Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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Abstract: Abstract: Probabilistic models of interindividual variation in exposure and response were linked to create a source-to-outcome population model. This model was used to investigate cholinesterase inhibition from dietary exposures to an insecticide (chlorpyrifos) in populations of adults and 3year old children. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was used to calculate the variation in sensitivity occurring from interindividual variability in physiology, metabolism, and physical activity levels. A dietary intake model characterizes the variation in dietary insecticide exposures and variation in anthropometry in the populations. Published equations were used to describe the necessary physiology for each simulated individual based on the anthropometry from the dietary intake model. The model of the interindividual variation in response to chlorpyrifos was developed by performing a sensitivity analysis on the PBPK/PD model to determine the parameters that drive variation in pharmacodynamics outcomes (brain and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase inhibition). Distributions of interindividual variation were developed for parameters with the largest impact; the probabilistic model sampled from these distributions. The impact of age and interindividual variation on sensitivity at the doses that occur from dietary exposures, typically orders of magnitude lower than exposures assessed in toxicological studies, was assessed using the source-to-outcome model. The resulting simulations demonstrated that metabolic detoxification capacity was sufficient to prevent significant brain and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase inhibition, even in individuals with the lowest detoxification potential. Age-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters did not predict differences in susceptibility between adults and children. In the future, the approach of this case study could be used to assess the risks from low level exposures to other chemicals.
Keywords: Detoxification
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Physical activity
Keywords: Parkinson's disease
Keywords: Erythrocytes
Keywords: Physiology
Keywords: Dietary intake
Keywords: Anthropometry
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Medical Sciences--Forensic Sciences
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Risk Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Risk factors
Keywords: R2 23060:Medical and environmental health
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pharmacodynamics
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: Sensitivity
Keywords: Mathematical models
Keywords: Brain
Keywords: Ingestion
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Pharmacokinetics
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Neurodegenerative diseases
Keywords: Movement disorders
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Toxicity testing
Keywords: Metabolism
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 82-92
ProQuest ID - 894646677
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Detoxification; Mathematical models; Acetylcholinesterase; Physical activity; Parkinson's disease; Erythrocytes; Brain; Children; Dietary intake; Pharmacokinetics; Chlorpyrifos; Anthropometry; Neurodegenerative diseases; Insecticides; Movement disorders; Risk factors; Toxicity testing; Metabolism; Pharmacodynamics; Diets; Sensitivity; Physiology; Pesticides; Ingestion
Last updated - 2012-01-26
Corporate institution author - Hinderliter, Paul M; Price, Paul S; Bartels, Michael J; Timchalk, Charles; Poet, Torka S
DOI - OB-cae50b24-9f80-43d9-8348csamfg201; 15673689; 0273-2300 English

551. Hjorth, K.; Johansen, K.; Holen, B.; Andersson, A.; Christensen, H. B.; Siivinen, K., and Toome, M. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America - A Nordic project. 2011; 22, (11): 1701-1706.


Rec #: 61549
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America. A total of 724 samples of 46 different fruits and vegetables from eight South American countries were collected in 2007. In 19% of the samples no residues were found, 72% of samples contained pesticide residues at or below MRL, and 8.4% of samples contained pesticide residues above MRL. Thiabendazole, imazalil and chlorpyrifos were the pesticide most frequently found. Thirty-seven pesticides were found with frequencies higher that 1% in the samples. The results emphasize the need for continuous monitoring of pesticide residues, especially in imported fruits and vegetables. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Pesticides, Residue analysis, South America, Fruit and vegetables
ISI Document Delivery No.: 791ZS

552. Hladik, Michelle L; Smalling, Kelly L; Kuivila, Kathryn M, and Hladik, Michelle L. A Multi-Residue Method for the Analysis of Pesticides and Pesticide Degradates in Water Using Hlb Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. 2008 Feb; 80, ( 2): 139-144.


