Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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This paper describes a biological indicator approach for ecological risk assessment of contaminated land in Thailand. This research found that ecotoxicological assessment provides a better basis for understanding the ecological impacts that contaminated sites cause under Thai environmental conditions. Thai soil invertebrate species were more sensitive to soil contaminants than similar species overseas. Different soil types from within Thailand also had an influence on the toxicity of contaminants to soil invertebrates. This study suggested that the collembolan, Cyphoderus sp. should be a useful alternative test species and more ecologically relevant to toxicity testing of Thai soils than the international test species, Folsomia candida. Soil biodiversity and functionality assessments also represent useful tools to assess contaminated land in Thailand. The data generated by this study will provide useful information for the pollution control authorities to assist with adequate protection and management of soil quality in Thailand.
Keywords: Soil types
Keywords: toxicity testing
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Z 05300:General
Keywords: Bioremediation
Keywords: Ecosystems
Keywords: Entomology Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: Thailand
Keywords: Biological diversity
Keywords: Biodiversity
Keywords: Invertebrates
Keywords: Waste management
Keywords: Assessments
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Folsomia candida
Keywords: biomonitoring
Keywords: Waste disposal
Keywords: X 24350:Industrial Chemicals
Keywords: Pressure
Keywords: Pollution
Keywords: Urban areas
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Testing Procedures
Keywords: soil types
Keywords: SW 3050:Ultimate disposal of wastes
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: soil invertebrates
Keywords: Wastes
Keywords: Cyphoderus
Keywords: Protection
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Soil contamination
Keywords: Land use
Keywords: Soil pollution
Keywords: Indigenous species
Keywords: Risk
Keywords: Water Pollution Effects
Keywords: Soil Types
Keywords: Environmental conditions
Keywords: Contaminants
Keywords: Toxicity testing
Keywords: Developing countries
Keywords: Hazardous wastes
Keywords: Pollution control
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Thailand
Pages - 143-153
ProQuest ID - 813703635
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Risk assessment; Soil types; Data processing; Wastes; Biodiversity; Toxicity; Land use; Soil pollution; Indigenous species; biomonitoring; Pressure; Environmental conditions; Contaminants; Developing countries; Toxicity testing; Pollution; Pollution control; Bioindicators; toxicity testing; soil types; Bioremediation; Ecosystems; soil invertebrates; Biological diversity; Soil contamination; Waste management; Waste disposal; Hazardous wastes; Urban areas; Testing Procedures; Risk; Pollutants; Assessments; Water Pollution Effects; Soil Types; Protection; Invertebrates; Folsomia candida; Cyphoderus; Thailand
Last updated - 2011-11-09
Corporate institution author - Iwai, C B; Noller, B N
DOI - OB-MD-0013560833; 12924619; 1323-3475 English

604. Iwakoshi, K.; Takano, I.; Kobayashi, M.; Ohtsuka, K.; Tamura, Y.; Tomizawa, S.; Kamijo, K.; Kageyama, Y., and Nagayama, T. [Transfer of Pesticide Residues to Crops Via Cardboard Boxes].

Rec #: 77929
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Cardboard boxes used to transport crops are often reused in the distribution process, and therefore transfer of pesticides between crops might occur. So, we designed model experiments to investigate whether or not transfer of pesticide residues from crops to other crops via cardboard boxes occurs. Under severe experimental conditions, 6.2% of the pesticide residues of grapefruit was found to be transferred to spinach via cardboard boxes. In the case of the mandarin orange, 0.57% was transferred. The actual amount of transferred pesticides in the market may be less than that in these model experiments, but it is clear that transfer of pesticide residues to other crops via cardboard boxes can occur. Therefore more attention must be given to reuse of cardboard boxes in the distribution process.
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Citrus/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Crops, Agricultural/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: *Food Analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Food Contamination/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: *Food Packaging
MESH HEADINGS: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
MESH HEADINGS: Imidazoles/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Pesticide Residues/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Tandem Mass Spectrometry
MESH HEADINGS: Thiabendazole/analysis jpn

605. ---. Transfer of the Pesticide Residues to Crops via Cardboard Boxes. 2009; 50, (5): 223-229.

