Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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RE: Middlemore-Risher et al., repeated exposures to low-level chlorpyrifos results in impairments in sustained attention and increased impulsivity in rats. 2010; 32, (6): 648-648.
Rec #: 62349
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
ISI Document Delivery No.: 692BY

641. Jun, D.; Musilova, L.; Kuca, K.; Kassa, J., and Bajgar, J. Potency of several oximes to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibited by paraoxon in vitro: Proceedings of the IX International Meeting on Cholinesterases. 2008 Sep 25-; 175, (1Çô3): 421-424.

Rec #: 5930
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Organophosphorus pesticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion) and nerve agents (sarin, tabun, and VX) are highly toxic organophosphorus compounds with strong inhibition potency against two key enzymes in the human bodyÇöacetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE; EC Subsequent accumulation of acetylcholine at synaptic clefts can result in cholinergic crisis and possible death of intoxicated organism. For the recovery of inhibited AChE, derivatives from the group of pyridinium or bispyridinium aldoximes (called oximes) are used. Their efficacy depends on their chemical structure and also type of organophosphorus inhibitor. In this study, we have tested potency of selected cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, methoxime and H-oxime HI-6) to reactivate human erythrocyte AChE and human plasma BuChE inhibited by pesticide paraoxon. For this purpose, modified Ellman's method was used and two different concentrations of oximes (10 and 100 ++M), attainable in the plasma within antidotal treatment of pesticide intoxication were tested. Results demonstrated that obidoxime (96.8%) and trimedoxime (86%) only reached sufficient reactivation efficacy in case of paraoxon-inhibited AChE. Other oximes evaluated did not surpassed more than 25% of reactivation. In the case of BuChE reactivation, none of tested oximes surpassed 12.5% of reactivation. The highest reactivation efficacy was achieved for trimedoxime (12.4%) at the concentration 100 ++M. From the data obtained, it is clear that only two from currently available oximes (obidoxime and trimedoxime) are good reactivators of paraoxon-inhibited AChE. In the case of BuChE, none of these reactivators could be used for its reactivation. Acetylcholinesterase/ Butyrylcholinesterase/ Pesticide/ Organophosphate/ Reactivator/ Oxime/ Bioscavenger

642. Jung, K; Seo, I; Nam, H; Shin, H-S, and Jung, K. Effects of Ozonated Water Treatment on Pesticide Residues and Catechin Content in Green Tea Leaves. 2008; 40, (3): 265-270.

Rec #: 46309
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This study examined the effects of treating green tea leaves with ozonated water by evaluating pesticide residue levels and catechin content The pesticide residue levels of tea leaves treated with carbendazim, captain, diazinon, fenthim, dichlorvos, and chlorpyrifos ranged from 43.2 to 48.2 ppm. For leaves treated by soaking or watering with tap water, or with 0.25 ppm of ozone water for 30 min. Pesticide residue levels were reduced by 24.0-30.2%, 30.3-33.6%, 52.4-70.5%, and 65.5-80.2%, respectively. No major differences in catechin content were observed in the leaves according to the soaking and rinsing treatments using ozonated or tap water.
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: green tea
Keywords: Leaves
Keywords: dichlorvos
Keywords: X 24320:Food Additives & Contaminants
Keywords: Pesticide Residues
Keywords: Catechin
Keywords: tea
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: H 3000:Environment and Ecology
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Drinking Water
Keywords: Water treatment
Keywords: Soaking
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: SW 3060:Water treatment and distribution
Keywords: Water Treatment
Keywords: Carbendazim
Keywords: Drinking water
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: Dichlorvos
Keywords: Ozonation
Keywords: Ozone
Date revised - 2008-08-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 265-270
ProQuest ID - 21061976
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Water treatment; green tea; Pesticide residues; Leaves; Catechin; Carbendazim; Diazinon; Dichlorvos; Ozone; Pesticides; dichlorvos; Drinking water; tea; Ozonation; Drinking Water; Soaking; Water Treatment; Pesticide Residues
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology [Korean J. Food Sci. Technol.]. Vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 265-270. 2008.
Corporate institution author - Jung, K; Seo, I; Nam, H; Shin, H-S
DOI - MD-0008349390; 8370061; 0367-6293 English

