 0, lie posteromedial to basipterygoid process = 1

  12. Parasphenoid ventral cranial fissure: not sutured = 0, sutured but traceable = 1, eliminated = 2

  13. Vomers separated by parasphenoid > half length: yes = 0, no = 1

  14. Vomers separated by pterygoids: for > half length = 0, < half length = 1, not separated = 2

  15. Vomers as broad as long or broader = 0, about twice as long as broad or longer = 1.



Upper Dentition


  1. Ectopterygoid fang pairs: present = 0, absent = 1

  2. Ectopterygoid row (3+) of smaller teeth: present = 0, absent = 1

  3. Ectopterygoid denticle row: present = 0, absent = 1

  4. Ectopterygoid / palatine shagreen field: absent = 0, present = 1

  5. Maxilla tooth number: > 40 = 0, 30-40 = 1, < 30 = 2

  6. Palatine fang pairs: present = 0, absent = 1

  7. Palatine row of smaller teeth: present = 0, absent = 1

  8. Palatine denticle row: present = 0, absent = 1

  9. Parasphenoid shagreen field: present = 0, absent = 1

  10. Parasphenoid shagreen field anterior and posterior to basal articulation = 0, posterior to basal articulation only = 1, anterior to basal articulation only - 2

  11. Pterygoid shagreen: dense = 0, a few discontinuous patches or absent = 1

  12. Premaxillary teeth with conspicuous peak: absent = 0, present = 1

  13. Premaxillary tooth number: > 15 = 0, 10 - 14 = 1, < 10 = 2

  14. Vomer fang pairs: present = 0, absent = 1

  15. Vomerine fang pairs noticeably smaller than other palatal fang pairs: no = 0, yes = 1

  16. Vomer anterior wall forming posterior margin of palatal fossa bears tooth row meeting in midline: yes = 0, no = 1

  17. Vomerine row of small teeth : present = 0, absent = 1

  18. Vomerine shagreen field: absent = 0, present = 1

  19. Vomerine denticle row lateral to tooth row: present = 0, absent = 1

  20. Upper marginal teeth number: greater than lower = 0, same = 1, smaller than lower = 2

  21. Caniniform teeth (about twice the size of neighbouring teeth) on maxilla: absent = 0, present = 1

Lower jaw characters


  1. Angular mesial lamina suture with prearticular: absent = 0, present = 1

  2. Coronoid dentition: fang pair alone = 0, several smaller and larger teeth in same row = 1, row of small teeth only = 2, absent = 3

  3. Coronoid shagreen: absent = 0, present = 1

  4. Mandibular sensory canal: present = 0, absent = 1

  5. Mandibular canal exposure: entirely enclosed = 0, mostly enclosed = 1, mostly or entirely open = 2

  6. Oral sulcus of mandibular canal: absent = 0, present = 1

  7. Meckelian bone visible between prearticular and infradentary series: present = 0, absent = 1

  8. Parasymphysial tooth plate: present = 0, absent = 1

  9. Parasymphysial plate fang-pair (distinct from other teeth): absent = 0, present = 1

  10. Parasymphysial accessory teeth on dentary: present = 0, absent = 1

  11. Prearticular denticulated field: defined edges = 0, scattered patches = 1, absent = 2

  12. Surangular crest: absent = 0, present = 1


General skull characters

  1. Anterior palatal fenestra: single = 0, double = 1, absent = 2

  2. Interpterygoid vacuities: border involves vomer: yes = 1, no = 0

  3. Interpterygoid vacuities: absent = 0, at least 2 x longer than wide = 1, < 2 x longer than wide = 2

  4. Naris position: ventral rim closer to jaw margin than height of naris = 0, distance to jaw margin similar to or greater than height of naris = 1

  5. Naris shape: slit-like = 0, round or oval = 1, upper margin ragged = 2

  6. Naris shape: ventrally facing = 0, dorsolaterally facing = 1

  7. Naris size relative to choana: < 50% = 0, same or larger = 1

  8. Orbit shape: round or oval = 0, angle at anteroventral corner = 1, angle at posteroventral corner = 2: emarginated margin including jugal, lacrimal and prefrontal = 3

  9. Orbit position re snout/parietal outline: centre closer to front than rear = 0, centre near middle = 1, centre closer to rear than front = 2 **

  10. Orbit position re snout /quadrate outline: centre closer to front than rear = 0, centre near middle = 1, centre closer to rear than front = 2 **

  11. Suspensorium proportions: quadrate-anterior margin of temporal embayment about equal to maximum orbit width (discounting any anterior extensions) = 0, quadrate- anterior margin of temporal embayment < maximum orbit width = 1, : quadrate- anterior margin of temporal embayment > maximum orbit width = 2

