Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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chlorpyrifos (Cp) as the sole source of carbon, phosphorus and energy. Isolates were identified based on 16SrRNA sequence analysis and were named IRLM.1, IRLM.2, IRLM.3, IRLM.4, and IRLM.5. IRLM.1 was able to grow at concentrations of chlorpyrifos up to 2000 mg/L and was selected as a preferable isolate for further analysis. The amount of the degraded Cp and the amount of metabolite 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP) produced were assessed in IRLM.1 by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Additionally, the location of the chlorpyrifos-degrading enzyme was determined by comparing the activity of intact bacteria to cytoplasm activity. Our study reveals that Cp-degrading enzyme of IRLM.1 is cytoplasmic and 10 mu l cytoplasm isolated from 0.05 g dry-weight bacteria can degrade 50% of 2 mM Cp in 2 min. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis showed accumulation of TCP in the medium, revealing that IRLM.1 was able to degrade Cp without being affected by the antimicrobial activity of TCP. Moreover, results show that the IRLM.1 isolate could grow and utilize diazinon and malathion as the sole source of carbon, phosphorus and energy. Thus IRLM.1 can successfully participate in efficient degradation of organophosphorus compounds (OPs).
Keywords: High-performance liquid chromatography
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity
Keywords: Organophosphorus compounds
Keywords: Phosphorus
Keywords: Stress
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Effluents
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Carbon
Keywords: Zea mays
Keywords: Energy
Keywords: Cytoplasm
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: W 30915:Pharmaceuticals & Vaccines
Keywords: Inbreeding
Keywords: Soil moisture
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: Droughts
Date revised - 2012-06-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 3099-3105
ProQuest ID - 1020852235
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - High-performance liquid chromatography; Antimicrobial activity; Organophosphorus compounds; Phosphorus; Enzymes; Stress; Metabolites; Effluents; Malathion; Chlorpyrifos; Carbon; Energy; Cytoplasm; Pesticides; Inbreeding; Soil moisture; Diazinon; Droughts; Zea mays
Last updated - 2012-12-03
British nursing index edition - African Journal of Biotechnology [Afr. J. Biotech.]. Vol. 11, no. 13, pp. 3099-3105. 14 Feb 2012.
Corporate institution author - Khodarahmpour, Z; Hamidi, J
DOI - MD-0018775909; 16778186; 1684-5315 English

679. Ki, Yeo-Woon; Park, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, In Chul, and Koh, Hyun Chul. JNK and p38 MAPK regulate oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. (0).


Rec #: 900
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: To investigate mechanisms of neuronal cell death in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a pesticide, we evaluated the regulation of ROS and COX-2 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with CPF. CPF treatment produced cytotoxic effects that appeared to involve an increase in ROS. In addition, CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways including JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK, and MAPK inhibitors abolished the cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation. Our data demonstrate that CPF induced apoptosis involving MAPK activation through ROS production. Furthermore, after the CPF treatment, COX-2 expression increased. Interestingly, JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors attenuated the CPF-induced COX-2 expression while an ERK1/2 inhibitor did not. These findings suggest that pathways involving JNK and p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2, mediated apoptosis and are involved in the inflammatory response. In conclusion, the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways might be critical mediators in CPF-induced neuronal apoptosis by both generating ROS and up-regulating COX-2. Chlorpyrifos/ Reactive oxidative species/ Apoptosis/ Mitogen activated protein kinase/ Cyclooxygenase-2

680. Kim, Ho-Hyun; Lim, Young-Wook; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Shin, Dong-Chun; Ham, Hyun-Sook; Choi, Byung-Soon, and Lee, Jae-Young. Health risk assessment of exposure to chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos in children at childcare facilities. 2013 Feb 1-; 444, (0): 441-450.


Rec #: 2250
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract Childcare facility/ Dichlorvos/ Indoor environment/ Organophosphorus pesticide/ Pesticide exposure

681. Kim, J H; Stevens, R C; Maccoss, Mj; Goodlett; Scherl, a; Richter, R J; Suzuki, S M; Furlong, Ce, and Kim, J H. Identification and Characterization of Biomarkers of Organophosphorus Exposures in Humans. 2009; 660, 61-72.


