Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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arsenic for drinking water and irrigation purposes in Southeast Asia. The microbial reduction of sorbed As(V) to the potentially more mobile As(III) has been implicated in release of arsenic into groundwater, but to date there have been few studies of the microorganisms that can mediate this transformation in aquifers. With the use of stable isotope probing of nucleic acids, we present evidence that the introduction of a proxy for organic matter ((13)C-labeled acetate) stimulated As(V) reduction in sediments collected from a Cambodian aquifer that hosts arsenic-rich groundwater. This was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of prokaryotes closely related to the dissimilatory As(V)-reducing bacteria Sulfurospirillum strain NP-4 and Desulfotomaculum auripigmentum. As(V) respiratory reductase genes (arrA) closely associated with those found in Sulfurospirillum barnesii and Geobacter uraniumreducens were also detected in active bacterial communities utilizing (13)C-labeled acetate in microcosms. This study suggests a direct link between inputs of organic matter and the increased prevalence and activity of organisms which transform As(V) to the potentially more mobile and thus hazardous As(III) via dissimilatory As(V) reduction.
MESH HEADINGS: Acetates/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Arsenates/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Bacteria/classification/*drug effects/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Geologic Sediments/*microbiology
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Water Microbiology
MESH HEADINGS: Water Pollution, Chemical eng

755. Lebeau, Alex Lance and Harbison, Raymond D. Evaluation of Urinary Pesticide Biomarkers Among a Sample of the Population in the United States. 2012.

Rec #: 51619
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticide use in the United States continues to attract negative public attention. In recent years, this attention has focused on the effects that chronic, low-level pesticides may have, especially on children and various sub-populations. Over the past decade, studies have attempted to correlate negative health effects with detections of pesticide biomarkers in biological media. The current research investigates biomarker of exposure levels in a sample of the United States population. Data from the 2001-2002 NHANES dataset (n=11,039) was evaluated. The detection frequency of urinary biomarkers of exposure and the geometric mean from the NHANES pesticide dataset (n=3,152) were determined. Of the 18 specific pesticide biomarkers, three were detected in more than 50% of the sample: 79% had a detectable level of 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol, a biomarker of chlorpyrifos, with a geometric mean of 2.07 μg/L (C.I: 1.98-2.17); 53% had a detectable level of paranitrophenol, a biomarker of methyl parathion, with a geometric mean of 0.367 μg/L (C.I.: 0.346-0.389); and 77% had a detectable level of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, a biomarker of permethrin, with a geometric mean of 0.336 μg/L (C.I.: 0.320-0.352). These levels fall within the range of other epidemiological and biomonitoring studies investigating background levels of biomarkers in the general population. The association between the detection of a biomarker and variations in mean height and weight of children aged 6-11 was evaluated. No significant results were found when evaluating these differences for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol exposure. Paranitrophenol associated with shorter children at age 8 [Non-Detect=134.3 cm and Detect: 130.9 cm (p=0.046)] and taller children at age 11 [Detect=153.7 cm and Non-Detect=149.9 cm (p=0.022)]. Heavier children associated with 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid at age 7: [Detect=28.61 kg and Non-Detect=25.26 kg (p=0.009)]. Clinical chemistry biochemical concentration comparisons were made between individuals that had a detectable level of the biomarker in urine and those that did not. Two biochemicals had a significant difference across all three biomarkers: cholesterol and sodium. The biochemical levels with significant difference between detects and non-detects for the biomarkers were not elevated above clinical reference values. Overall, there is insufficient evidence to suggest a relationship between background pesticide exposures in this sample and negative health effects.
Start Page: 160
ISSN/ISBN: 9781267287021
Keywords: 0383:Surgery
Keywords: Pyrethroid
Keywords: Residential
Keywords: 0573:Public health
Keywords: 0383:Toxicology
Keywords: Urinary pesticide
Keywords: Background
Keywords: Organophsophate
Keywords: Biomarkers
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Keywords: Children
0573: Public health
Urinary pesticide
0383: Toxicology
LeBeau, Alex Lance
0383: Surgery
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2012
Health and environmental sciences English

756. Lebeda, Ond+Öej; van Lier, Erik J.; +átursa, Jan; R+íli+í, Jan, and Zyuzin, Alexander. Assessment of radionuclidic impurities in cyclotron produced 99mTc. 2012 Nov; 39, (8): 1286-1291.

Rec #: 4210
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Introduction Technetium-99 m/ Cyclotron/ Proton irradiation/ Radionuclidic impurities

757. Leblanc, H. M. K. and LeBlanc, H. M. K. Single and Combined Effects of the Agricultural Insecticides Chlorpyrifos, Imidacloprid and Dimethoate on Freshwater Insect Larvae. 2011: 113 p. (UMI# MR89089) (Publ As 160293).