Rec #: 49759
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A method was developed for the analysis of over 60 pesticides and degradates in water by HLB solid-phase extraction and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Method recoveries and detection limits were determined using two surface waters with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. In the lower DOC water, recoveries and detection limits were 80%-108% and 1-12 ng/L, respectively. In the higher DOC water, the detection limits were slightly higher (1-15 ng/L). Additionally, surface water samples from four sites were analyzed and 14 pesticides were detected with concentrations ranging from 4 to 1,200 ng/L.
Keywords: Mass Spectrometry
Keywords: Pollution detection
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Organic Carbon
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Mass spectrometry
Keywords: AQ 00003:Monitoring and Analysis of Water and Wastes
Keywords: Surface Water
Keywords: Q5 01502:Methods and instruments
Keywords: Mass spectroscopy
Keywords: Methodology
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Detection Limits
Keywords: Analytical Methods
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Dissolved organic carbon
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Toxicology
Date revised - 2012-09-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 139-144
ProQuest ID - 293880209
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pesticides; Dissolved organic carbon; Toxicology; Mass spectroscopy; Methodology; Surface water; Pollution detection; Mass spectrometry; Mass Spectrometry; Agricultural Chemicals; Contamination; Detection Limits; Analytical Methods; Organic Carbon; Surface Water
Last updated - 2012-11-09
Corporate institution author - Hladik, Michelle L; Smalling, Kelly L; Kuivila, Kathryn M
DOI - OB-MD-0008068960; 8170401; CS0844092; 0007-4861 English

553. Ho, L.; Di Carlo, S.; Moran, K. L.; Bantseev, V., and Sivak, J. G. Effect of age on ocular irritancy as measured with in vitro bovine lenses. 2008; 22, (2): 450-456.


Rec #: 61559
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Purpose: This project studied the effect of age on optical quality of cultured bovine lenses exposed to a number of common surfactants and alcohol. Methods: Lenses from calves (8-18 months) and cows (2-3 years) were isolated aseptically and studied optically for 96 h after treatment with various commercial surfactants and an alcohol. Potential eye irritancy was evaluated using a scanning laser in vitro assay system which records the change in focal characteristics (back vertex distance variability or BVDV) of the bovine lenses. Lenses were divided into a total of 14 groups. Both calf and cow lenses (a total of 257 lenses were used) were arranged into control, 0.01% BAK, 1% SDS, 1.0% Triton X-100, 100% ethanol, 10% Tween-20 and 1.0% Tween-20 treatment groups. Results: The cationic surfactant BAK caused the most amount of optical change to the bovine lenses, followed by SDS, Triton X-100, ethanol and then Tween-20. There was also a significant difference in BVDV between the cow and calf groups for all the treated groups, except for Tween-20, with the calf lenses showing greater optical damage. In the case of 10% Tween-20, both cow and calf lenses show equal optical damage while at 1.0% both groups show no effect and are no different from the untreated control lenses. Conclusion: Younger bovine lenses are more sensitive to the surfactants and alcohol tested when compared to their older counterparts, indicating that younger eyes may be more sensitive to these chemicals. The results further indicate that age is a factor that should be taken into account in assessing ocular risk. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: bovine lenses, scanning laser in vitro assay system, back vertex
ISI Document Delivery No.: 284GI

554. Hodeify, R. ; Megyesi, J.; Tarcsafalvi, A.; Safirstein, R. L., and Price, P. M. Protection of Cisplatin Cytotoxicity by an Inactive Cyclin-Dependent Kinase.


Rec #: 50519
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Cisplatin cytotoxicity is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity in vivo and in vitro. A Cdk2 mutant (Cdk2-F80G) was designed in which the ATP-binding pocket was altered. When expressed in mouse kidney cells, this protein was kinase inactive, did not inhibit endogenous Cdk2, but protected from cisplatin. The mutant was localized in the cytoplasm, but when coexpressed with cyclin A, it was activated, localized to the nucleus, and no longer protected from cisplatin cytotoxicity. Cells exposed to cisplatin in the presence of the activated mutant had an apoptotic phenotype, and endonuclease G was released from mitochondria similar to that mediated by endogenous Cdk2. But unlike apoptosis mediated by wild-type Cdk2, cisplatin exposure of cells expressing the activated mutant did not cause cytochrome c release or significant caspase-3 activation. We conclude that cisplatin likely activates both caspase-dependent and -independent cell death, and Cdk2 is required for both pathways. The mutant-inactive Cdk2 protected from both death pathways, but after activation by excess cyclin A, caspase-independent cell death predominated.
MESH HEADINGS: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus
MESH HEADINGS: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Antineoplastic Agents/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Apoptosis/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Binding Sites
MESH HEADINGS: Caspase 3/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Nucleus/enzymology
MESH HEADINGS: Cells, Cultured
MESH HEADINGS: Cisplatin/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Cyclin A/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochromes c/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cytoplasm/enzymology
MESH HEADINGS: Cytoprotection
MESH HEADINGS: Endodeoxyribonucleases/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Kidney Tubules, Proximal/*drug effects/enzymology/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Mitochondria/drug effects/enzymology
MESH HEADINGS: Mutation
MESH HEADINGS: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Transfection eng

555. Hodgson, Ernest. Chapter 9 - Biotransformation of Individual Pesticides: Some Examples. Ernest Hodgson. Pesticide Biotransformation and Disposition. Boston: Academic Press; 2012: 195-208.