643. Junod, Julio; Zagal, Erick; Sandoval, Marco; Barra, Ricardo; Vidal, Gladys, and Villarroel, Mario. Effect of Irrigation Levels on Dissolved Organic Carbon Soil Distribution and the Depth Mobility of Chlorpyrifos. 2009; 69, (3): 435-444.

Rec #: 53199
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Water flows provided by irrigation systems may be associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content in the soil solution and may modify the mobility of pesticides, such as chlorpyrifos (CHP). These compounds were analyzed under field conditions, evaluating their distribution in the soil profile under excessive irrigation in a Humic Haploxerand soil. The trial was carried out in soil columns located under the canopy of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) in an orchard located in the Bío-Bío Region, Chile. The insecticide CHP was applied 120 g hL-1, and later the natural run off was collected from the foliage to the columns. Surface irrigation was used as a control, the equivalent to 4 L h-1 weekly, plus two treatments over the columns of 6 and 8 L h-1 per pulse, respectively. Samples were obtained at three column depths: 0-5, 5-20 and 20-30 cm. The results showed that in spite of the fact there was no interaction between depth and irrigation, a greater concentration of CHP was observed in the samples with greater water flow, with significant differences between the treatments at a depth of 20-30 cm, which suggests some level of influence on vertical mobility. DOC shows stratification with greater concentrations at the surface and lower concentrations at depth, with significant differences between the superficial stratum (0-5 cm) and the lower strata (5-20, 20-30 cm). These results are discussed in relation to explaining the movement of CHP in the soil profile.
Keywords: Internet resource
Includes references Summary in Spanish. 1022771619

644. Juraske, Ronnie; Sanjuan, Neus, and Juraske, Ronnie. Life Cycle Toxicity Assessment of Pesticides Used in Integrated and Organic Production of Oranges in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain. 2011 Feb; 82, (7): 956-962.

Rec #: 47419
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The relative impacts of 25 pesticides including acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and post-harvest fungicides, used in the production of oranges in Spain were assessed with current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) tools. Chemical specific concentrations were combined with pesticide emission data and information on chemical toxicity to assess human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. As a case study, the relative impacts of two orange production systems in the region of Valencia, integrated pest management (IP) and organic production (OP), were assessed. The evaluation of active ingredients showed that on average acaricides have the highest human toxicity impact scores, while for freshwater ecotoxicity insecticides show the highest impact. In both impact categories the lowest impact scores were calculated for herbicides. In the production of 1kg of orange fruits, where several kinds of pesticides are combined, results show that post-harvest fungicides can contribute more than 95% to the aggregate human toxicity impacts. More than 85% of aquatic ecotoxicity is generated by fungicides applied before harvest. The potential to reduce impacts on freshwater ecosystems is seven orders of magnitude, while impacts on human health can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. Hence, this stresses the importance of a careful pre-selection of active ingredients. In both impact categories, organic production represents the least toxic pest-control method.
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Spain
Keywords: fruits
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: acaricides
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: life cycle
Keywords: Fungicides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Emissions
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Spain
Pages - 956-962
ProQuest ID - 855487607
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Insecticides; life cycle; fruits; Pesticides; Fungicides; Emissions; Herbicides; Toxicity; acaricides; Spain
Last updated - 2011-12-17
Corporate institution author - Juraske, Ronnie; Sanjuan, Neus
DOI - OB-c90cf72f-3936-46eb-aeeccsamfg201; 14362132; 0045-6535 English

645. Kadian, N.; Malik, A.; Satya, S., and Dureja, P. Effect of organic amendments on microbial activity in chlorpyrifos contaminated soil. 2012; 95, S199-S202.