Rec #: 62009
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Cardboard boxes used to transport crops are often reused in the distribution process, and therefore transfer of pesticides between crops might occur. So, we designed model experiments to investigate whether or not transfer of pesticide residues from crops to other crops via cardboard boxes occurs. Under severe experimental conditions, 6.2% of the pesticide residues of grapefruit was found to be transferred to spinach via cardboard boxes. In the case of the mandarin orange, 0.57% was transferred. The actual amount of transferred pesticides in the market may be less than that in these model experiments, but it is clear that transfer of pesticide residues to other crops via cardboard boxes can occur. Therefore more attention must be given to reuse of cardbord boxes in the distribution process.
Keywords: cardboard box, pesticide residue, transfer, citrus fruit, thiabendazole,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 518CX

606. Jackson, K. S.; Inoue, K.; Davis, D. A.; Hilliard, T. S., and Burdette, J. E. Three-Dimensional Ovarian Organ Culture as a Tool to Study Normal Ovarian Surface Epithelial Wound Repair.

Rec #: 51559
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancers are primarily derived from a single layer of epithelial cells surrounding the ovary, the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Ovarian surface proliferation is associated with ovulation and has been suggested to play a role in ovarian surface transformation and cancer progression. Aspects of ovarian surface repair after ovulation include proliferation, migration, and surface regeneration. To study ovarian surface repair, an organ culture system was developed that supports the proliferation, encapsulation, and repair of an artificially wounded surface. Wounded mouse ovaries embedded into an alginate hydrogel matrix have normal OSE cells as demonstrated by expression of cytokeratin 8, vimentin, N-cadherin, and a lack of E-cadherin. Normal OSE cells began proliferating and migrating around wounded surfaces after 1 d of culture. Organ cultures were propagated in medium supplemented with BSA and fetal bovine serum to determine optimal growth conditions. BSA cultured organs had OSE that proliferated significantly more than controls until d 4, whereas fetal bovine serum cultured organs had significantly more surface area encapsulated by OSE. Overall, a three-dimensional ovarian organ culture supports the growth of normal OSE in response to artificial wounding and provides a novel system for investigating wound repair as it relates to the possible role of ovulation and ovarian cancer.
MESH HEADINGS: Alginates/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Proliferation/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Epithelial Cells/cytology/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Glucuronic Acid/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Hemostatics/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Hexuronic Acids/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Immunohistochemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Organ Culture Techniques/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Ovary/*cytology/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Wound Healing/physiology eng

607. Jackson, M. D. and Lewis, R. G. Insecticide Concentrations in Air After Application of Pest Control Strips. 1981; 27, 122-125.

Rec #: 920
Keywords: FATE
Call Number: NO FATE (CPY,DZ,PPX)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DZ,PPX

608. Jacob, S. R.; Arunkumar, M. B.; Gopal, M.; Srivastava, C., and Sinha, S. N. An analysis of the persistence and potency of film-coated seed protectant as influenced by various storage parameters. 2009; 65, (7): 817-822.

Rec #: 62019
Keywords: METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: An efficient delivery system for seed-protectant chemicals is needed in light of several disadvantages of conventional seed treatment methods. This study evaluates the efficacy of film-coat application in maintaining the persistence and potency of imiclacloprid on Lycoperskon esculenturn (L.) Mill. seeds after simultaneous storage under ambient and regulated environment in paper and aluminium packages. RESULTS: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed 0.135 mg kg(-1) of herbage material to be the threshold value beyond which absolute control was obtained, and with film coating the latter was achieved even with half-dosage seed treatment, irrespective of the storage condition. The technique provided early protection to the crop and also nullified the deleterious effects of ambient storage on the persistence and potency of the pesticide. CONCLUSION: Film coating enabled superior pesticide dosage as well as higher biological efficacy to be achieved. Hence, in addition to being an ecofriendly alternative, the technique would be a more economically viable option for storage of treated seeds. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry
Keywords: seed dressings, film coating, persistence, potency, storage
ISI Document Delivery No.: 465WH

609. Jain, A.; Wang, G., and Vasquez, K. M. Dna Triple Helices: Biological Consequences and Therapeutic Potential.

Rec #: 51189
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: DNA structure is a critical element in determining its function. The DNA molecule is capable of adopting a variety of non-canonical structures, including three-stranded (i.e. triplex) structures, which will be the focus of this review. The ability to selectively modulate the activity of genes is a long-standing goal in molecular medicine. DNA triplex structures, either intermolecular triplexes formed by binding of an exogenously applied oligonucleotide to a target duplex sequence, or naturally occurring intramolecular triplexes (H-DNA) formed at endogenous mirror repeat sequences, present exploitable features that permit site-specific alteration of the genome. These structures can induce transcriptional repression and site-specific mutagenesis or recombination. Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) can bind to duplex DNA in a sequence-specific fashion with high affinity, and can be used to direct DNA-modifying agents to selected sequences. H-DNA plays important roles in vivo and is inherently mutagenic and recombinogenic, such that elements of the H-DNA structure may be pharmacologically exploitable. In this review we discuss the biological consequences and therapeutic potential of triple helical DNA structures. We anticipate that the information provided will stimulate further investigations aimed toward improving DNA triplex-related gene targeting strategies for biotechnological and potential clinical applications.
MESH HEADINGS: Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Base Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: DNA/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism/*therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Genome/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Nucleic Acid Conformation
MESH HEADINGS: Oligonucleotides/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Transcription, Genetic eng

610. Jaipieam, S.; Visuthismajarn, P.; Siriwong, W.; Borjan, M., and Robson, M. G. Inhalation Exposure of Organophosphate Pesticides by Vegetable Growers in the Bang-Rieng Subdistrict in Thailand.