Rec #: 3940
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ISSN/ISBN: 978-0-12-385481-0 This chapter is intended to show how the general features of pesticide metabolism are expressed in surrogate species and, in some cases, in humans, using individual, well-known pesticides from various chemical and use classes as examples. Of particular interest is the integration of several phase I and/or phase II enzymes to effect the overall metabolism of a single chemical entity. In several cases both detoxication and activation pathways are apparent. The pesticides are alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, DDT, fipronil, imidacloprid, permethrin, and phorate.

556. Hoferkamp, Lisa; Hermanson, Mark H; Muir, Derek Cg, and Hoferkamp, Lisa. Current Use Pesticides in Arctic Media; 2000-2007. 2010 Jul 1; 408 , (15): 2985-2994.


Rec #: 44059
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This review will summarize the levels of selected current use pesticides (CUPs) that have been identified and reported in Arctic media (i.e. air, water, sediment, and biota) since the year 2000. Almost all of the 10 CUPs (chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, diazinon, dicofol, lindane, methoxychlor, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), pentachlorophenol, and trifluralin) examined in the review currently are, or have been, high production volume chemicals i.e. >1M lbs/y in USA or >1000t/y globally. Characteristic travel distances for the 10 chemicals range from 55km (methoxychlor) to 12,100km (PCNB). Surveys and long-term monitoring studies have demonstrated the presence of 9 of the 10 CUPs included in this review in the Arctic environment. Only dicofol has not been reported. The presence of these chemicals has mainly been reported in high volume air samples and in snow from Arctic ice caps and lake catchments. There are many other CUPs registered for use which have not been determined in Arctic environments. The discovery of the CUPs currently measured in the Arctic has been mainly serendipitous, a result of analyzing some samples using the same suite of analytes as used for studies in mid-latitude locations. A more systematic approach is needed to assess whether other CUPs might be accumulating in the arctic and ultimately to assess whether their presence has any significance biologically or results in risks for human consumers.
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: Catchment area
Keywords: Chlorophylls
Keywords: Arctic ice
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Arctic zone
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Arctic environment
Keywords: Lakes
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Catchment basins
Keywords: Air sampling
Keywords: Q5 01501:General
Keywords: Consumers
Keywords: R2 23050:Environment
Keywords: Ice caps
Keywords: Arctic
Keywords: Sediment pollution
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Snow
Keywords: Lindane
Keywords: AQ 00003:Monitoring and Analysis of Water and Wastes
Keywords: Polar environments
Keywords: M2 551.324:Land Ice/Glaciers (551.324)
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: PN, Arctic
Keywords: USA
Keywords: Reviews
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Methoxychlor
Keywords: Trifluralin
Keywords: Monitoring
Keywords: ENA 01:Air Pollution
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Location - PN, Arctic; USA
Pages - 2985-2994
ProQuest ID - 810750576
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Catchment area; Chlorophylls; Sediment pollution; Snow; Pesticides; Consumers; Arctic zone; Ice caps; Arctic environment; Catchment basins; Arctic ice; Chlorpyrifos; Chemicals; Lakes; Reviews; Air sampling; Trifluralin; Lindane; Polar environments; Agricultural Chemicals; Methoxychlor; Monitoring; Arctic; PN, Arctic; USA
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Hoferkamp, Lisa; Hermanson, Mark H; Muir, Derek CG
DOI - OB-b961ee7a-b100-40ca-8282csaobj202; 13072081; CS1115550; 0048-9697 English

557. Hoffmann, T.; Boiangiu, C.; Moses, S., and Bremer, E. Responses of Bacillus Subtilis to Hypotonic Challenges: Physiological Contributions of Mechanosensitive Channels to Cellular Survival.