Rec #: 45139
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Over 1 billion pounds of organophosphorus (OP) chemicals are manufactured worldwide each year, including 70 million pounds of pesticides sprayed in the US. Current methods to monitor environmental and occupational exposures to OPs such as chlorpyrifos (CPS) have limitations, including low specificity and sensitivity, and short time windows for detection. Biomarkers for the OP tricresyl phosphate (TCP), which can contaminate bleed air from jet engines and cause an occupational exposure of commercial airline pilots, crewmembers and passengers, have not been identified. The aim of our work has been to identify, purify, and characterize new biomarkers of OP exposure. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition has been a standard for monitoring OP exposure. By identifying and characterizing molecular biomarkers with longer half-lives, we should be able to clinically detect TCP and OP insecticide exposure after longer durations of time than are currently possible. Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) is a red blood cell (RBC) cytosolic serine proteinase that removes N-acetylated amino acids from peptides and cleaves oxidized proteins. Due to its properties, it is an excellent candidate for a biomarker of exposure. We have been able to purify APH and detect inhibition by both CPS and metabolites of TCP. The 120-day lifetime of the RBC offers a much longer window for detecting exposure. The OP-modified serine conjugate in the active site tryptic peptide has been characterized by mass spectrometry. This research uses functional proteomics and enzyme activities to identify and characterize useful biomarkers of neurotoxic environmental and occupational OP exposures.
Keywords: Amino acids
Keywords: Serine proteinase
Keywords: Erythrocytes
Keywords: tricresyl phosphate
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: Mass spectroscopy
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Acylaminoacyl-peptidase
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Neurotoxicity
Keywords: Tryptic peptides
Keywords: proteomics
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Keywords: Serine
Date revised - 2010-06-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 61-72
ProQuest ID - 745698882
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Amino acids; Serine proteinase; Erythrocytes; tricresyl phosphate; Enzymes; Metabolites; biomarkers; Mass spectroscopy; Chlorpyrifos; Insecticides; Acylaminoacyl-peptidase; Pesticides; Neurotoxicity; Tryptic peptides; proteomics; Occupational exposure; Serine
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology [Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.]. Vol. 660, pp. 61-72. 2009.
Corporate institution author - Kim, J H; Stevens, R C; MacCoss, MJ; Goodlett; Scherl, A; Richter, R J; Suzuki, S M; Furlong, CE
DOI - MD-0013621953; 13028077; 0065-2598 English

682. Kim, Jun-Ran; Ahn, Young-Joon, and Ahn, Young-Joon. Identification and Characterization of Chlorpyrifos-Methyl and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol Degrading Burkholderia Sp. Strain Kr100. 2009 Jul; 20, (4): 487-497.