Rec #: 77759
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Cites: Int J Occup Environ Health. 2004 Jul-Sep;10(3):289-95 (medline /15473083)
ABSTRACT: This study investigated inhalation exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and evaluated the associated health risks to vegetable growers living in the Bang-Rieng agricultural community. Air samples were collected by using personal sampling pumps with sorbent tubes placed in the vegetable growers' breathing zone. Samples were collected during both wet and dry seasons. Residues of organophosphate pesticides, that is, chlorpyrifos, dicrotofos, and profenofos, were analyzed from 33 vegetable growers and 17 reference subjects. Results showed that median concentrations of OPPs in air in farm areas were in the range of 0.022-0.056 mg/m(3) and air in nonfarm areas in the range of < 0.0016- < 0.005 mg/m(3). The concentration of the three pesticides in the vegetable growers was significantly higher than that of the references during both seasons. The results also indicate that the vegetable growers may be at risk for acute adverse effects via the inhalation of chlorpyrifos and dicrotofos during pesticide application, mixing, loading, and spraying. It is suggested that authorities and the community should implement appropriate strategies concerning risk reduction and risk management.
MESH HEADINGS: Agriculture
MESH HEADINGS: Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis/toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/analysis/toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Cross-Sectional Studies
MESH HEADINGS: Inhalation Exposure/*statistics &
MESH HEADINGS: numerical data
MESH HEADINGS: Occupational Exposure/*statistics &
MESH HEADINGS: numerical data
MESH HEADINGS: Organophosphates/*analysis/toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis/toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Organothiophosphates/analysis/toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Pesticides/*analysis/toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Vegetables eng

611. Jalalizand, Ali Reza; Fakhari, Hajar; Modaresi, Mehrdad; Shayeghi, Mansoureh, and Abtahi, Mohammad. The Amount of Dursban Pesticide Residues in Isfahan Sugar Beet: 2011 International Conference on Environment Science and Biotechnology (ICESB 2011). 2011; 8, (0): 235-239.

Rec #: 1410
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Communities are concerned with the role of durable pesticides and their carry over effect in food chains. Accordingly, the recognition and measurement of chemical compounds in food, environment and living bodies is necessary. In this study, which dated from October 2010 to March 2011, dursban toxin residues in sugar beets were investigated in the cities of Isfahan province including: Isfahan, Borkhar, Semirom, Golpayegan and Fereidan using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Maximum amount of dursban belonged to Borkhar region and the minimum amount was attributed to two regions of Isfahan and Golpayegan. The toxin residues in sugar beets in all investigated areas were higher than the maximum allowable residues of any pesticide MRL (0.01 mg in kg sugar). Residual insecticides/ Thin layer chromatography HPTLC method/ Sugar beet/ Dursban

612. Jamil, K.; Das, G. P.; Shaik, A. P.; Dharmi, S. S., and Murthy, S. Epidemiological studies of pesticide-exposed individuals and their clinical implications. 2007; 92, (3): 340-345.

Rec #: 62049
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Epidemiological studies were conducted in pesticide-exposed agricultural workers along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls. All the 200 exposed volunteers were suffering from fever, nausea, headache and other abnormal symptoms and visited the hospital for general health check-up. These cases were taken up for more detailed studies. Five (2.5%) showed decrease in RBC, haemoglobin, and increase in WBC with a large number of immature cells. These volunteers were further diagnosed as Philadelphia-negative Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) cases based on clinical and pathological examinations. In similar environs, about 100 children (aged between 1 and 17 years) were studied for the above parameters. About 3% of the exposed children showed signs of mental retardation and delayed milestones; these were compared with healthy children (age- and sex-matched) from pristine environment. It is therefore concluded that clinical evaluations supported by occupational epidemiology could determine CML in exposed individuals (adults).
Keywords: chronic myeloid leukaemia, hematological and neurological parameters,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 139JZ