Rec #: 51299
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Mechanosensitive channels are thought to function as safety valves for the release of cytoplasmic solutes from cells that have to manage a rapid transition from high- to low-osmolarity environments. Subsequent to an osmotic down-shock of cells grown at high osmolarity, Bacillus subtilis rapidly releases the previously accumulated compatible solute glycine betaine in accordance with the degree of the osmotic downshift. Database searches suggest that B. subtilis possesses one copy of a gene for a mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (mscL) and three copies of genes encoding proteins that putatively form mechanosensitive channels of small conductance (yhdY, yfkC, and ykuT). Detailed mutational analysis of all potential channel-forming genes revealed that a quadruple mutant (mscL yhdY yfkC ykuT) has no growth disadvantage in high-osmolarity media in comparison to the wild type. Osmotic down-shock experiments demonstrated that the MscL channel is the principal solute release system of B. subtilis, and strains with a gene disruption in mscL exhibited a severe survival defect upon an osmotic down-shock. We also detected a minor contribution of the SigB-controlled putative MscS-type channel-forming protein YkuT to cellular survival in an mscL mutant. Taken together, our data revealed that mechanosensitive channels of both the MscL and MscS types play pivotal roles in managing the transition of B. subtilis from hyper- to hypo-osmotic environments.
MESH HEADINGS: Bacillus subtilis/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Bacterial Proteins/genetics/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Betaine/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Deletion
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Order
MESH HEADINGS: Ion Channels/genetics/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Mechanotransduction, Cellular
MESH HEADINGS: *Microbial Viability
MESH HEADINGS: Mutagenesis, Insertional
MESH HEADINGS: Osmotic Pressure eng

558. Hofmann, J. N.; Keifer, M. C.; De Roos, A. J.; Fenske, R. A.; Furlong, C. E.; van Belle, G., and Checkoway, H. Occupational determinants of serum cholinesterase inhibition among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State. 2010; 67, (6): 375-386.


Rec #: 61629
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Objective To identify potential risk factors for serum cholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers exposed to organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study among 154 agricultural pesticide handlers who participated in the Washington State cholinesterase monitoring program in 2006 and 2007. BuChE inhibition was analysed in relation to reported exposures before and after adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression. ORs estimating the risk of BuChE depression (>20% from baseline) were also calculated for selected exposures based on unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results An overall decrease in mean BuChE activity was observed among study participants at the time of followup testing during the OP/CB spray season relative to preseason baseline levels (mean decrease of 5.6%, p<0.001). Score for estimated cumulative exposure to OP/CB insecticides in the past 30 days was a significant predictor of BuChE inhibition (beta = -1.74, p<0.001). Several specific work practices and workplace conditions were associated with greater BuChE inhibition, including mixing/loading pesticides and cleaning spray equipment. Factors that were protective against BuChE inhibition included full-face respirator use, wearing chemical-resistant boots and storing personal protective equipment in a locker at work. Conclusions Despite existing regulations, agricultural pesticide handlers continue to be exposed to OP/CB insecticides at levels resulting in BuChE inhibition. These findings suggest that modifying certain work practices could potentially reduce BuChE inhibition. Replication from other studies will be valuable.
Keywords: PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, DERMAL EXPOSURE, FARM-WORKERS, HEALTH,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 605NI

559. Hofmann, J. N.; Keifer, M. C.; Furlong, C. E.; De Roos, A. J.; Farin, F. M.; Fenske, R. A.; van Belle, G., and Checkoway, H. Serum Cholinesterase Inhibition in Relation to Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) Status among Organophosphate-Exposed Agricultural Pesticide Handlers. 2009; 117, (9): 1402-1408.


Rec #: 61639
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: Animal studies have demonstrated that low paraoxonase-1 (PON1) status (i.e., low catalytic efficiency and/or low plasma PON1 activity) is associated with neurotoxic effects after exposure to several organophosphate (OP) insecticides. However, few human studies have investigated associations between PON1 status and intermediate end points, such as serum cholinesterase [butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)] inhibition, among OP-exposed individuals. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relation between plasma PON1 status and BuChE inhibition among OP-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers. METHODS: Agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State were recruited during the 2006 and 2007 spray seasons when they were seen for follow-up ChE testing by collaborating medical providers as part of a statewide monitoring program. Blood samples were collected from 163 participants and tested for PON1 status based on plasma PON1 activity [arylesterase (AREase)] and PON1 Q192R genotype. We evaluated percent change in BuChE activity from baseline level in relation to PON1 status. RESULTS: We observed significantly greater BuChE inhibition among QQ homozygotes relative to RR homozygotes (p = 0.036). Lower levels of plasma PON1 activity were significantly associated with greater BuChE inhibition (p = 0.004). These associations remained after adjustment for year, days since baseline test, age, and OP exposure in the last 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: We found that both low PON1 catalytic efficiency (i.e., the Q192 alloform) and low plasma PON1 activity were associated with BuChE inhibition among OP-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers. Corroborative findings from future studies with prospective collection of blood samples for PON1 testing, more sensitive markers of OP-related effects, and larger sample sizes are needed.
Keywords: agriculture, cholinesterase, farmworkers, gene-environment interaction,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 490EE

560. Hofmann, Jonathan N. and Checkoway, Harvey. Determinants of Serum Cholinesterase Inhibition Among Organophosphate-Exposed Agricultural Pesticide Handlers in Washington State. 2008.


