Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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We compiled data from 61 studies on effects of temperature, moisture and dissolved oxygen on toxicity of a range of chemicals representing pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plant protection products of bacterial origin and trace metals. In 62.3% cases significant interactions (p< or =0.05 or less) between natural factors and chemicals were found, reaching 100% for the effect of dissolved oxygen on toxicity of waterborne chemicals. The meta-analysis of the 61 studies showed that the null hypothesis assuming no interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors should be rejected at p=2.7 x 10(-82) (truncated product method probability). In a few cases of more complex experimental designs, also second-order interactions were found, indicating that natural factors can modify interactions among chemicals. Such data emphasize the necessity of including information on natural factors and their variation in time and across geographic regions in ecological risk assessment. This can be done only if appropriate ecotoxicological test designs are used, in which test organisms are exposed to toxicants at a range of environmental conditions. We advocate designing such tests for the second-tier ecological risk assessment procedures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Environment
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Oligochaeta -- drug effects
Keywords: Nickel
Keywords: Complex Mixtures -- toxicity
Keywords: Complex Mixtures -- chemistry
Keywords: phenanthrene
Keywords: Ecotoxicology
Keywords: 7440-02-0
Keywords: Nickel -- chemistry
Keywords: Beetles -- drug effects
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants -- toxicity
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- chemistry
Keywords: Temperature
Keywords: Phenanthrenes -- chemistry
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Complex Mixtures
Keywords: Environmental Monitoring
Keywords: Phenanthrenes
Keywords: Phenanthrenes -- toxicity
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants -- chemistry
Keywords: Nickel -- toxicity
Keywords: 448J8E5BST
Date completed - 2010-10-29
Date created - 2010-07-26
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 3763-3774
ProQuest ID - 749019109
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - The Science of the total environment, August 15, 2010, 408(18):3763-3774
Corporate institution author - Laskowski, Ryszard; Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Kramarz, Paulina E; Loureiro, Susana; Scheil, Volker; Kudłek, Joanna; Holmstrup, Martin
DOI - MEDL-20156639; 20156639; 1879-1026 eng

742. Lass, A.; Kujawa, M.; Mcconnell, E.; Paton, A. W.; Paton, J. C., and W¢Jcik, C. Decreased Er-Associated Degradation of Alpha-Tcr Induced by Grp78 Depletion With the Subab Cytotoxin.

Rec #: 51109
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: HeLa cells stably expressing the alpha chain of T-cell receptor (alphaTCR), a model substrate of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), were used to analyze the effects of BiP/Grp78 depletion by the SubAB cytotoxin. SubAB induced XBP1 splicing, followed by JNK phosphorylation, eIF2alpha phosphorylation, upregulation of ATF3/4 and partial ATF6 cleavage. Other markers of ER stress, including elements of ERAD pathway, as well as markers of cytoplasmic stress, were not induced. SubAB treatment decreased absolute levels of alphaTCR, which was caused by inhibition of protein synthesis. At the same time, the half-life of alphaTCR was extended almost fourfold from 70 min to 210 min, suggesting that BiP normally facilitates ERAD. Depletion of p97/VCP partially rescued SubAB-induced depletion of alphaTCR, confirming the role of VCP in ERAD of alphaTCR. It therefore appears that ERAD of alphaTCR is driven by at least two different ATP-ase systems located at two sides of the ER membrane, BiP located on the lumenal side, while p97/VCP on the cytoplasmic side. While SubAB altered cell morphology by inducing cytoplasm vacuolization and accumulation of lipid droplets, caspase activation was partial and subsided after prolonged incubation. Expression of CHOP/GADD153 occurred only after prolonged incubation and was not associated with apoptosis.
MESH HEADINGS: Cercopithecus aethiops
MESH HEADINGS: Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism/ultrastructure
MESH HEADINGS: Escherichia coli Proteins/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Heat-Shock Proteins/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Chaperones/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Subtilisins/*pharmacology eng

743. Lassiter, T. L.; Padilla, S.; Chanda, S. M.; Das, K.; Haykal-Coates, N.; Hunter, D.; Marshall, R., and Barone, S. Dose Response Study of the Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Various Biochemical Measures in the Fetus and Dam During Late Gestation. 1998; 42, (1-S): 159-(ABS).