Rec #: 62059
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A bi-functional sorbent derived from ethylacrylate-divinylbenzene copolymer was synthesized in beaded form by a suspension polymerization technique. Unlike conventional alkaline hydrolysis of the copolymer, a novel hydrolysis technique was used in this study and the copolymer was treated with concentrated sulfuric acid. More than 70% of the ester groups were converted into -COOH groups and about 60% of the aromatic rings in the copolymer were introduced by -SO(3)H groups. The synthesized copolymer was used as a solid-phase material for extraction of pesticides from water samples. Recoveries of five pesticides, namely, chlorfenvinfos, endosulfan sulfate, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, and diuron, were compared to those using commercially available silica-based C-18 sorbent. The recoveries obtained with the synthesized sorbent were low compared to commercial C18 cartridge. However, the synthesized polymer is cost effective and can be reused. Three extraction cycles did not affect the % recoveries of the studied pesticides. The % recoveries, obtained for chlorfenvinphos, diuron, endosulfan sulfate, chlropyrifos, and fenvelerate, ranged from 28 to 62%; linear range, 0.035 to 22 mg L(-1); LOD, 37 to 118 mu g L(-1); and LOQ, 123 to 395 mu g L(-1).
Keywords: chlorfenvinfos, chlorpyrifos, diuron, endosulfan sulphate,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 916AX

614. Janis, C.; Bischof, D.; Gourgues, G.; Frey, J.; Blanchard, A., and Sirand-Pugnet, P. Unmarked Insertional Mutagenesis in the Bovine Pathogen Mycoplasma Mycoides Subsp. Mycoides Sc: Characterization of a Lppq Mutant.

Rec #: 51149
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) is the aetiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a respiratory disease causing important losses in cattle production. The publication of the genome sequence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC should facilitate the identification of putative virulence factors. However, real progress in the study of molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity also requires efficient molecular tools for gene inactivation. In the present study, we have developed a transposon-based approach for the random mutagenesis of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. A PCR-based screening assay enabled the characterization of several mutants with knockouts of genes potentially involved in pathogenicity. The initial transposon was further improved by combining it with the transposon gammadelta TnpR/res recombination system to allow the production of unmarked mutations. Using this approach, we isolated a mutant free of antibiotic-resistance genes, in which the gene encoding the main lipoprotein LppQ was disrupted. The mutant was found to express only residual amounts of the truncated N-terminal end of LppQ. This approach opens the way to study virulence factors and pathogen-host interactions of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and to develop new, genetically defined vaccine strains.
MESH HEADINGS: Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cattle Diseases/microbiology
MESH HEADINGS: DNA Transposable Elements
MESH HEADINGS: Genetic Vectors/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Lipoproteins/*genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *Mutagenesis, Insertional
MESH HEADINGS: Mycoplasma mycoides/*genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Pleuropneumonia, Contagious/microbiology
MESH HEADINGS: Polymerase Chain Reaction eng

615. Jardim, A. N. O. and Caldas, E. D. Brazilian monitoring programs for pesticide residues in food - Results from 2001 to 2010. 2012; 25, (2): 607-616.

Rec #: 62099
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A total of 13,556 samples of 22 fruit and vegetable crops, rice, and beans were analyzed within two Brazilian pesticide residue monitoring programs between 2001 and 2010. Pesticide residues were found in 48.3% of the samples, and 13.2% presented some irregularity, mostly non-authorized active ingredient use. Less than 3% of the samples had residue levels above the MRL Apple, papaya, sweet pepper and strawberry were the crops with the higher percentages of positive samples (about 80%). Dithiocarbamates and organophosphorus compounds were found in 41.6% and 30.8% of the samples, respectively. Carbendazim and chlorpyrifos were the pesticides most found (26.7 and 16.1% of positive samples, respectively). Almost half of the samples analyzed had multiple residues (up to 10 residues), with multiple residues most common in samples of apple, sweet pepper and tomato. About 8% of positive samples contained up to four residues of the same chemical class, mainly organophosphorus compounds (18.6%, mostly in apple) and triazoles (16.1%, mostly in papaya and grape). In general, the scenario of pesticide residues in foods investigated within the Brazilian governmental monitoring programs in the last decade is similar to what has been found in other countries. However, the use of non-authorized active ingredients is a common practice among the farmers in the country, a problem that the government authorities have been trying to solve. A preliminary cumulative acute exposure assessment for organophosphates and carbamates in apple has shown that the intake by individuals >= 10 years old accounts for 100% of the acephate ARfD, indicating a need to further investigate the exposure through the consumptions of other crops and group of pesticides, mainly for children. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pesticide residues, Food, Brazil
ISI Document Delivery No.: 898JZ

616. Jarvi, K. J. and Echtenkamp, G. W. Black Cutworm Control in Field Corn at Planting Time, 1992. 1993; 18, 201-202 (20F).