Rec #: 51959
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The goal of this study was to identify determinants of serum cholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers exposed to organophosphate (OP) and N -methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides. Risk of BuChE inhibition was evaluated in relation to workplace, behavioral, and genetic characteristics [i.e., paraoxonase (PON1) status]. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that low PON1 status is associated with an increased risk of neurotoxic effects resulting from exposure to several OPs. Agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State were recruited cross-sectionally during the 2006 and 2007 spray seasons when they were seen for follow-up cholinesterase (ChE) testing by collaborating medical providers as part of a statewide monitoring program. We collected blood samples from 163 participants and self-reported exposure data from 154 participants. Blood samples were tested for PON1 status based on catalytic efficiency for chlorpyrifos-oxon metabolism (Q 192R genotype) and plasma activity levels of PON1 [arylesterase (AREase)]. BuChE inhibition was analyzed in relation to reported exposures and PON1 status before and after adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression. Odds ratios estimating the risk of 'BuChE depression' (>20% BuChE inhibition from baseline) were also calculated for selected exposures and PON1 status based on unconditional logistic regression. An overall decrease in BuChE activity from baseline levels was observed among study participants, and score for cumulative OP/CB exposure in the past 30 days was a significant predictor of BuChE inhibition (P=0.003). Several specific work activities were associated with BuChE inhibition, including mixing/loading pesticides and cleaning spray equipment. Factors that protected against BuChE inhibition included full-face respirator use, wearing chemical-resistant boots, and storing personal protective equipment in a locker at work. In terms of PON1 status, significantly greater BuChE inhibition was observed among QQ homozygotes relative to RR homozygotes (P=0.036). Lower levels of plasma PON1 activity were significantly associated with a greater degree of BuChE inhibition (P=0.004). These associations remained after adjustment for year, days since baseline ChE test, age, and recent OP/CB exposure. Despite existing regulations, agricultural pesticide handlers continue to be exposed to OP/CB insecticides at levels resulting in BuChE inhibition. These findings suggest that various modifiable work practices can reduce BuChE inhibition.
Keywords: Agricultural pesticides
Keywords: Washington
Keywords: Organophosphate-exposed
Keywords: Serum cholinesterase
Keywords: 0573:Public health
Keywords: 0354:Occupational health
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Keywords: 0766:Epidemiology
Keywords: Cholinesterase inhibitors
Keywords: Pesticide handlers
2008
Agricultural pesticides
0821420
Washington
304450102
0573: Public health
66569
Pesticide handlers
n/a
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2008
English
0354: Occupational health
2010-08-07
Organophosphate-exposed
1663093311
Serum cholinesterase
41358111
Health and environmental sciences
Cholinesterase inhibitors
Hofmann, Jonathan N.
0766: Epidemiology English

561. Hogmire, H. W.; Winfield, T.; Cheves, R.; Day, M. L., and Grove, C. Insecticide Evaluation, 1992. 1993; 18, 19-24 (25A).


Rec #: 130
Keywords: MIXTURE
Call Number: NO MIXTURE (AZ,AZD,BOR,CBL,CPY,Captan,DOD,EFV,FPP,MOM,MP,MYC,PSM,STRP,TDF)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: AZ,AZD,BOR,CBL,CPY,Captan,DOD,EFV,FPP,MOM,MP,MYC,NAA,PSM,STRP,TDF,TPM

562. Hogmire, H. W. Jr.; Winfield, T., and Cheves, R. Insecticide Evaluation, 1990. SOIL; 1991; 16, 7-9 (10A).


Rec #: 120
Keywords: MIXTURE
Call Number: NO MIXTURE (AZ,BMY,BOR,CPY,Captan,DMT,EFV,FPP,FRM,Folpet,MEM,MOM,MP,MYC,MZB,PMR,TDC)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: AZ,BMY,BOR,CPY,Captan,DMT,EFV,FPP,FRM,Folpet,MEM,MOM,MP,MYC,MZB,NAA,PMR,PPHD,TDC,TPM,Zineb

563. Hohmann, C. L. Effect of Different Insecticides on the Emergence of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). 1991; 20, (1): 59-65(POR).


Rec #: 880
Keywords: NOT PURSUING,NON-ENGLISH
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

564. Holmstrup, Martin; Bindesbal, Anne-Mette; Oostingh, Gertie Janneke; Duschl, Albert; Scheil, Volker; Koehler, Heinz-R; Loureiro, Susana; Soares, Amadeu Mvm; Ferreira, Abel Lg; Kienle, Cornelia; Gerhardt, Almut; Laskowski, Ryszard; Kramarz, Paulina E; Bayley, Mark; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J, and Kienle, Cornelia. Interactions Between Effects of Environmental Chemicals and Natural Stressors: a Review. 2010 Aug 15; 408, (18): 3746-3762.