Rec #: 62399
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the inhibitory effect of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on soil microbial activity and to evaluate the efficacy of different organic amendments as a biostimulation agent for sustaining the microbial activity and thereby assisting in the remediation of CPF (10 ppm) contaminated soil. Experiments were carried out under controlled conditions (37 degrees C) up to 74 days; CPF was analyzed by GC-ECD while dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was measured as one of the indices of soil microbial activity. Throughout the experiment, there was higher microbial activity in uncontaminated soil (S) as compared to CPF contaminated soil (SP) and overall a considerably high reduction (63.51%) in average DHA was noticed in CPF contaminated soil. Organic amendments enhanced the microbial activity over unamended CPF contaminated soil. The trend of DHA on 24th day was MS (SP + 1% Mushroom Spent) >VC (SP + 1% Vermicompost) >BS (SP + 1% Biogas Slurry) >SP (Soil spiked with 10 ppm CPF) >FM (SP + 1% Farmyard Manure). The enhancement in pesticide dissipation over the unamended soil showed the following trend VC (37%)>MS (24%) >FM (1.9%). In spite of sufficient DHA, BS could not enhance pesticide dissipation over the unamended soil (SP). These results indicate the potential of vermicompost and mushroom spent compost as suitable biostimulation agents to sustain the microbial activity in CPF contaminated soil. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Biostimulation, DNA, Organic amendments (Biogas slurry
ISI Document Delivery No.: 897JS

646. Kagan, Y. S.; Ershova, E. A.; Leonenko, O. B.; Klisenko, M. A.; Zhmin'ko, P. G., and Zeinalova, T. A. Role of the Hepatic Monooxygenase System in the Metabolism and Mechanism of Action of Pesticides. Y.S.Kagan, Vses. NII Gig. Toksikol. Pestits., Polim. Plast. Mass, Kiev, USSR//: 1988(1): 70-76(RUS).

Rec #: 940
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

647. Kambiranda, Devaiah M.; Asraful-Islam, Shah Md.; Cho, Kye Man; Math, Renukaradhya K.; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Hoon, and Yun, Han Dae. Expression of esterase gene in yeast for organophosphates biodegradation. 2009 May; 94, (1): 15-20.

Rec #: 3860
Keywords: YEAST
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Organophosphates are esters of phosphoric acid and can be hydrolyzed and detoxified by carboxylesterase and phosphotriesterase. In this work esterase enzyme (Est5S) was expressed in yeast to demonstrate the organophosphorus hydrolytic activity from a metagenomic library of cow rumen bacteria. The esterase gene (est5S) is 1098 bp in length, encoding a protein of 366 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 40 kDa. Est5S enzyme was successfully produced by Pichia pastoris at a high expression level of approximately 4.0 g LęĆ1. With p-nitrophenol butyrate as the substrate, the optimal temperature and pH for enzyme activity were determined to be 40 -_C and pH 7.0, respectively. The esterase enzyme was tested for degradation of chlorpyrifos (CP). TLC results obtained inferred that CP could be degraded by esterase enzyme (Est5S) and HPLC results revealed that CP could be efficiently degraded up to 100 ppm. Cadusafos (CS), coumaphos (CM), diazinon (DZ) dyfonate (DF), ethoprophos (EP), fenamiphos (FM), methylparathion (MPT), and parathion (PT) were also degraded up to 68, 60, 80, 40, 45, 60, 95, and 100%, respectively, when used as a substrate with Est5S protein. The results highlight the potential use of this enzyme in the cleanup of contaminated insecticides. Rumen metagenome/ est5S gene/ Esterase/ Yeast expression/ OP degradation

648. Kamble, G. B. and Muley, D. V. Effect of Acute Exposure of Endosulfan and Chlorpyriphos on the Biochemical Composition of the Fresh Water Fish Sarotherodon mossambicus. Dept of Zoology, Shivaji Univ. Kolhapur-416004, India//: 2000; 4, (1): 97-102.