  12. Skull table/cheek junction: smooth profile = 0, square/ abrupt profile = 1

  13. Skull table shape: longer than broad = 0, approximately square = 1, shorter than broad = 2

  14. Ornament character: fairly regular pit and ridge with star-burst pattern at regions of growth = 0, irregular but deep = 1, irregular but shallow = 2, absent or almost absent = 3

Postcranial characters

  1. Centra: rhachitomous = 0, gastrocentrous = 1, holospondylous = 2

  2. Centrum (sacral) distinguishable by size or shape from pre and post sacrals = 1, not so distinguishable = 0

  3. Clavicles meet anteriorly: present = 0, absent = 1

  4. Cleithrum co-ossified with scapulocoracoid = 0, separate = 1

  5. Cleithrum smoothly broadening to spatulate dorsal end = 0, distal expansion marked from narrow stem by notch or process or decrease in thickness = 1, end simply tapering = 2

  6. Cleithrum cross section at mid section, flattened oval = 0, complex = 1, single concave face = 2

  7. Femur: shorter than humerus = 0, same length as humerus = 1, longer than humerus = 2

  8. Femur internal trochanter separate from head: yes = 1: confluent with head = 0

  9. Femur adductor blade: distinguished distally from shaft by angle or notch = 0, fades into shaft distally =1

  10. Femur adductor crest extends more than half way down shaft = 0, extends halfway or less down shaft = 1

  11. Humerus ends more or less untorted = 0, ends offset by > 60 degrees = 1

  12. Humerus L-shaped = 0, waisted but no shaft = 1, with distinct and slender shaft = 2

  13. Humerus accessory foramina present = 0, absent = 1

  14. Humerus latissimus dorsi process part of ridge = 0, distinct but low process = 1, spike = 2

  15. Humerus deltopectoral crest position compared with latissimus dorsi process: more distal than head = 0, equidistant from head = 1

  16. Humerus latissimus dorsi process position relative to ectepicondyle: offset anteriorly = 0, in line = 1

  17. Humerus anterior margin: smooth finished bone convex margin = 0, anterior keel with finished margin = 1, cartilage-finished = 2, smooth concave margin = 3

  18. Humerus radial facet position: distal and terminal = 0, anteroventral = 1, ventral = 2

  19. Humerus radial/ulnar facets: confluent = 0, separated by perichondral strip of bone = 1

  20. Iliac blades: posterior process plus dorsal blade = 0, posterior process only = 1

  21. Interclavicle body shape (distinguished from parasternal process): rhomboid, longer than broad, but posterior half longer than anterior = 0, rhomboid, posterior half not longer than anterior = 1, broader than long = 2,

  22. Interclavicle parasternal process shape: absent or tapering = 0, parallel sided = 1

  23. Neural arch ossification: paired in adult = 0, single in adult = 1

  24. Neural arch (sacral) distinguishable by morphology of spine = 1, not so distinguishable = 0

  25. Pelvis: single ossification = 0, at least 2 ossifications per side = 1

  26. Pelvis obturator foramina: multiple = 0, single or absent = 1

  27. Radius: longer than ulna = 0, same length as ulna = 1, shorter than ulna (including olecranon process if present) = 2

  28. Ribs (trunk): straight = 0, ventrally curved = 1

  29. Ribs (trunk) no longer than height of neural arch plus centrum = 0, less than 2.5 x height of neural arch plus centrum = 1, more than 2.5 x height of neural arch plus centrum = 2

  30. Ribs (trunk) tapered distally or parallel-sided = 0, expanded distally into triangular posterior flanges = 1

  31. Ribs (trunk) bear proximodorsal (uncinate) processes: absent = 0, present = 1

  32. Ribs (trunk) differ strongly in length and morphology along ‘thoracic’ region: absent = 0, present = 1

  33. Ribs (cervical): flared distally = 0, tapered distally = 1

  34. Rib (sacral) distinguishable by size - shorter than trunk ribs, longer than presacrals = 1, rib (sacral) same length as presacrals = 0.

  35. Rib (sacral) distinguishable by shape: broader than immediate presacrals but not broader than mid-trunk proximal shafts = 0, broader than mid-trunk proximal shafts = 1,

  36. Scapulocoracoid dorsal blade: absent = 0, present = 1

  37. Scutes: tapered and elongate, 4 or >4 x longer than broad = 0, ovoid, no more than 3 x longer than broad = 1

  38. Tibia, fibula width at narrowest point: 50% of length = 0, < 30% of length = 1

  39. Tibia and fibula meet along length = 0, separated by interepipodial space = 1

  40. Number of digits on the manus: more than 5 = 0, 5 = 1, fewer than 5 = 2

  41. Number of digits on the pes: more than 5 = 0, 5 = 1, fewer than 5 = 2


The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2016
send message

    Main page