Rec #: 41119
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM) degrading bacterium (designated strain KR100) was isolated from a Korean rice paddy soil and was further tested for its sensitivity against eight commercial antibiotics. Based on morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics, this bacterium showed greatest similarity to members of the order Burkholderiales and was shown to be most closely related to members of the Burkholderia cepacia group. Strain KR100 hydrolyzed CM to 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and utilized TCP as the sole source of carbon for its growth. The isolate was also able to degrade chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, fenitrothion, malathion, and monocrotophos at 300 mu g/ml but diazinon, dicrotophos, parathion, and parathion-methyl at 100 mu g/ml. The ability to degrade CM was found to be encoded on a single plasmid of ~50kb, pKR1. Genes encoding resistance to amphotericin B, polymixin B sulfate, and tetracycline were also located on the plasmid. This bacterium merits further study as a potential biological agent for the remediation of soil, water, or crop contaminated with organophosphorus compounds because of its greater biodegradation activity and its broad specificity against a range of organophosphorus insecticides.
Keywords: A 01380:Plant Protection, Fungicides & Seed Treatments
Keywords: Sulfates
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Bioremediation
Keywords: Biodegradation
Keywords: Specificity
Keywords: Biochemistry
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: monocrotophos
Keywords: EE 30:Soil Pollution: Monitoring, Control & Remediation
Keywords: Antibiotics
Keywords: Burkholderia cepacia
Keywords: Tetracyclines
Keywords: Strain
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Crops
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: J 02410:Animal Diseases
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Carbon
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Resistance
Keywords: Rice fields
Keywords: SW 3020:Sources and fate of pollution
Keywords: AQ 00002:Water Quality
Keywords: Sensitivity
Keywords: Amphotericin B
Keywords: Microbiology Abstracts B: Bacteriology; Pollution Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Microbiology Abstracts A: Industrial & Applied Microbiology; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Keywords: Organophosphorus compounds
Keywords: carbon sources
Keywords: Oryza sativa
Keywords: Fenitrothion
Keywords: Strains
Keywords: Plasmids
Keywords: Water pollution
Keywords: Sulfate
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Remediation
Keywords: W 30915:Pharmaceuticals & Vaccines
Keywords: Dimethoate
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: dimethoate
Keywords: Pollution control
Keywords: Parathion
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 487-497
ProQuest ID - 810002223
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Insecticides; Biodegradation; Specificity; Pesticides; Antibiotics; Plasmids; Strains; Water pollution; Pollution control; Amphotericin B; Organophosphorus compounds; monocrotophos; Fenitrothion; Tetracyclines; Malathion; Crops; Sulfate; Soil; Chlorpyrifos; Carbon; Rice fields; Dimethoate; Diazinon; Parathion; Sulfates; Sensitivity; Bioremediation; Biochemistry; carbon sources; dimethoate; Resistance; Remediation; Strain; Oryza sativa; Burkholderia cepacia
Last updated - 2011-11-03
Corporate institution author - Kim, Jun-Ran; Ahn, Young-Joon
DOI - OB-MD-0010935230; 11717657; CS1009301; 0923-9820; 1572-9729 English

683. Kim, S. J.; Park, G. H.; Kim, D.; Lee, J.; Min, H.; Wall, E.; Lee, C. J.; Simon, M. I.; Lee, S. J., and Han, S. K. Analysis of Cellular and Behavioral Responses to Imiquimod Reveals a Unique Itch Pathway in Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (Trpv1)-Expressing Neurons.


Rec #: 50269
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Despite its clinical importance, the mechanisms that mediate or generate itch are poorly defined. The identification of pruritic compounds offers insight into understanding the molecular and cellular basis of itch. Imiquimod (IQ) is an agonist of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) used to treat various infectious skin diseases such as genital warts, keratosis, and basal cell carcinoma. Itch is reportedly one of the major side effects developed during IQ treatments. We found that IQ acts as a potent itch-evoking compound (pruritogen) in mice via direct excitation of sensory neurons. Combined studies of scratching behavior, patch-clamp recording, and Ca(2+) response revealed the existence of a unique intracellular mechanism, which is independent of TLR7 as well as different from the mechanisms exploited by other well-characterized pruritogens. Nevertheless, as for other pruritogens, IQ requires the presence of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing neurons for itch-associated responses. Our data provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is a specific subset of TRPV1-expressing neurons that is equipped with diverse intracellular mechanisms that respond to histamine, chloroquine, and IQ.
MESH HEADINGS: Aminoquinolines/adverse effects/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Chloroquine/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Histamine/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Interferon Inducers
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Neurons/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Pruritus/chemically induced/etiology/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: TRPV Cation Channels/*analysis eng

684. Kim, S. K. and Novak, R. F. The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-Mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression.


Rec #: 51499
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption produce changes in hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression. This difference in expression alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants and therapeutic agents, potentially impacting the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, and/or resulting in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory has reported that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6 kinase). Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/biosynthesis/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Epoxide Hydrolases/biosynthesis/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: *Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/biosynthesis/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Glutathione Transferase/biosynthesis/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Hypoglycemic Agents/*metabolism/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Insulin/*metabolism/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Isoenzymes
MESH HEADINGS: Liver/drug effects/*enzymology
MESH HEADINGS: MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Receptor, Insulin/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Receptors, Growth Factor/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *Signal Transduction/drug effects eng

685. Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Eun-Hye; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Lee, Yong Tae; Hammock, Bruce D; Lee, Hye-Sung, and Kim, Young Ah. Competitive Immunochromatographic Assay for the Detection of the Organophosphorus Pesticide Chlorpyrifos. 2011 May 5; 693, (1-2): 106-113.