Rec #: 950
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY,ES)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,ES

649. Kamel, A.; Byrne, C.; Vigo, C.; Ferrario, J.; Stafford, C.; Verdin, G.; Siegelman, F.; Knizner, S., and Hetrick, J. Oxidation of selected organophosphate pesticides during chlorination of simulated drinking water. 2009; 43, (2): 522-534.

Rec #: 62439
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Ten organophosphate (OP) pesticides: phorate, disulfoton, terbufos, methidathion, bensulide, chlorethoxyfos, phosmet, methyl parathion, phostebupirim, and temephos were evaluated for their potential to undergo oxidation to their respective oxons and/or other oxidation analogues in laboratory water. Samples were collected at time intervals up to 72 h of chlorination and analyzed by both gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC-MSD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results show that methidathion and methyl parathion were stable in unchlorinated water, while all other OP pesticides were not stable over the 72 h exposure period. In chlorinated water, phorate and disulfoton formed stable sulfone oxons. Temephos formed stable dioxon sulfoxide and dioxon sulfone. Methidathion, bensulide, chlorethyoxyfos, methyl parathion, and phostebupirim formed stable oxons over the 72 IT exposure period. Terbufos, phorate, disulfoton and temephos oxon sulfoxides; temephos sulfoxide; and phosmet oxon were initially formed but were not detected after 24 h. The data illustrate that organothiophosphate pesticides may form oxons and/or other oxidation analogues during chlorination in water treatment plants, which are persistent for at least 72 h. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Organophosphate pesticides, Water chlorination, Oxidation products,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 410RJ

650. Kamijo, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Otsuka, K.; Tamura, Y.; Tomizawa, S.; Sakai, N.; Kageyama, Y.; Takano, I., and Nagayama, T. Survey of Pesticide Residues in Imported Vegetable Products (1992.4-2006.3). 2009; 50, (3): 146-152.

Rec #: 62449
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticide residues in 165 imported vegetable products on the Tokyo market from Apr. 1992 to Mar. 2006 were investigated. Seven kinds of pesticides were detected at levels between Tr (below 0.01 ppm) and 1.0 ppm from 16 samples. There was no sample in which pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The salt leaf of grape imported from Greece contained chlorpyrifos and quinalphos, and there was some doubt as to whether the residue levels exceeded the MRLs when the Japanese positive list system for pesticide residues in food was applied. Pesticides were detected from pickles and dehydrated vegetable, but not from products that had been treated with heat and water, such as boiled vegetables and purees. Many samples of products from Asia, and North America area contained detectable levels of pesticides. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as between 0.006 and 20.3% of their ADI values according to the daily intake of vegetable products. Therefore, these vegetable products should be safe when eaten in a normal manner.
Keywords: pesticide residue, vegetable product, pickle, dried vegetable, boiled
ISI Document Delivery No.: 466OK

651. Kang, Soyoung; Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Young Ho; Kwon, Deok Ho; Oh, Jung Hun; Kim, Bum Jun; Lim, Kook Jin; Lee, Seunghwan; Hwang, Seung Yong, and Lee, Si Hyeock. Proteomics-based identification and characterization of biotype-specific carboxylesterase 2 putatively associated with insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci: From gene to ecosystem: identification, behavior and modeling in insect science. 2012 Sep; 15, (3): 389-396.