Rec #: 170
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,PMR,TFT

617. ---. Claybacked Cutworm Control in Field Corn, 1991. SOIL; 1992; 17, 196-197 (34F).

Rec #: 160
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CEX,CPY,PMR,TFT

618. Jarvinen, A. W. and Tanner, D. K. Toxicity/Time Relationships for Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) Exposed to Pesticides. 1986; 1462, 224-226(ABS).

Rec #: 930
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Call Number: NO ABSTRACT (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

619. Jastrzebska, E. The Effect of Chlorpyrifos and Teflubenzuron on the Enzymatic Activity of Soil. 2011; 20, (4): 903-910.

Rec #: 62109
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The aim of our study was to determine changes in soil quality, evaluated throughout the analysis of selected soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenases, urease, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and catalase) after the application of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and teflubenzuron. Chlorpyrifos is a phosphoorganic insecticide and a cholinesterase inhibitor. Teflubenzuron is a benzoyl urea derivative that inhibits chitin synthesis. The pot experiment involved the two types of insecticides at different doses and sampling of two types of soil. The results of the experiment indicate that both insecticides modified the biochemical parameters of soil. Dehydrogenases proved to be most sensitive to the presence of xenobiotics in soil. Their activity decreased at increasing levels of soil contamination for each of the insecticides. In comparison with teflubenzuron, chlorpyrifos reduced the activity of dehydrogenases, urease, and alkaline phosphatase to a greater extent.
Keywords: activity of soil enzymes, insecticides, soil contamination
ISI Document Delivery No.: 802GL

620. Jayawardane, P.; Senanayake, N.; Buckley, N. A., and Dawson, A. H. Electrophysiological correlates of respiratory failure in acute organophosphate poisoning: Evidence for differential roles of muscarinic and nicotinic stimulation. 2012; 50, (4): 250-253.

Rec #: 62119
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background. Respiratory failure in acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning can occur early and also relatively late in the clinical course, and the pathophysiology of respiratory failure at these different phases may have important clinical implications. Objective. To compare the electrophysiological findings in patients with early and late respiratory failure following acute OP poisoning. Methods. A prospective observational case series of consenting symptomatic patients with acute OP poisoning were assessed with daily physical examinations and repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) studies. RNS was done on right and left median and ulnar nerves at 1, 3, 10, 15, 20, and 30 Hz. Outcomes such as need for ventilation and development of intermediate syndrome (IMS) were noted. Early respiratory failure was defined as occurring within 24 hours of ingestion. Results. Seventy-eight patients were recruited for the clinical and electrophysiological study and of those 59 (75.6%) patients had ingested chlorpyrifos. Seven patients developed respiratory failure within 24 hours of ingestion with overt muscarinic signs. They had no electrophysiological abnormalities at median and ulnar nerves before intubation. Three of them later developed "forme fruste" IMS. Five other patients developed late respiratory failure after 24 hours of ingestion, and all of them showed progressive RNS changes indicating severe IMS prior to intubation. Conclusion. The normal RNS in all patients developing early respiratory failure suggests that it is due to a central nervous system (CNS) and muscarinic effect. This emphasizes the need for early rapid atropinisation as a priority, combating the nicotinic effects being less urgent. This is in contrast with the late respiratory failure, which has been shown to be associated with neuromuscular dysfunction. Further studies are needed to quantify CNS and muscarinic dysfunction to assist in the development of better treatments for the severe and early OP poisoning.
Keywords: Neurophysiology, Ventilation, Organophosphorous compounds
ISI Document Delivery No.: 915KT

621. Jayawardane, Pradeepa; Dawson, Andrew H; Weerasinghe, Vajira; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nicholas a; Senanayake, Nimal; Bateman, Nick, and Jayawardane, Pradeepa. The Spectrum of Intermediate Syndrome Following Acute Organophosphate Poisoning: a Prospective Cohort Study From Sri Lanka. 2008 Jul; 5, (7): 1-e147.