Rec #: 2590
Keywords: PUBL AS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DMT,IMC

758. Leblanc, Lawrence a; Kuivila, Kathryn M, and LeBlanc, Lawrence A. Occurrence, Distribution and Transport of Pesticides Into the Salton Sea Basin, California, 2001-2002. 2008 Jun; 604, (1): 151-172.

Rec #: 45879
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The Salton Sea is a hypersaline lake located in southeastern California. Concerns over the ecological impacts of sediment quality and potential human exposure to dust emissions from exposed lakebed sediments resulting from anticipated shrinking of shoreline led to a study of pesticide distribution and transport within the Salton Sea Basin, California, in 2001-2002. Three sampling stations-upriver, river mouth, and offshore-were established along each of the three major rivers that discharge into the Salton Sea. Large-volume water samples were collected for analysis of pesticides in water and suspended sediments at the nine sampling stations. Samples of the bottom sediment were also collected at each site for pesticide analysis. Sampling occurred in October 2001, March-April 2002, and October 2002, coinciding with the regional fall and spring peaks in pesticide use in the heavily agricultural watershed. Fourteen current-use pesticides were detected in water and the majority of dissolved concentrations ranged from the limits of detection to 151 ng/l. Diazinon, EPTC and malathion were detected at much higher concentrations (940-3,830 ng/l) at the New and Alamo River upriver and near-shore stations. Concentrations of carbaryl, dacthal, diazinon, and EPTC were higher in the two fall sampling periods, whereas concentrations of atrazine, carbofuran, and trifluralin were higher during the spring, which matched seasonal use patterns of these pesticides. Current-use pesticides were also detected on suspended and bed sediments in concentrations ranging from detection limits to 106 ng/g. Chlorpyrifos, dacthal, EPTC, trifluralin, and DDE were the most frequently detected pesticides on sediments from all three rivers. The number of detections and concentrations of suspended sediment-associated pesticides were often similar for the river upriver and near-shore sites, consistent with downstream transport of pesticides via suspended sediment. While detectable suspended sediment pesticide concentrations were more sporadic than detected aqueous concentrations, seasonal trends were similar to those for dissolved concentrations. Generally, the pesticides detected on suspended sediments were the same as those on the bed sediments, and concentrations were similar, especially at the Alamo River upriver site. With a few exceptions, pesticides were not detected in suspended or bed sediments from the off-shore sites. The partitioning of pesticides between water and sediment was not predictable from solely the physical-chemical properties of individual pesticide compounds, but appear to be a complicated function of the quantity of pesticide applied in the watershed, residence time of sediments in the water, and compound solubility and hydrophobicity. Sediment concentrations of most pesticides were found to be 100-1,000 times lower than the low-effects levels determined in human health risk assessment studies. However, maximum concentrations of chlorpyrifos on suspended sediments were approximately half the low-effects level, suggesting the need for further sediment characterization of lake sediments proximate to riverine inputs.
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Residence time
Keywords: Bed Load
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Basins
Keywords: Carbaryl
Keywords: Watersheds
Keywords: Aqualine Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: Public health
Keywords: Resuspended sediments
Keywords: Lakes
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Sulfur dioxide
Keywords: Public Health
Keywords: INE, USA, California
Keywords: Water springs
Keywords: Sampling
Keywords: Seasonal variations
Keywords: USA, California, Salton Sea
Keywords: Rivers
Keywords: Sediment Transport
Keywords: Sediment pollution
Keywords: Suspended Sediments
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: DDE
Keywords: River discharge
Keywords: AQ 00003:Monitoring and Analysis of Water and Wastes
Keywords: Lake deposits
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Trifluralin
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: Biology
Date revised - 2008-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, California, Salton Sea; INE, USA, California
Pages - 151-172
ProQuest ID - 290145642
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pesticides; Agricultural Chemicals; Suspended Sediments; Sediment Transport; Rivers; Sampling; Bed Load; Diazinon; Public Health; USA, California, Salton Sea; INE, USA, California; Sediment pollution; Resuspended sediments; Chlorpyrifos; Watersheds; Trifluralin; Lakes; Basins; Sulfur dioxide; Seasonal variations; Carbaryl; Insecticides; Water springs; Lake deposits; Public health; DDE; River discharge; Residence time
Last updated - 2011-10-25
Corporate institution author - LeBlanc, Lawrence A; Kuivila, Kathryn M
DOI - OB-MD-0008067135; 8168576; CS0844046; 0018-8158; 1573-5117 English

759. Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Jae Hyeon; Shin, in Chul, and Koh, Hyun Chul. Reactive Oxygen Species Regulated Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis in Pc12 Cells Exposed to Chlorpyrifos. 2012 Sep 1; 263, (2): 148-162.