Rec #: 4970
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Proteomic differences between Bemisia tabaci biotypes (B and Q) were investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in conjunction with mass spectroscopic analysis. Among several protein spots specific to biotype B, carboxylesterase 2 (Coe2) was significantly more expressed in biotype B. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the close relationship of Coe2 with Myzus persicae esterase E4. Comparison of full-length cDNA sequences of Coe2 revealed no amino acid differences in functionally important conserved regions between biotypes B and Q. The transcription level of the Coe2 gene (coe2) was 5.8-fold higher in biotype B than in biotype Q, but the coe2 copy number was not different between biotypes, suggesting that the overexpression of Coe2 was due to transcriptional up-regulation. Native isoelectric focusing followed by mass spectrophotometric analysis confirmed that the overexpressed pI 5.7 esterase in biotype B was Coe2. In-gel inhibition of Coe2 by three insecticides indicated the interaction of Coe2 with chlorpyrifos-methyl oxon and permethrin, but not with imidacloprid. These findings suggest that overexpression of Coe2 in biotype B can confer chemical defense against pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides, perhaps by sequestration and hydrolysis, as seen in M. persicae E4. Finally, utility of Coe2 as a potential biotype-specific protein marker is discussed. Bemisia tabaci/ Biotypes/ Proteomic analysis/ Carboxylesterase/ Overexpression

652. Kanzari, Fehmi; Syakti, Agung Dhamar; Asia, Laurence; Malleret, Laure; Mille, Gilbert; Jamoussi, Bassem; Abderrabba, Manef; Doumenq, Pierre, and Kanzari, Fehmi. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorine, and Organophosphorous Pesticides in Surface Sediments From the Arc River and the Berre Lagoon, France. 2012 Feb; 19, (2): 559-576.

Rec #: 46889
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Introduction: The Arc River and Berre lagoon are one of important river basin hydrosystem in the South of France that receives industrial and municipal wastewaters from the adjacent area. Materials and methods: Due to its social and economic impact as well as ecological function of basin, an assessment of environmental risk due to mobilization of contaminants is necessary. Thus, the study aims to determine the spatial distribution of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides in surface sediments and their potential origins by using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Results and discussion: Total alkanes concentrations ranged from 563 to 5,068 mu g kg super(-1) sediment dry weight (dw), the sum of 17 PAHs ranged from 153 to 1,311 mu g kg super(-1) dw, the sum of seven PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 466.8 mu g kg super(-1) dw, and the total pesticides concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 7.15 mu g kg super(-1) dw. Ratios of specific n-alcanes (carbon preference index, natural n-alkanes ratio, and terrigenous/aquatic ratio) and ratios of selected PAH (anthracene (Ant)/(Ant+Phe), fluoranthene (Fl)/(Fl+pyrene (Pyr)), BaA/(BaA+chrysene (Chry)), indeno[1,2,3,c,d]pyrene (IPyr)/(IPyr+BghiP)) were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of hydrocarbons. Conclusions: The evaluations suggest the sources of hydrocarbons in the sediments were generally biogenic and markedly more pyrolytic rather than petrogenic. In the perspectives of environmental risk assessment, all contaminants levels were also compared with sediments quality guidelines (SQG) resulting that the contamination levels in all stations were most of the time lower than their respective SQG. While, for PCBs concentrations, three stations (A8, B1, and B2) were higher than their effect range median values which may indicate high potential toxicity of the sediment with probable adverse effects to the living biota.
Keywords: Organochlorine compounds
Keywords: Spatial distribution
Keywords: Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Formicidae
Keywords: Environmental sciences
Keywords: Mass spectrometry
Keywords: River basins
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Lagoons
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: France
Keywords: France, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Arc R.
Keywords: M2 551.510.42:Air Pollution (551.510.42)
Keywords: Bioaccumulation
Keywords: Environmental Studies--Pollution
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pesticides in river water
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Keywords: MED, France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Berre Lagoon
Keywords: PCB compounds
Date revised - 2012-04-01
Language of summary - English
Location - France; France, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Arc R.; MED, France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Berre Lagoon
Pages - 559-576
ProQuest ID - 926732488
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Spatial distribution; Gas chromatography; Environmental sciences; Pesticides in river water; Mass spectrometry; River basins; Organochlorine compounds; Bioaccumulation; Pesticides; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Toxicity; Lagoons; PCB compounds; Sediments; Formicidae; France; France, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Arc R.; MED, France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Berre Lagoon
Last updated - 2012-04-12
Corporate institution author - Kanzari, Fehmi; Syakti, Agung Dhamar; Asia, Laurence; Malleret, Laure; Mille, Gilbert; Jamoussi, Bassem; Abderrabba, Manef; Doumenq, Pierre
DOI - OB-a2420e1e-2f9a-4b31-93b9mfgefd107; 16378134; 0944-1344; 1614-7499 English

653. Karabasanavar, N. S.; Singh, S. P., and Singh, M. K. Monitoring for chlorpyrifos residues in animal feed and fodder of Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India. 2012; 94, (2): 275-280.