Rec #: 45799
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background Intermediate syndrome (IMS) is a major cause of death from respiratory failure following acute organophosphate poisoning. The objective of this study was to determine repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) predictors of IMS that would assist in patient management and clinical research. Methods and Findings Seventy-eight consenting symptomatic patients with organophosphate poisoning were assessed prospectively with daily physical examination and RNS. RNS was done on the right and left median and ulnar nerves at 1, 3, 10, 15, 20, and 30 Hz. The study was conducted as a prospective observational cohort study in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. IMS was diagnosed in ten out of 78 patients using a priori clinical diagnostic criteria, and five of them developed respiratory failure. All ten patients showed progressive RNS changes correlating with the severity of IMS. A decrement-increment was observed at intermediate and high frequencies preceding the onset of clinical signs of IMS. As the patient developed clinical signs of IMS, decrement-increment was progressively noted at low and intermediate frequencies and a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade or severe decrement was noted at high frequencies. Severe decrement preceded respiratory failure in four patients. Thirty patients developed forme fruste IMS with less severe weakness not progressing to respiratory failure whose RNS was characterized by decrement-increment or a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade but never severe decrements. Conclusions Characteristic changes in RNS, preceding the development of IMS, help to identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of developing respiratory failure. The forme fruste IMS with the characteristic early changes on RNS indicates that IMS is a spectrum disorder. RNS changes are objective and precede the diagnosis and complications of IMS. Thus they may be useful in clinical management and research. Jayawardane and colleagues evaluate a cohort of 78 patients with organophosphate poisoning from Sri Lanka, and identify changes in repetitive nerve stimulation that precede, and may help predict, the onset of intermediate syndrome. Editors' Summary Background. Each year, many thousands of deaths around the world are caused by pesticide poisoning. Often, the pesticide involved is an organophosphate. These highly toxic compounds, which are widely used in agriculture, particularly in developing countries, disrupt the transmission of messages from the brain to the body in insect pests and in people. The brain controls body movements by sending electrical impulses along nerve cells (neurons). At the end of the neurons, these impulses are converted into chemical messengers (neurotransmitters), which cross the gap between neurons and muscle cells (the neuromuscular junction) and bind to proteins on the surface of the muscle cells to pass on the brain's message. One important neurotransmitter is acetylcholine. This is used in the part of the nervous system that controls breathing and other automatic vital functions, at neuromuscular junctions, and in parts of the central nervous system. Normally, acetylcholine is quickly broken down after it has delivered its message, but organophosphates disrupt this process and, consequently, affect nerve transmission to muscles. Organophosphate poisoning causes three syndromes. The cholinergic syndrome, which can be fatal, happens soon after organophosphates are swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. The intermediate syndrome (IMS), which results in muscle weakness in the limbs, neck, and throat, develops in some patients 24-96 hours after poisoning. Finally, long-term nerve damage sometimes develops 2-3 weeks after poisoning. Why Was This Study Done? Although IMS is a major contributor to the illness caused by organophosphate poisoning and can result in respiratory (breathing) failure and death, the functional changes that are associated with IMS (its pathophysiology) are poorly understood. With a better understanding of these changes, it might be possible to find ways to prevent or treat IMS or to predict which patients with IMS are likely to develop respiratory failure. In this study, the researchers make a set of measurements of nerve transmission in a large group of organophosphate-poisoned patients in Sri Lanka to discover more about the pathophysiology of IMS. What Did the Researchers Do and Find? Seventy-eight patients with organophosphate poisoning were assessed several times a day for clinical signs of IMS. In addition, nerve transmission was measured daily in the patients using an electrophysiological technique called repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS). For this, a series of small electrical shocks was applied to the certain nerves in the arm and the responses in the muscles that these nerves control were recorded. In the ten study participants who developed IMS, the researchers observed several characteristic changes in their muscle responses to RNS, some of which were seen before the clinical signs of IMS. Other changes in muscle responses to RNS correlated with the development of clear IMS. Most importantly, in the four patients with IMS who developed respiratory failure, an RNS response pattern called severe decrement (a reduced response to the first electrical shock and then no response to the subsequent shocks) was seen before respiratory failure. Finally, there were other characteristic changes in muscle responses to RNS in 30 patients with muscle weakness not severe enough for a diagnosis of IMS (incomplete or 'forme fruste' IMS). What Do These Findings Mean? These findings indicate that changes in nerve transmission that can be objectively monitored using RNS evolve during the development of IMS. In other words, IMS is a 'spectrum' disorder in which the weakness and neuromuscular junction problems caused by organophosphate poisoning gradually progress over time through a series of electrophysiological changes that will sometimes resolve quickly and only in the most severe cases will result in respiratory failure. These findings need to be validated in further studies, particularly since most of the patients in this study had been exposed to a single organophosphate (chlorpyrifos). However, they suggest that the RNS tests might be useful in the clinical management of patients with organophosphate poisoning, particularly since such tests could provide an early warning of impending respiratory failure. Additional Information. Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at . This study is further discussed in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Cynthia Aaron The US Environmental Protection Agency provides information about all aspects of pesticides (in English and Spanish) Toxtown , an interactive site from the US National Library of Science, provides information on environmental health concerns including exposure to pesticides (in English and Spanish) The US National Pesticide Information Center provides objective, science-based information about pesticides MedlinePlus also provides links to information on pesticides (in English and Spanish) The International Programme on Chemical Safety has information on poisoning prevention and management ; its INTOX databank has a description of the cholinergic syndrome WikiTox is a clinical toxicology resource
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Central nervous system
Keywords: Pharynx
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Respiration
Keywords: Environmental health
Keywords: Arm
Keywords: insects
Keywords: Sri Lanka
Keywords: Nerves
Keywords: pests
Keywords: Neurotransmission
Keywords: Risk factors
Keywords: H 14000:Toxicology
Keywords: prevention
Keywords: Pests
Keywords: Neurotransmitters
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Toxicology
Keywords: Mortality
Keywords: Skin
Keywords: Brain
Keywords: agriculture
Keywords: Muscles
Keywords: Poisoning
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Neck
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: EPA
Keywords: Limbs
Keywords: Shock
Keywords: Neurons
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Neuromuscular junctions
Keywords: Information centers
Keywords: Proteins
Keywords: Acetylcholine
Keywords: Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Developing countries
Date revised - 2008-12-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Sri Lanka
Pages - e147
ProQuest ID - 19384965
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sri Lanka; Organophosphates; Poisoning; Muscles; Pesticides; Mortality; Brain; prevention; EPA; insects; Central nervous system; Chlorpyrifos; Developing countries; agriculture; Environmental health; pests; Proteins; Toxicology; Skin; organophosphates; Neurotransmission; Respiration; Neuromuscular junctions; Shock; Neurons; Nerves; Neurotransmitters; Acetylcholine; Information centers; Pests; Arm; Agriculture; Pharynx; Limbs; Risk factors; Neck
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - PLOS Medicine [PLOS Med.]. Vol. 5, no. 7, e147 p. Jul 2008.
Corporate institution author - Jayawardane, Pradeepa; Dawson, Andrew H; Weerasinghe, Vajira; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nicholas A; Senanayake, Nimal; Bateman, Nick
DOI - MD-0008412870; 8519480; 1549-1277; 1549-1676 English