Rec #: 47779
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Ecotoxicological effect studies often expose test organisms under optimal environmental conditions. However, organisms in their natural settings rarely experience optimal conditions. On the contrary, during most of their lifetime they are forced to cope with sub-optimal conditions and occasionally with severe environmental stress. Interactions between the effects of a natural stressor and a toxicant can sometimes result in greater effects than expected from either of the stress types alone. The aim of the present review is to provide a synthesis of existing knowledge on the interactions between effects of "natural" and chemical (anthropogenic) stressors. More than 150 studies were evaluated covering stressors including heat, cold, desiccation, oxygen depletion, pathogens and immunomodulatory factors combined with a variety of environmental pollutants. This evaluation revealed that synergistic interactions between the effects of various natural stressors and toxicants are not uncommon phenomena. Thus, synergistic interactions were reported in more than 50% of the available studies on these interactions. Antagonistic interactions were also detected, but in fewer cases. Interestingly, about 70% of the tested chemicals were found to compromise the immune system of humans as judged from studies on human cell lines. The challenge for future studies will therefore be to include aspects of combined stressors in effect and risk assessment of chemicals in the environment.
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: test organisms
Keywords: Toxicants
Keywords: immune system
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Stress
Keywords: Pathogens
Keywords: P 6000:TOXICOLOGY AND HEALTH
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Reviews
Keywords: Oxygen depletion
Keywords: R2 23010:General: Models, forecasting
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 3746-3762
ProQuest ID - 814252345
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Risk assessment; Chemicals; test organisms; immune system; Toxicants; Reviews; Oxygen depletion; Stress; Pathogens
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Holmstrup, Martin; BindesbAl, Anne-Mette; Oostingh, Gertie Janneke; Duschl, Albert; Scheil, Volker; Koehler, Heinz-R; Loureiro, Susana; Soares, Amadeu MVM; Ferreira, Abel LG; Kienle, Cornelia; Gerhardt, Almut; Laskowski, Ryszard; Kramarz, Paulina E; Bayley, Mark; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J
DOI - OB-36c73453-ca36-4f4d-a9f4csaobj202; 13249915; 0048-9697 English

565. Hong, L. E.; Summerfelt, A.; Buchanan, R. W.; O'donnell, P.; Thaker, G. K.; Weiler, M. A., and Lahti, A. C. Gamma and Delta Neural Oscillations and Association With Clinical Symptoms Under Subanesthetic Ketamine.


Rec #: 77619
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Several electrical neural oscillatory abnormalities have been associated with schizophrenia, although the underlying mechanisms of these oscillatory problems are unclear. Animal studies suggest that one of the key mechanisms of neural oscillations is through glutamatergic regulation; therefore, neural oscillations may provide a valuable animal-clinical interface on studying glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. To identify glutamatergic control of neural oscillation relevant to human subjects, we studied the effects of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist that can mimic some clinical aspects of schizophrenia, on auditory-evoked neural oscillations using a paired-click paradigm. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of ketamine vs saline infusion on 10 healthy subjects. Clinically, infusion of ketamine in subanesthetic dose significantly increased thought disorder, withdrawal-retardation, and dissociative symptoms. Ketamine significantly augmented high-frequency oscillations (gamma band at 40-85 Hz, p=0.006) and reduced low-frequency oscillations (delta band at 1-5 Hz, p < 0.001) compared with placebo. Importantly, the combined effect of increased gamma and reduced delta frequency oscillations was significantly associated with more withdrawal-retardation symptoms experienced during ketamine administration (p=0.02). Ketamine also reduced gating of the theta-alpha (5-12 Hz) range oscillation, an effect that mimics previously described deficits in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives. In conclusion, acute ketamine appeared to mimic some aspects of neural oscillatory deficits in schizophrenia, and showed an opposite effect on scalp-recorded gamma vs low-frequency oscillations. These electrical oscillatory indexes of subanesthetic ketamine can be potentially used to cross-examine glutamatergic pharmacological effects in translational animal and human studies.
MESH HEADINGS: Adult
MESH HEADINGS: Anesthetics, Dissociative/*administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/adverse effects
MESH HEADINGS: Biological Clocks/drug effects/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Cross-Over Studies
MESH HEADINGS: Delta Rhythm/*drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Dissociative Disorders/chemically induced/*physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Double-Blind Method
MESH HEADINGS: Evoked Potentials, Auditory/drug effects/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Female
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Ketamine/*administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/adverse effects
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Middle Aged
MESH HEADINGS: Neurons/drug effects/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Young Adult eng

566. Hoogduijn, M. J.; Cheng, A. X., and Genever, P. G. Functional Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptors on Mesenchymal Stem Cells. 2009; 18, (1): 103-112.