Rec #: 62499
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In this study, residual concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CPF) were determined in feed (40) and fodder (25) samples collected from various locations of Tarai region of Uttarakhand. For extracting residues, liquid-liquid partition followed by alumina column clean up was used and the detection and quantification of residues was undertaken with the help of high-performance liquid chromatography using C18 column and diode array detector at 220 nm. Of the total 40 feed samples analyzed, 7 (17.5%) samples were found positive for CPF with the mean residual concentration of 0.058 mu g g(-1); while out of 25 fodder samples, CPF residues were detected in a single (4%) sample with residual concentration of 0.39 mu g g(-1). However, none of the feed or fodder samples contained CPF residues above the prescribed limit.
Keywords: pesticide, residue, chlorpyrifos, feed, fodder, HPLC
ISI Document Delivery No.: 923CV

654. Karanasios, E.; Karpouzas, D. G., and Tsiropoulos, N. G. Key parameters and practices controlling pesticide degradation efficiency of biobed substrates. 2012; 47, (6): 589-598.

Rec #: 62509
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We studied the contribution of each of the components of a compost-based biomixture (BX), commonly used in Europe, on pesticide degradation. The impact of other key parameters including pesticide dose, temperature and repeated applications on the degradation of eight pesticides, applied as a mixture, in a BX and a peat-based biomixture (OBX) was compared and contrasted to their degradation in soil. Incubation studies showed that straw was essential in maintaining a high pesticide degradation capacity of the biomixture, whereas compost, when mixed with soil, retarded pesticide degradation. The highest rates of degradation were shown in the biomixture composed of soil/compost/straw suggesting that all three components are essential for maximum biobed performance. Increasing doses prolonged the persistence of most pesticides with biomixtures showing a higher tolerance to high pesticide dose levels compared to soil. Increasing the incubation temperature from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C resulted in lower t(1/2) values, with biomixtures performing better than soil at the lower temperature. Repeated applications led to a decrease in the degradation rates of most pesticides in all the substrates, with the exception of iprodione and metalaxyl. Overall, our results stress the ability of biomixtures to perform better than soil under unfavorable conditions and extreme pesticide dose levels.
Keywords: Biobeds, biomixture composition, temperature, pesticide dose, repeated
ISI Document Delivery No.: 936GT

655. Karanasios, E.; Papadi-Psyllou, A.; Karpouzas, D. G., and Tsiropoulos, N. G. Optimization of Biomixture Composition and Water Management for Maximum Pesticide Dissipation in Peat-Free Biobeds. 2012; 41, (6): 1787-1795.

Rec #: 62519
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Biomixture composition and water management are key factors controlling biobeds performance. Although compost-biomixtures (BXs) possess high degradation efficiency, their low water-holding capacity compared with peat-biomixtures (OBX) limits their use. Thus, appropriate water management is required to optimize their performance. The dissipation capacity of selected BXs compared with OBXs was assessed in a column study under two water managements not differing in their total water load but in the intensity and frequency of water addition. Results showed that the less frequent application of large water volumes (water management scenario I) facilitated pesticide leaching (0.001-10.4% of initially applied), compared with the frequent application of low water volumes (water management scenario II) where leaching losses were always <1%. Water management affected differently the dissipation performance of substrates: OBX outperformed BXs under water management scenario I, whereas the grape marc compost-biomixture (BX1) was superior at water management scenario II. Substitution of grape marc compost (Cl) with olive leaves compost (C2) or of straw with corn cobs or grape stalks reduced the dissipation capacity of BX1. Mass balance analysis revealed that the high dissipation capacity of OBX was mostly attributable to its high ability to retain rather than degrade pesticides, whereas the exact opposite was seen for BX1. Overall, our findings suggest that BXs-biobeds could treat large wastewater volumes under appropriate water management that extends the contact period between pesticides and BXs, thus exploiting their high biodegradation capacity.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 039QU