622. Jensen, B H; Petersen, a, and Christensen, T. Probabilistic Assessment of the Cumulative Dietary Acute Exposure of the Population of Denmark to Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides. 2009 Jul; 26, (7): 1038-1048.

Rec #: 44729
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos and methamidophos. RPF values derived from the literature were used in the calculations. We calculated the cumulative acute exposure to 1.8% and 0.8% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 100 microg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) of chlorpyrifos as an index compound at the 99.9th percentile (P99.5) for children and adults, respectively. When we used methamidophos as the index compound, the cumulative acute intakes were calculated to 31.3% and 13.8% of the ARfD of 3 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) at P99.9 for children and adults, respectively. With both index compounds, the greatest contributor to the cumulative acute exposure was apple. The results show that there is no cumulative acute risk for Danish consumers to acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides.
Keywords: Cereals -- chemistry
Keywords: Young Adult
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds -- analysis
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Aged
Keywords: Child
Keywords: Models, Statistical
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds
Keywords: Vegetables -- chemistry
Keywords: Maximum Allowable Concentration
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Denmark
Keywords: Adolescent
Keywords: Time Factors
Keywords: Male
Keywords: Food Contamination -- analysis
Keywords: Diet Surveys
Keywords: Pesticide Residues
Keywords: Child, Preschool
Keywords: Carbamates -- analysis
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Carbamates
Keywords: Pesticide Residues -- analysis
Keywords: Middle Aged
Keywords: Diet
Keywords: Fruit -- chemistry
Keywords: Female
Date completed - 2010-05-12
Date created - 2009-08-14
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1038-1048
ProQuest ID - 733328788
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment, July 2009, 26(7):1038-1048
Corporate institution author - Jensen, B H; Petersen, A; Christensen, T
DOI - MEDL-19680979; 19680979; 1944-0057 eng

623. Jessup, D. A.; Johnson, C. K.; Estes, J.; Carlson-Bremer, D.; Jarman, W. M.; Reese, S.; Dodd, E.; Tinker, M. T., and Ziccardi, M. H. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN THE BLOOD OF FREE-RANGING SEA OTTERS (ENHYDRA LUTRIS SSP.) IN ALASKA AND CALIFORNIA. 2010; 46, (4): 1214-1233.