Rec #: 1040
Call Number: NO ABSTRACT (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

744. Lassiter, T Leon; Mackillop, Emiko a; Ryde, Ian T; Seidler, Frederic J, and Slotkin, Theodore a. Is Fipronil Safer Than Chlorpyrifos? Comparative Developmental Neurotoxicity Modeled in Pc12 Cells. 2009 Mar 30; 78, (6): 313-322.

Rec #: 41329
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Fipronil, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, is replacing many insecticide uses formerly fulfilled by organophosphates like chlorpyrifos. Few studies have addressed the potential for fipronil to produce developmental neurotoxicity. We compared the neurotoxicity of fipronil and chlorpyrifos in undifferentiated and differentiating neuronotypic PC12 cells, evaluating indices of cell replication, cell number, differentiation, and viability for short- and long-term exposures. Fipronil inhibited DNA and protein synthesis in undifferentiated PC12 cells and evoked oxidative stress to a greater extent than did chlorpyrifos, resulting in reduced cell numbers even though cell viability was maintained. In differentiating cells, fipronil displayed an even lower threshold for disruption of development, reducing cell numbers without impairing cell growth, and promoting emergence of neurotransmitter phenotypes; superimposed on this effect, the phenotypic balance was shifted in favor of dopamine as opposed to acetylcholine. Differentiation also enhanced the susceptibility to fipronil-induced oxidative stress, although antioxidant administration failed to provide protection from cell loss. At low concentrations maintained for prolonged periods, fipronil had a biphasic effect on cell numbers, increasing them slightly at low concentrations, implying interference with apoptosis, while nevertheless reducing cell numbers at higher concentrations. Our results suggest that fipronil is inherently a more potent disruptor of neuronal cell development than is chlorpyrifos. The neurodevelopmental effects are not predicated on GABA(A) antagonist properties, since PC12 cells lack the GABA(A) receptor. If fipronil is intended to provide greater safety than chlorpyrifos, then this will have to entail advantages from factors that are yet unexamined: exposure, persistence, pharmacokinetics.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Analysis of Variance
Keywords: Pyrazoles
Keywords: Neurons -- drug effects
Keywords: EC
Keywords: Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
Keywords: Choline O-Acetyltransferase -- metabolism
Keywords: DNA -- biosynthesis
Keywords: Rats
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Cell Survival -- drug effects
Keywords: GABA-A Receptor Antagonists
Keywords: Choline O-Acetyltransferase
Keywords: Insecticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase -- metabolism
Keywords: Cell Division -- drug effects
Keywords: Neurogenesis -- drug effects
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pyrazoles -- toxicity
Keywords: Protein Biosynthesis -- drug effects
Keywords: 9007-49-2
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: fipronil
Keywords: QGH063955F
Keywords: Neurons -- cytology
Keywords: DNA
Keywords: Oxidative Stress -- drug effects
Keywords: EC
Keywords: PC12 Cells
Date completed - 2009-03-13
Date created - 2009-02-02
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 313-322
ProQuest ID - 66869824
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Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Brain research bulletin, March 30, 2009, 78(6):313-322
Corporate institution author - Lassiter, T Leon; MacKillop, Emiko A; Ryde, Ian T; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A
DOI - MEDL-18977280; 18977280; NIHMS95864; PMC2650714; 1873-2747 eng

745. Latif, M a; Razzaque, M a, and Rahman, M M. Impact of Some Selected Insecticides Application on Soil Microbial Respiration. 2008 Aug 15; 11, (16): 2018-2022.