656. Karanasios, Evangelos; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G, and Karanasios, Evangelos. On-Farm Biopurification Systems for the Depuration of Pesticide Wastewaters: Recent Biotechnological Advances and Future Perspectives. 2012 Nov; 23, (6): 787-802.

Rec #: 46439
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Point source contamination of natural water resources by pesticides constitutes a serious problem and on-farm biopurification systems (BPS) were introduced to resolve it. This paper reviews the processes and parameters controlling BPS depuration efficiency and reports on recent biotechnological advances which have been used for enhancing BPS performance. Biomixture composition and water management are the two factors which either individually or through their interactions control the depuration performance of BPS. Which process (biodegradation or adsorption) will dominate pesticides dissipation in BPS depends on biomixture composition and the physicochemical properties of the pesticides. Biotechnological interventions such as augmentation with pesticide-degrading microbes or pesticide-primed matrices have resulted in enhanced biodegradation performance of BPS. Despite all these advancement in BPS research, there are still several issues which should be resolved to facilitate their full implementation. Safe handling and disposal of the spent biomixture is a key practical issue which needs further research. The use of BPS for the depuration of wastewaters from post-farm activities such as postharvest treatment of fruits should be a priority research issue considering the lack of alternative treatment systems. However, the key point hampering optimization of BPS is the lack of fundamental knowledge on BPS microbiology. The use of advanced molecular and biochemical methods in BPS would shed light into this issue in the future.
Keywords: A 01380:Plant Protection, Fungicides & Seed Treatments
Keywords: Fruits
Keywords: Biodegradation
Keywords: Biochemistry
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: M3 1010:Issues in Sustainable Development
Keywords: Depuration
Keywords: Physicochemical properties
Keywords: Intervention
Keywords: Water resources
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: W 30950:Waste Treatment & Pollution Clean-up
Keywords: Sustainability Science Abstracts; Microbiology Abstracts A: Industrial & Applied Microbiology; Pollution Abstracts; Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: Water management
Keywords: Reviews
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Adsorption
Keywords: Waste water
Date revised - 2012-11-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 787-802
ProQuest ID - 1222713134
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Fruits; Biodegradation; Contamination; Water management; Physicochemical properties; Pesticides; Depuration; Adsorption; Water resources; Waste water; Biochemistry; Reviews; Intervention
Last updated - 2012-12-06
Corporate institution author - Karanasios, Evangelos; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G
DOI - OB-128fe69e-21a2-4fc3-ae9dmfgefd108; 17219401; 0923-9820; 1572-9729 English

657. Karanasios, Evangelos; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania, and Karanasios, Evangelos. Novel Biomixtures Based on Local Mediterranean Lignocellulosic Materials: Evaluation for Use in Biobed Systems. 2010 Aug; 80, (8): 914-921.