Rec #: 62149
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically Sigma polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], Sigma DDTs, Sigma hexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], Sigma polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], Sigma chlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently, observed in subadults. Very high levels of Sigma DDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only Sigma DDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of Sigma PCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.
Keywords: Blood, DDT, Enhydra lutris, PCB, persistent organic pollutants, sea
ISI Document Delivery No.: 676FP

624. Jett, D. A. Cholinesterase research at the National Institutes of Health, USA. 2008; 175, (1-3): 22-25.

Rec #: 62159
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Presented below is a brief description of research supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on cholinesterases that was discussed at the IXth International Meeting on Cholinesterases in Suzhou, China. It is a partial description of the research conducted by researchers at academic and other institutions Supported by the NIH, and by some of the researchers in NIH intramural laboratories. It does not represent a comprehensive survey of all research Supported by the NIH related to cholinesterases, but rather a brief discussion of some of the Studies discussed at the IXth International Meeting on Cholinesterases. The article describes exciting basic, translational and clinical research on therapies for neurological and other diseases. In addition, cholinesterases that may treat substance abuse are discussed, and pesticide and chemical warfare agents that inhibit cholinesterases are highlighted as part of the NIH portfolio. It is the intent of this article to share with the international community some of the research being supported by the NIH on cholinesterases that complements many of the studies being conducted elsewhere. The information was obtained only from published articles or from abstracts available to the public within the NIH CRISP database ( Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd
Keywords: Cholinesterases, National Institutes of Health, Description of research
ISI Document Delivery No.: 361EO

625. Ji, J.; Xiao, B.; Li, Y.; Yu, W. L., and Liu, F. Toxicity Assessment of Two Different Formulations of Chlorpyrifos to Four Environmental Organisms. Key Laboratory of Pesticide Toxicology & Application Technique, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China,//: 2010; 29, (9): 1681-1686(CHI) (ENG ABS).

Rec #: 2530
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

626. Ji, W.; Panus, D.; Palumbo, R. N.; Tang, R., and Wang, C. Poly(2-Aminoethyl Methacrylate) With Well-Defined Chain Length for Dna Vaccine Delivery to Dendritic Cells.

Rec #: 49919
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate) (PAEM) homopolymers with defined chain length and narrow molecular weight distribution were synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and a comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the colloidal properties of PAEM/plasmid DNA polyplexes, the uptake and subcellular trafficking of polyplexes in antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs), and the biological performance of PAEM as a potential DNA vaccine carrier. PAEM of different chain length (45, 75, and 150 repeating units) showed varying strength in condensing plasmid DNA into narrowly dispersed nanoparticles with very low cytotoxicity. Longer polymer chain length resulted in higher levels of overall cellular uptake and nuclear uptake of plasmid DNA, but shorter polymer chains favored intracellular and intranuclear release of free plasmid from the polyplexes. Despite its simple chemical structure, PAEM transfected DCs very efficiently in vitro in media with or without serum and led to phenotypic maturation of DCs. When a model antigen-encoding ovalbumin plasmid was used, transfected DCs stimulated the activation of na‹ve CD8(+) T cells to produce high levels of interferon-γ. The efficiency of transfection, DC maturation, and CD8(+) T cell activation showed varying degrees of polymer chain-length dependence. These structurally defined cationic polymers may have much potential as efficient DNA vaccine carriers and immunostimulatory adjuvants. They may also serve as a model material system for elucidating structural and intracellular mechanisms of polymer-mediated DNA vaccine delivery.
MESH HEADINGS: Biological Transport/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: DNA/chemistry/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Dendritic Cells/cytology/*drug effects/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Drug Delivery Systems/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis
MESH HEADINGS: Lymphocyte Activation
MESH HEADINGS: Methacrylates/*chemical synthesis/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Nanoparticles
MESH HEADINGS: Polymers/chemical synthesis/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Transfection/methods
MESH HEADINGS: Vaccines, DNA/*administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/pharmacology eng

627. Jiang, D; Yue, L; Ma, D; Zhu, Y; Yin, D, and Jiang, D. Ecological Risk Assessment of Water in Taihu Lake and Tianmu Lake Using Species Sensitivity Distribution Model. 2012 Mar; 31, (3): 301-306.

Rec #: 42819
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Ecological risk assessment on the pollutants in lakes can enable appropriate monitoring and management work, which is important for the protection and recovery of aquatic ecosystem, the prevention of algae bloom and lake degradation. Ecological risk assessment on the typical pollutants in Taihu Lake and Tianmu Lake was performed using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). The predicted no-effect concentration for water and sediment (PNEC sub(ater)) for all compounds, PNEC sub(sed) for hydrophobical ones) for 31 compounds was derived from the acute and chronic toxicity data of aquatic organisms.
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