Rec #: 49309
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of selected insecticides used for controlling brinjal shoot and fruit borer on soil microorganisms and to find out the insecticides or nontoxic to soil microorganism the impact of nine selected insecticides on soil microbial respiration was studied in the laboratory. After injection of different insecticides solutions, the soil was incubated in the laboratory at room temperature for 32 days. The amount of CO2 evolved due to soil microbial respiration was determined at 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 days of incubation. Flubendiamide, nimbicidine, lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin and thiodicarb had stimulatory effect on microbial respiration during the initial period of incubation. Chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan had inhibitory effect on microbial respiration and cypermethrin had no remarkable effect during the early stage of incubation. The negative effect of chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan was temporary, which was disappeared after 4 days of insecticides application. No effect of the selected insecticides on soil microorganisms was observed after 24 or 32 days of incubation.
Keywords: Insecticides -- metabolism
Keywords: Soil Microbiology
Keywords: Oxygen
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide -- chemistry
Keywords: Oxygen -- metabolism
Keywords: 7782-44-7
Keywords: 124-38-9
Keywords: Time Factors
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide
Date completed - 2009-03-20
Date created - 2009-03-09
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 2018-2022
ProQuest ID - 66700478
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Pakistan journal of biological sciences: PJBS, August 15, 2008, 11(16):2018-2022
Corporate institution author - Latif, M A; Razzaque, M A; Rahman, M M
DOI - MEDL-19266909; 19266909; 1028-8880 eng

746. Latif, Yawar; Sherazi, S. T. H., and Bhanger, M. I. Assessment of pesticide residues in commonly used vegetables in Hyderabad, Pakistan. 2011 Nov; 74, (8): 2299-2303.

Rec #: 5440
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The aim of present study was to assess pesticide residues in vegetables in the Hyderabad region of Pakistan. The concentrations of six pesticides were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass selective detector (GCÇôMSD) in locally produced vegetables purchased from wholesale markets. A total of 200 samples of eight vegetables viz. cauliflower, green chilli, eggplant, tomato, peas, bitter gourd, spinach and apple gourd were analyzed for pesticide residues. The results indicated that almost all samples were contained pesticides, only 39% contained pesticide residues at or below maximum residue limits (MRLs), and 61% contained pesticide residues above MRLs. From the six analyzed pesticides, carbofuran and chlorpyrifos were found above to MRLs with concentrations ranging from 0.01Çô0.39 and 0.05Çô0.96 mg/kg, respectively. The results provided important information on the current pesticide contamination status of some commonly used vegetables and pointed an urgent need to control the use of some excessively applied and potentially persistent pesticides, such as carbofuran and chlorpyrifos. Pesticide residues/ Vegetables/ Ultrasonic assisted extraction/ GCÇôMS

747. Latif, Yawar; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi, and Latif, Yawar. Evaluation of Pesticide Residues in Human Blood Samples of Agro Professionals and Non-Agro Professionals. 2012 Aug; 3, (8): 587.

Rec #: 42609
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pesticide residues in human blood samples of volunteers related to Hyderabad and Mirpurkhas districts, Pakistan. The volunteers of both districts were divided into four groups on the ba- sis of their exposure period to pesticides i.e. Group A-5 to 9 years, Group B-10 to 14 years, Group C-15 to19 years and Group D-above 20 years. Out of total 188 volunteers, 145 volunteers (77.1%) were agro professionals and 43 volunteers (32.9%) were non-agro professionals. Chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chorophenyl) eth-ane (p,p'-DDT) and parathion residues were detected in many samples. The predominant pesticides found in blood samples of both district volunteers were chlorpyrifos (with highest mean concentration of 0.37 in the D group of Mirpurkhas) and endosulfan (with highest mean concentration of 0.30 in the D group of Hyderabad). The quantity of pesticide residues detected in some blood samples of agro professionals was found to be at the alarming level.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pakistan
Keywords: India, Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Parathion
Keywords: Endosulfan
Date revised - 2012-12-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Pakistan; India, Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad
Pages - 587
ProQuest ID - 1238116671
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Pesticide residues; Pesticides; Parathion; Endosulfan; Pakistan; India, Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad
Last updated - 2012-12-28
British nursing index edition - American Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Vol. 3, no. 8, 587 p. Aug 2012.
Corporate institution author - Latif, Yawar; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi
DOI - cd0060b7-e304-444c-a0b7mfgefd101; 17152878; 2156-8251; 2156-8278 English