Rec #: 39759
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on competitive antigen-coated format using colloidal gold as the label was developed for the detection of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos. The ICA test strip consisted of a membrane with a detection zone, a sample pad and an absorbent pad. The membrane was separately coated with chlorpyrifos Hapten-OVA conjugate (test line) and anti-mouse IgG (control line). Based on the fact that the competition is between the migrating analyte in the sample and the analyte hapten immobilized on the test strip for the binding sites of the antibody-colloidal gold (Ab-CG) conjugate migrating on the test strip, this study suggests that the relative migration speed between the two migrating substances is a critically important factor for the sensitive detection by competitive ICA. This criterion was utilized for the confirmation of appropriateness of a nitrocellulose (NC) membrane for chlorpyrifos ICA. The detection limit of the ICA for chlorpyrifos standard and chlorpyrifos spiked into agricultural samples were 10 and 50 ng mL[super]-1, respectively. The assay time for the ICA test was less than 10 min, suitable for rapid on-site testing of chlorpyrifos.
Keywords: ENA 06:Food & Drugs
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: migration
Keywords: Organophosphorus compounds
Keywords: Membranes
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Gold
Keywords: Assays
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Keywords: absorbents
Keywords: competition
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 106-113
ProQuest ID - 889429190
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; migration; Organophosphorus compounds; Membranes; Pesticides; Assays; Gold; absorbents; competition
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Analytica Chimica Acta [Anal. Chim. Acta]. Vol. 693, no. 1-2, pp. 106-113. 5 May 2011.
Corporate institution author - Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Eun-Hye; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Lee, Yong Tae; Hammock, Bruce D; Lee, Hye-Sung
DOI - 25251078-d71a-4399-aa4dcsaobj201; 14977512; 0003-2670 English

686. Kimura, H.; Tsukagoshi, H.; Aoyama, Y.; Nishina, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Iijima, A.; Kato, M., and Kozawa, K. Relationships between cellular events and signaling pathways in various pesticide-affected neural cells. 2010; 29, (2): 43-50.


Rec #: 62889
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Various pesticides are considered hazardous to human health. Of particular concern are potential problems of neurotoxicity associated with their use. Cellular toxicity may manifest as a variety of biological events, such as carcinogenesis (mutagenesis) and/or cell death. Recent reports indicate that signaling pathways regulate these cellular events. Thus, the toxicity of pesticides in cells may involve modulation of signaling pathways. In this review, we mainly focus on relationships between cellular events and signaling pathways in various pesticide-affected neural cells. Our data and those of related studies suggest that these pesticides affect both the viability and various signaling pathways of neural cells.
Keywords: PC12 cells, neuronal differentiation, organophosphate, pyrethroid,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 628GQ

687. Kiss, Attila; Virag, Diana, and Kiss, Attila. Photostability and Photodegradation Pathways of Distinctive Pesticides. 2009; 38, (1): 157-163.