Rec #: 61649
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are under the control of a large number of signaling systems. In this study, the presence and functionality of the acetylcholine (ACh) signaling system in MSCs was examined. We detected the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and the presence of ACh in MSCs. MSCs also expressed the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha 3, alpha 5, alpha 7, and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 2 (M2-receptor). The M2-receptor and the nicotinic alpha 7 receptor subunits were expressed on distinct subpopulations of cells, indicating differential regulation of cholinergic signaling between MSCs. Stimulation of MSCs with the nicotinic receptor agonist nicotine and the muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine induced immediate and transient increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Furthermore, muscarine had an inhibiting effect on the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP). The AChE inhibitor chlorpyrifos, which is widely used as an agricultural insecticide, had similar effects on intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP in MSCs. Nicotine, muscarine, and chlorpyrifos induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that several components of a cholinergic signaling system are present and functional in MSCs. Environmental compounds such as nicotine and agricultural insecticides can interfere with this system and may affect cellular processes in the MSC.
Keywords: CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM, OSTEOGENIC DIFFERENTIATION, ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTORS,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 406RX

567. Hoppin, J. A.; Umbach, D. M.; London, S. J.; Henneberger, P. K.; Kullman, G. J.; Alavanja, M. C. R., and Sandler, D. P. Pesticides and atopic and nonatopic asthma among farm women in the agricultural health study. 2008; 177, (1): 11-18.


Rec #: 61669
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Rationale: Risk factors for asthma among farm women are understudied. Objectives: We evaluated pesticide and other occupational exposures as risk factors for adult-onset asthma. Methods: Studying 25,814 farm women in the Agricultural Health Study, we used self-reported history of doctor-diagnosed asthma with or without eczema and/or hay fever to create two case groups: patients with atopic asthma and those with nonatopic asthma. We assessed disease-exposure associations with polytomous logistic regression. Measurements and Main Results: At enrollment (1993-1997), 702 women (2.7%) reported a doctor's diagnosis of asthma after age 19 years (282 atopic, 420 nonatopic). Growing upon a farm (61% of all farm women) was protective for atopic asthma (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.70) and, to a lesser extent, for nonatopic asthma (OR, 0.83; 95%CI, 0.68-1.02; P value for difference = 0.008). Pesticide use was almost exclusively associated with atopic asthma. Any use of pesticides on the farm was associated only with atopic asthma (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.87). This association with pesticides was strongest among women who had grown up on a farm. Women who grew up on farms and did not apply pesticides had the lowest overall risk of atopic asthma (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) compared with women who neither grew upon farms nor applied pesticides. A total of 7 of 16 insecticides, 2 of 11 herbicides, and 1 of 4 fungicides were significantly associated with atopic asthma; only permethrin use on crops was associated with nonatopic asthma. Conclusions: These findings suggest that pesticides may contribute to atopic asthma, but not nonatopic asthma, among farm women.
Keywords: agricultural workers, allergy, asthma, organophosphates, pesticides
ISI Document Delivery No.: 246BN

568. Hoppin, Jane a; Long, Stuart; Umbach, David M; Lubin, Jay H; Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Thomas, Kent; Hines, Cynthia J; Weichenthal, Scott; Kamel, Freya; Koutros, Stella; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Sandler, Dale P, and Hoppin, Jane A. Lifetime Organophosphorous Insecticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. 2012 Nov; 22, (6): 584-592.