Rec #: 38599
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Reactive Oxygen Species -- metabolism
Keywords: Superoxide Dismutase
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Antioxidants
Keywords: EC
Keywords: Superoxide Dismutase -- metabolism
Keywords: Rats
Keywords: Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases -- drug effects
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Mitochondria -- drug effects
Keywords: Apoptosis -- drug effects
Keywords: Acetylcysteine
Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation -- drug effects
Keywords: Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Keywords: Time Factors
Keywords: Heme Oxygenase-1
Keywords: EC
Keywords: Insecticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases -- metabolism
Keywords: Mitochondria -- pathology
Keywords: Substantia Nigra -- drug effects
Keywords: Dopamine -- metabolism
Keywords: Acetylcysteine -- pharmacology
Keywords: Heme Oxygenase-1 -- genetics
Keywords: Reactive Oxygen Species
Keywords: 616-91-1
Keywords: Phosphorylation -- drug effects
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Substantia Nigra -- metabolism
Keywords: Antioxidants -- metabolism
Keywords: Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Oxidative Stress -- drug effects
Keywords: Mitochondria -- metabolism
Keywords: EC
Keywords: Female
Keywords: PC12 Cells
Date completed - 2012-10-22
Date created - 2012-08-17
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 148-162
ProQuest ID - 1034198827
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Toxicology and applied pharmacology, September 1, 2012, 263(2):148-162
Corporate institution author - Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Jae Hyeon; Shin, In Chul; Koh, Hyun Chul
DOI - MEDL-22714038; 22714038; 1096-0333 eng

760. Lee, Jiun-Chang; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng, and Lin, Kuang-Lin. Non-Accidental Chlorpyrifos Poisoning--an Unusual Cause of Profound Unconsciousness. 2010 Apr; 169, (4): 509-511.

Rec #: 40659
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticide, and organophosphate intoxication can induce symptoms such as miosis, urination, diarrhea, diaphoresis, lacrimation, excitation of central nervous system, salivation, and consciousness disturbance (MUDDLES). Although accidental poisoning of children with drugs and chemicals is a common cause for consciousness disturbance in children, the possibility of deliberate poisoning is rarely considered. We report on a healthy 5-year 6-month-old boy with recurrent organophosphate intoxication. Reports of chlorpyrifos intoxication in children are quite rare. This case report demonstrates decision-making process and how to disclose deliberate chlorpyrifos poisoning of the toddler by the stepmother, another example of Munchausen syndrome by proxy.
Keywords: Intoxication
Keywords: Central nervous system
Keywords: Diarrhea
Keywords: Urination
Keywords: Poisoning
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Decision making
Keywords: Accidental poisoning
Keywords: Consciousness
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Case reports
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Drugs
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts
Date revised - 2012-09-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 509-511
ProQuest ID - 1038605728
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Intoxication; Central nervous system; Diarrhea; Urination; Poisoning; organophosphates; Children; Chlorpyrifos; Accidental poisoning; Decision making; Consciousness; Insecticides; Case reports; Drugs
Last updated - 2012-09-10
British nursing index edition - European Journal of Pediatrics [Eur. J. Pediatr.]. Vol. 169, no. 4, pp. 509-511. Apr 2010.
Corporate institution author - Lee, Jiun-Chang; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng
DOI - b9aa40d8-3832-496e-a9bbmfgefd101; 14235748; 0340-6199; 1432-1076 English

761. Lee, Kwang-Geun; Lee, Suk-Kyung, and Lee, Kwang-Geun. Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Yuza Fruits (Citrus Junos Sieb. Ex Tanaka) and Yuza Tea Samples Produced in Korea. 2012 Dec 15; 135, (4): 2930-2933.