748. Lavado, R. and Schlenk, D. Microsomal Biotransformation of Chlorpyrifos, Parathion and Fenthion in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): Mechanistic Insights into Interspecific Differences in Toxicity. 2011; 101, (1): 57-63.

Rec #: 2100
Keywords: IN VITRO
Call Number: NO IN VITRO (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,EPRN,FNTH,PRN

749. Lavin, K. S.; Hageman, K. J.; Marx, S. K.; Dillingham, P. W., and Kamber, B. S. Using Trace Elements in Particulate Matter To Identify the Sources of Semivolatile Organic Contaminants in Air at an Alpine Site. 2012; 46, (1): 268-276.

Rec #: 63449
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An approach using trace elements in particulate matter (PM) to identify the geographic sources of atmospherically transported semivolatile organic contaminants (SOCs) was investigated. Daily samples of PM and SOCs were collected with high-volume air samplers from 16 January to 16 February 2009 at Temple Basin, a remote alpine site in New Zealand's Southern Alps. The most commonly detected pesticides were dieldrin, transchlordane, endosulfan I, and chlorpyrifos. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls were also detected. For each sampling day, the relative contribution of PM from regional New Zealand versus long-range Australian sources was determined using trace element profiles and a binary mixing model. The PM approach indicated that endosulfan I, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene found at Temple Basin were largely of Australian origin. Local wind observations indicated that the chlorpyrifos found at Temple Basin primarily came from the Canterbury Plains in New Zealand.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 871UJ

750. Laviola, G. ; Ognibene, E.; Romano, E.; Adriani, W., and Keller, F. Gene-environment interaction during early development in the heterozygous reeler mouse: Clues for modelling of major neurobehavioral syndromes. 2009; 33, (4): 560-572.

Rec #: 63459
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Autism and schizophrenia are multifactorial disorders with increasing prevalence in the young population. Among candidate molecules, reelin (RELN) is a protein of the extracellular matrix playing a key role in brain development and synaptic plasticity. The heterozygous (HZ) reeler mouse provides a model for studying the role of reelin deficiency for the onset of these syndromes. We investigated whether early indices of neurobehavioral disorders can be identified in the infant reeler, and whether the consequences of ontogenetic adverse experiences may question or support the suitability of this model. A first study focused on the link between early exposure to Chlorpyryfos and its enduring neurobehavioral consequences. Our data are interesting in view of recently discovered cholinergic abnormalities in autism and schizophrenia, and may suggest new avenues for early pharmacological intervention. In a second study, we analyzed the consequences of repeated maternal separation early in ontogeny. The results provide evidence of how unusual stress early in development are converted into altered behavior in some, but not all, individuals depending on gender and genetic background. A third study aimed to verify the reliability of the model at critical age windows. Data suggest reduced anxiety, increased impulsivity and disinhibition, and altered pain threshold in response to morphine for HZ, supporting a differential organization of brain dopaminergic, serotonergic and opioid systems in this genotype. In conclusion, HZ exhibited a complex behavioral and psycho-pharmacological phenotype, and differential responsivity to ontogenetic adverse conditions. HZ may be used to disentangle interactions between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. Such an approach could help to model the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental psychiatric diseases. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Psychiatry, Autism, Schizophrenia, Early adversity, Genetic
ISI Document Delivery No.: 431ST

751. Lazarevi-ç-Pa+íti, Tamara; Nastasijevi-ç, Branislav, and Vasi-ç, Vesna. Oxidation of chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl and phorate by myeloperoxidase. 2011 Nov; 101, (3): 220-226.