Rec #: 45239
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Transformation of pesticides in the environment is a highly complex process affected by different factors. Biological and physical-chemical factors may play a role in the degradation to variable extent. Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most crucial factors affecting the fate of pesticides. Therefore, our study focused on revealing specific details of the photolytic degradation of pesticides. The toxicity of the examined pesticides is well known; however, little information is available regarding their natural degradation processes. More detailed examinations are required to reveal the exact mechanism of the pesticide decomposition and the biological impacts of the degradates. Significance of this study is enhanced by the fact that decomposition of pesticides may result in the formation of toxic degradation products. The photolytic degradation of frequently applied pesticides (e.g., acetochlor, simazine, chlorpyrifos, and carbendazim) with different chemical structures was investigated. An immersible ultraviolet light source was applied to induce photodegradation. The degradation processes were followed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. Electron ionization mass spectrometry was used to identify the degradation species. Detailed mechanisms of photolytic transformation were established by identification of each degradate. The photolytic degradation of pesticides of distinctive chemical character exhibited markedly different photodecomposition mechanisms. At least four degradation species were detected and identified in each case. Loss of alkyl, chloro, and hydroxyl groups as well as cleavage of alkyloxy, amide, amino-alkyl, and ester bonds might be regarded as typical decomposition patterns. Deamination and ring opening might be observed at the last stages of decomposition.
Keywords: Chromatography
Keywords: Mass spectrometry
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Simazine
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Esters
Keywords: P 6000:TOXICOLOGY AND HEALTH
Keywords: Decomposition
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: acetochlor
Keywords: Amides
Keywords: Photodegradation
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: light sources
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts
Date revised - 2009-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 157-163
ProQuest ID - 20290262
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chromatography; Mass spectrometry; Simazine; Herbicides; Toxicity; Esters; Decomposition; Chlorpyrifos; acetochlor; Amides; Photodegradation; light sources; Gas chromatography; Pesticides
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Environmental Quality [J. Environ. Qual.]. Vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 157-163. 2009.
Corporate institution author - Kiss, Attila; Virag, Diana
DOI - MD-0009236223; 8932655; 0047-2425; 1537-2537 English

688. Kissel, J. C. The mismeasure of dermal absorption. 2011; 21, (3): 302-309.


Rec #: 62909
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The results of dermal absorption experiments are routinely and often exclusively reported in terms of fractional absorption. However, fractional absorption is not generally independent of skin loading conditions. As a consequence, experimental outcomes are commonly misinterpreted. This can lead in turn to poor estimation of exposures under field conditions and inadequate threat assessment. To aid interpretation of dermal absorption-related phenomena, a dimensionless group representing the ratio of mass delivery to plausible absorptive flux under experimental or environmental conditions is proposed. High values of the dimensionless dermal number (N(DERM)) connote surplus supply (i.e., flux-limited) conditions. Under such conditions, fractional absorption will generally depend on load and should not be assumed transferable to other conditions. At low values of NDERM, dermal absorption will be delivery-limited. Under those conditions, high fractional absorption is feasible barring maldistribution or depletion due to volatilization, washing, mechanical abrasion or other means. Similar logic also applies to skin sampling and dermal toxicity testing. Skin surface sampling at low NDERM is unlikely to provide an appropriate measure of potential dermal dose due to depletion, whereas dermal toxicity testing at high NDERM is unlikely to show dose dependence due to saturation. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2011) 21, 302-309; doi:10.1038/jes.2010.22; published online 28 April 2010
Keywords: availability, dimensionless number, flux, skin
ISI Document Delivery No.: 752RY

689. Kitos, P. A. and Suntornwat, O. Teratogenic Effects of Organophosphorus Compounds. 1992: 387-417.


Rec #: 1980
Keywords: REFS CHECKED,REVIEW
Call Number: NO REFS CHECKED (CPY,DCTP,DDVP,DZ,FNT,MLN,MP,MTM,MVP,TCF), NO REVIEW (CPY,DCTP,DDVP,DZ,FNT,MLN,MP,MTM,MVP,TCF)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DCTP,DDVP,DEM,DZ,EPRN,ETN,FNT,FNTH,MLN,MP,MTM,MVP,PPHD,PRN,TCF