Rec #: 42389
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The objective of this study was to establish an analytical method to measure pesticides used to cultivate yuza (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) and to analyze pesticide residue levels of yuza and yuza tea samples. Risk assessments were also performed by calculating estimated daily intake (EDI) and acceptable daily intake (ADI). An excellent linear correlation was achieved with coefficient correlation values of 0.9750-0.9999. Percent recoveries were 80.4-109.9% for most pesticides with a <6.9% relative standard deviation (RSD). The limits of quantification for the method were 0.10-0.67 Amg/ml. The RSD of intra-day and inter-day variability was <15.3%. Seven pesticides in yuza (n = 80) and yuza tea (n = 75) were analyzed with the optimized analytical method. Acequinocyl, spirodiclofen and carbendazim were detected in yuza samples in the concentration range of 0.07-0.15 Amg/g, 0.11-1.89 Amg/g, and 0.03-5.15 Amg /g, respectively, whereas chlorpyrifos, prothiofos, phosalone, and deltamethrin were not detected in yuza or yuza tea. The concentrations of acequinocyl, spirodiclofen and carbendazim ranged from 0.18-1.05 Amg/g, 0.13-0.29 Amg/g, and 0.17-2.36 Amg/g, respectively, in yuza tea samples. The percent ratios of EDI to ADI for acequinocyl, spirodiclofen, and carbendazim were 24.6%, 22.7%, and 58.5%, respectively.
Keywords: Citrus
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Risk Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Fruits
Keywords: phosalone
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: X 24320:Food Additives & Contaminants
Keywords: Deltamethrin
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Standard deviation
Keywords: Tea
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Korea, Rep.
Keywords: Carbendazim
Keywords: R2 23010:General: Models, forecasting
Date revised - 2012-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Korea, Rep.
Pages - 2930-2933
ProQuest ID - 1171890243
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Risk assessment; Fruits; Standard deviation; phosalone; Pesticide residues; Tea; Pesticides; Carbendazim; Deltamethrin; Citrus; Korea, Rep.
Last updated - 2012-12-28
British nursing index edition - Food Chemistry [Food Chem.]. Vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 2930-2933. 15 Dec 2012.
Corporate institution author - Lee, Kwang-Geun; Lee, Suk-Kyung
DOI - 861531cf-baff-4ca4-a4de-5584dff81dc9; 17267625; 0308-8146 English

762. Lee, S; Busby, Al; Timchalk, C; Poet, T S, and Lee, S. Effects of Nicotine Exposure on in Vitro Metabolism of Chlorpyrifos in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats. 2009; 72, (1-2): 74-82.

Rec #: 41659
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The routine use of tobacco products may modify key metabolizing systems, which will further impact the metabolism of environmental contaminants. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of repeated in vivo exposures to nicotine, a major pharmacologically active component of cigarette smoke, on in vitro metabolism of chlorpyrifos (CPF). CPF is an organophos phorus (OP) insecticide that is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) to its major metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinoI (TCP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed subcutaneously with 1 mg nicotine/kg for 1,7, or 10 d. Rats were sacrificed 4 or 24 h after the last nicotine treatment, and liver microsomes were prepared. The microsomes were incubated with varying concentrations of CPF and the production of the metabolites CPF-oxon and TCP were measured. The metabolism of CPF to the active oxon metabolite did not show significant changes following repeated nicotine treatments, evidenced by the unchanged pseudo first-order clearance rate of V sub(max)/K sub(mapp). The V sub(max) describing the metabolism of CPF to the inactive metabolite, TCP was increased in 24-h postdosing groups, after both single and repeated treatments of nicotine. In contrast, the metabolism to TCP was unchanged in groups evaluated at 4 h (single or repeated) post nicotine dosing. Some basic marker substrate activities were also investigated to ensure that nicotine exerted effects on CYP450 activities. Total P450 reduced spectra were not altered by nicotine treatment, but marker substrate activities for CYP1A and CYP2E1 were increased at 24 h after the single treatment, and marker substrate activity for CYP2B was decreased 4 h after 7 d of treatment Results of this in vitro study suggest that repeated nicotine exposure may result in altered metabolism of CPF. Future in vivo experiments based on these results need to be conducted to ascertain the impact of in vivo nicotine exposures on CPF metabolism in rats.
Keywords: Cytochromes
Keywords: Microsomes
Keywords: males
Keywords: Cigarette smoke
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Rats
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: X 24380:Social Poisons & Drug Abuse
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: CYP1A protein
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Nicotine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Liver
Keywords: Tobacco
Keywords: Cytochrome P450
Keywords: Contaminants
Keywords: Metabolism
Date revised - 2009-03-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 74-82
ProQuest ID - 20374631
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Nicotine; Metabolism; Rats; Metabolites; Chlorpyrifos; Pesticides; Tobacco; Liver; males; Microsomes; Cytochrome P450; Contaminants; CYP1A protein; Cytochromes; Insecticides; Cigarette smoke
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues [J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, A: Curr. Iss.]. Vol. 72, no. 1-2, pp. 74-82. 2009.
Corporate institution author - Lee, S; Busby, AL; Timchalk, C; Poet, T S
DOI - MD-0009353953; 9053419; 1528-7394 English

763. Lee, S. E. Purification and characterisation of a carboxylesterase from a chlorpyrifos-methyl-resistant strain of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). 2011; 50, 187-194.

Rec #: 63589
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Carboxylesterases from a chlorpyrifos-methyl-resistant strain (VOSCM) of the saw-toothed grain beetle,
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