Rec #: 2060
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The present paper deals with the investigations of optimal conditions for the myeloperoxidase (MPO) mediated oxidation of chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl and phorate, organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) containing phosphorothionate group, from thio- to oxo-forms, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The aim of the work was to apply this oxidation method in the AChE based bioanalytical tests for OPs determination. The maximum concentration of oxo-forms for all tested pesticides was achieved after 10 min incubation of OPs in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) with 100 nM MPO in the presence of 50 ++M H2O2. Optimal temperature for obtaining maximal concentration of oxo-forms was 37 -_C. Only the parent compounds and their oxo-forms were identified chromatographically in the OPs samples after their exposure to MPO. Moreover, no hydrolysis products were detected in the time interval of 1 h after the MPO catalyzed reaction was stopped by catalase. The efficiency of OPs transformation from thio- to oxo-forms was measured using acethylcholinesterase (AChE) test, by comparison of percent of AChE inhibition before and after exposure to the oxidized sample. Organophosphate/ Pesticide/ Oxidation/ Myeloperoxidase/ Acetylcholinesterase

752. Lazarevi-ç-Pa+íti, Tamara D.; Bond++i-ç, Aleksandra M.; Pa+íti, Igor A., and Vasi-ç, Vesna M. Indirect electrochemical oxidation of organophosphorous pesticides for efficient detection via acetylcholinesterase test. 2012 Nov; 104, (3): 236-242.

Rec #: 4710
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Organothiophosphorous pesticides diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl and phorate, have been indirectly electrochemically oxidized in aqueous media using anodically evolved Cl2, Br2 or I2 as a pre-step for their detection via acetylcholinesterase-based test. The presence of single oxidation product, corresponding oxo-form, was confirmed by UPLC analysis, as well as its stability with respect to hydrolysis. Comparing different halogens, the best results were obtained using Br2 as the oxidant due to high reactivity of HOBr, which is formed upon chemical reaction of anodically formed Br2 with water. Limits of detection of five analyzed pesticides were lowered upon indirect electrochemical oxidation with Br2 for two orders of magnitude or more, comparing to unoxidized parental thio-forms. In fact, the lowest possible detection limits for all five pesticides using proposed analytical procedure were achieved, as being determined by detection limits of corresponding oxo forms. Comparison of here proposed electrochemical oxidation pre-step with earlier reported ones is provided and discussed. Organophosphate/ Pesticide/ Oxidation/ Halogen/ Acetylcholinesterase/ Myeloperoxidase

753. Lazarević Pašti, Tamara; Momić, Tatjana; Onjia, Antonije; Vujisić, Ljubodrag, and Vasić, Vesna. Myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of organophosphorus pesticides as a pre-step in their determination by AChE based bioanalytical methods. 2010; 170, (3-4): 289-297.

Rec #: 53429
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In order to improve the sensitivity of assays for inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholine esterase (AChE), an effective method was developed for the conversion of the organophosphate pesticides (OPs) diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl and phorate into more toxic inhibitors. This was accomplished by converting them from the thio form into their oxo form using the enzyme myeloperoxidase. The oxo forms, which are the only products of conversion, were determined by AChE bioassays, using either the free enzyme, or a flow injection analysis manifold with immobilized AChE and spectrophotometric detection. All modified OPs exhibited inhibitory power at ppb levels and within 10 min. The method is considered to represent an excellent means for improving the sensitivity of assays for determination of OPs.
Keywords: Myeloperoxidase
Vienna : Springer Vienna

754. Lear, G.; Song, B.; Gault, A. G.; Polya, D. A., and Lloyd, J. R. Molecular Analysis of Arsenate-Reducing Bacteria Within Cambodian Sediments Following Amendment With Acetate.

Rec #: 51449
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The health of millions is threatened by the use of groundwater contaminated with sediment-derived
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