690. Klassen, W. and Schwartz, P. H. Jr. ARS Research Program in Chemical Insect Control. SOIL; 1985; 8, 267-292.


Rec #: 980
Keywords: NO TOX DATA
Call Number: NO TOX DATA (ACP,ADC,AMZ,ATN,AZ,AlP,As,CBL,CBNDS,CLP,CPY,DCF,DCTP,DDVP,DFZ,DMT,DS,DZ,ES,FNT,FNV,MB,MCB,MDT,MLN,MOM,MP,MTM,MVP,Naled,OML,OXD,PIRE,PMR,PPB,PPG,PPX,PRT,PSM,RSM,RTN,SFR,SMT,TBO,TVP)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACP,ADC,AMZ,AND,ATN,AZ,AlP,As,BDC,CBL,CBNDS,CHD,CHX,CLP,CPY,CTC,DCF,DCTP,DDT,DDVP,DEM,DFZ,DLD,DMT,DS,DZ,EDB,EN,EPRN,ES,ETN,FNF,FNT,FNTH,FNV,HPT,IFP,MB,MCB,MDT,MLN,MOM,MP,MTM,MVP,MXC,Naled,OML,OXD,PIRE,PMR,PPB,PPG,PPHD,PPX,PRN,PRT,PSM,PYN,Pb,RSM,RTN,RYA,SFR,SMT,SPS,TBO,TPH,TVP

691. Klein, I. H.; Abrahams, A. C.; Van Ede, T.; Oey, P. L.; Ligtenberg, G., and Blankestijn, P. J. Differential Effects of Acute and Sustained Cyclosporine and Tacrolimus on Sympathetic Nerve Activity.


Rec #: 50479
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Comment in: J Hypertens. 2010 Sep;28(9):1809-10 (medline /20699713)
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We studied the effect of acute and sustained cyclosporine and tacrolimus on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in groups of healthy male volunteers.
ABSTRACT: METHODS AND RESULTS: Acute cyclosporine in normal dose (2.5 mg/kg) increased MSNA from 11 +/- 6 to 19 +/- 8 bursts/min (P < 0.05). Acute cyclosporine in high dose (10 mg/kg) increased MSNA from 13 +/- 6 to 25 +/- 4 bursts/min (P < 0.05) and increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure (heart rate from 64 +/- 8 to 74 +/- 6 b.p.m., MAP from 92 +/- 10 to 105 +/- 8 mmHg; both P < 0.05). Sustained cyclosporine (2.5 mg/kg b.i.d. for 2 weeks) suppressed MSNA from 14 +/- 6 to 8 +/- 7 bursts/min (P < 0.05). Blood pressure increased from 89 +/- 6 to 98 +/- 6 mmHg (P < 0.05). Body weight increased and plasma renin activity was suppressed. Acute tacrolimus in regular dose (0.05 mg/kg) and high dose (0.20 mg/kg) had no effect on MSNA and blood pressure. Sustained tacrolimus (0.05 mg/kg b.i.d. for 2 weeks) had no effect on blood pressure, body weight and plasma renin activity, but decreased MSNA from 14 +/- 6 to 8 +/- 5 bursts/min (P < 0.05).
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: Sympathetic overactivity plays a role in the acute hypertensive action of cyclosporine. Cyclosporine given during 2 weeks increases blood pressure and suppresses MSNA, possibly by volume retention. Tacrolimus, in the presently applied dosages, does not cause hypertension or sympathetic overactivity. However, sustained tacrolimus also suppresses sympathetic activity, the reason of which is unclear.
MESH HEADINGS: Blood Pressure/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Body Weight/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Calcineurin/*antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors
MESH HEADINGS: Cyclosporine/*administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/*adverse effects
MESH HEADINGS: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
MESH HEADINGS: Heart Rate/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Hypertension/*chemically induced/*physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Immunosuppressive Agents/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/*adverse effects
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Renin/blood
MESH HEADINGS: Sympathetic Nervous System/*drug effects/*physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Tacrolimus/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/*adverse effects eng

692. Knaak, James B.; Tan, Cecilla, and Dary, Curt C. Chapter Five - Pesticide Regulations: Exposure-Dose Modeling from FIFRA to FQPA. Ernest Hodgson. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science: Toxicology and Human Environments. Volume 112 ed. Academic Press; 2012: 117-162.


Rec #: 3430
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ISSN/ISBN: 1877-1173 Abstract Organophosphorus insecticides/ Carbamate insecticides/ Pyrethroid insecticide/ Probabilistic models/ Physiological pharmacokinetic models/ FIFRA/ FFDCA/ FQPA/ Pesticide mixtures/ Parathion/ Chlorpyrifos/ Paraoxon/ Chlorpyrifos-oxon/ Acetylcholinesterase/
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