Rec #: 43949
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The composition of biomixtures strongly affect the efficacy of biobeds. Typically, biomixture consists of peat (or compost), straw (STR) and topsoil (1:2:1 by volume). Straw guarantees a continuous supply of nutrients and high microbial activity. However, in south Europe other lignocellulosic materials including sunflower crop residues (SFR), olive leaves, grape stalks (GS), orange peels, corn cobs (CC) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are also readily available at no cost. Their potential utilization in biomixtures instead of STR was tested in pesticide degradation and adsorption studies. The microbial activity in these biomixtures was also assessed. The GS-biomixture was the most efficient in pesticide degradation, while CC- and SFR-biomixtures showed comparable degrading efficacy with the STR-biomixture. The SMS-biomixture was also highly efficient in degrading the pesticide mixture with degradation rates being correlated with the proportion of SMS in the biomixture. Microbial respiration was positively correlated with the degradation rates of metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos, compared to phenoloxidase which showed no correlation. Biomixtures containing alternative lignocellulosic materials showed a higher adsorption affinity for terbuthylazine and metribuzin compared to the STR-biomixture. We provide first evidence that STR can be substituted in biomixtures by other lignocellulosic materials which are readily available in south Europe.
Keywords: A 01380:Plant Protection, Fungicides & Seed Treatments
Keywords: Olea
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: Respiration
Keywords: Nutrients
Keywords: corn
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: azoxystrobin
Keywords: Evaluation
Keywords: Metalaxyl
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: ANE, Europe
Keywords: Corn
Keywords: AQ 00002:Water Quality
Keywords: Straw
Keywords: crop residues
Keywords: Phenoloxidase
Keywords: Composts
Keywords: Leaves
Keywords: Microbial activity
Keywords: Crop residues
Keywords: Basidiocarps
Keywords: Peat
Keywords: ENA 06:Food & Drugs
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: metribuzin
Keywords: MED
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Adsorption
Keywords: Microorganisms
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Vitaceae
Keywords: Helianthus
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Location - MED; ANE, Europe
Pages - 914-921
ProQuest ID - 814326662
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Phenoloxidase; Composts; Respiration; Leaves; Nutrients; Crop residues; Basidiocarps; Peat; Chlorpyrifos; azoxystrobin; Metalaxyl; metribuzin; Pesticides; Adsorption; Straw; crop residues; Degradation; Microbial activity; corn; Evaluation; Agricultural Chemicals; Corn; Microorganisms; Olea; Vitaceae; Helianthus; MED; ANE, Europe
Last updated - 2011-12-08
Corporate institution author - Karanasios, Evangelos; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania
DOI - OB-39c6de36-8d25-407c-88adcsaobj202; 13249246; 0045-6535 English

658. Karas, Panagiotis A.; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos, and Karpouzas, Dimitrios G. Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi. 2011; 22, (1): 215-228.

Rec #: 53229
Keywords: MIXTURE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l⁻¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l⁻¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l⁻¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up.
Keywords: Fruit packaging industrial effluents
Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands

659. Karczmar, A. G. Cholinesterases (ChEs) and the cholinergic system in ontogenesis and phylogenesis, and non-classical roles of cholinesterases-A review. 2010; 187, (1-3): 34-43.

Rec #: 62569
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The enigma of the cholinergic function concerns the role of ChEs and other components of the cholinergic system in non-transmittive, non-synaptic phenomena. The notion that such unorthodox, non-classical phenomena must exist is clearly supported by several lines of evidence, such as the presence of ChEs and other cholinergic components early before neurogenesis, and indeed in unfertilized and fertilized eggs and in the sperm of many species, and their presence throughout phylogenesis, including non-motile, monocellular organisms, fungi and plants and many anervous and ephemeral tissues. The "flexibility" of ChEs, expressed in their polymorphism and their changeability during ontogenesis also speaks for the notion of non-classical functions of ChEs. Today, there is direct evidence that such functions do indeed exist, as for example, the evidence as to the role of ChEs and other cholinergic components in processes of cell proliferation and differentiation of synaptic and myoneural structures. Also, ChEs participate in cell communications as examplified by immunity processes, as well as pathological states, including Alzheimer's disease and states induced by "insults" such as stress and exposure to agents such as antiChEs. Finally, consistent with the non-classical roles of ChEs and cholinergic components are the morphogenetic and teratologic effects of antiChEs, including OP compounds and cholinergic agonists and antagonists. The structural homology between ChEs on the one hand, and adhesion molecules and protohormones on the other may explain some of this phenomenology.

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