Rec #: 42459
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) are the most commonly used insecticides in US agriculture, but little information is available regarding specific OP use by individual farmers. We describe OP use for licensed private pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) using lifetime pesticide use data from 701 randomly selected male participants collected at three time periods. Of 27 OPs studied, 20 were used by >1%. Overall, 95% had ever applied at least one OP. The median number of different OPs used was 4 (maximum=13). Malathion was the most commonly used OP (74%) followed by chlorpyrifos (54%). OP use declined over time. At the first interview (1993-1997), 68% of participants had applied OPs in the past year; by the last interview (2005-2007), only 42% had. Similarly, median annual application days of OPs declined from 13.5 to 6 days. Although OP use was common, the specific OPs used varied by state, time period, and individual. Much of the variability in OP use was associated with the choice of OP, rather than the frequency or duration of application. Information on farmers' OP use enhances our ability to characterize and understand the potential health effects of multiple OP exposures.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: USA, North Carolina
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: USA, Iowa
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Malathion
Date revised - 2012-12-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, North Carolina; USA, Iowa
Pages - 584-592
ProQuest ID - 1257746552
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Agriculture; Data processing; Insecticides; Pesticides; Malathion; USA, North Carolina; USA, Iowa
Last updated - 2013-01-11
British nursing index edition - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 584-592. Nov 2012.
Corporate institution author - Hoppin, Jane A; Long, Stuart; Umbach, David M; Lubin, Jay H; Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Thomas, Kent; Hines, Cynthia J; Weichenthal, Scott; Kamel, Freya; Koutros, Stella; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Sandler, Dale P
DOI - 46e1b167-54cc-49ac-8412mfgefd107; 17410891; 1559-0631 English

569. Horton, Megan K; Jacobson, J Bryan; Mckelvey, Wendy; Holmes, Darrell; Fincher, Betty; Quantano, Audrey; Diaz, Beinvendida Paez; Shabbazz, Faye; Shepard, Peggy; Rundle, Andrew; Whyatt, Robin M, and Rundle, Andrew. Characterization of Residential Pest Control Products Used in Inner City Communities in New York City. 2011 May; 21, (3): 291-301.


Rec #: 43409
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) previously reported widespread residential insecticide use in urban communities in New York City. Research suggests that pyrethroids are replacing organophosphates (OPs) in response to 2000-2001 US EPA pesticide regulations restricting OP use. A systematic assessment of active ingredients used for residential pest control is lacking. We queried a database of pesticide applications reported by licensed applicators between 1999 and 2005 and surveyed pest control products available in 145 stores within 29 zip codes in the CCCEH catchment area including Northern Manhattan and the South Bronx. Pyrethroids, pyrethrins, piperonyl butoxide, and hydramethylnon were the most common insecticide active ingredients reported as used by licensed pesticide applicators within the 29 zip codes of the CCCEH catchment area between 1999 and 2005. Use of certain pyrethroids and some non-spray insecticides such as fipronil and boric acid increased significantly by year (logistic regression, OR>1.0, P<0.05), whereas use of OPs, including chlorpyrifos and diazinon decreased significantly by year (logistic regression, OR<1.0, P<0.05). Among pesticide applicators, the most commonly applied active ingredients were formulated as spray applications. With 145 stores in the catchment area, 120 (82.5%) carried at least one insecticide. Spray cans were most common (114/120 stores, 95%); gels were least common (31/120 stores, 25.8%). Among spray formulations, pyrethroid insecticides were the most common pesticide class and permethrin, a pyrethroid, was the most common individual active ingredient. In 2007, one store carried a product containing chlorpyrifos and one store carried a product containing diazinon. This survey suggests that certain pyrethroids and non-spray insecticides replaced OPs for pest control in this area. Chlorpyrifos and diazinon have nearly been eliminated from products marketed for residential pest control.
Keywords: Piperonyl butoxide
Keywords: Pesticide applications
Keywords: Gels
Keywords: Cans
Keywords: USA, New York, New York City
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Catchment areas
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: boric acid
Keywords: Pyrethroids
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: pyrethrins
Keywords: Urban areas
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Sprays
Keywords: Permethrin
Keywords: Pest control
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Databases
Keywords: fipronil
Keywords: Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: USA, New York, Manhattan
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Catchments
Keywords: Diazinon
Date revised - 2011-07-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, New York, New York City; USA, New York, Manhattan
Pages - 291-301
ProQuest ID - 876243847
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Permethrin; Piperonyl butoxide; Pest control; organophosphates; Children; Pesticide applications; Gels; Chlorpyrifos; Databases; Cans; Insecticides; Catchment areas; fipronil; Pesticides; boric acid; Pyrethroids; Diazinon; pyrethrins; Sprays; Catchments; Urban areas; USA, New York, New York City; USA, New York, Manhattan
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 291-301. May 2011.
Corporate institution author - Horton, Megan K; Jacobson, J Bryan; McKelvey, Wendy; Holmes, Darrell; Fincher, Betty; Quantano, Audrey; Diaz, Beinvendida Paez; Shabbazz, Faye; Shepard, Peggy; Rundle, Andrew; Whyatt, Robin M
DOI - ede91b78-e69b-4880-9522mfgefd101; 14873877; 1559-0631 English

570. Horton, Megan K; Kahn, Linda G; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia, and Horton, Megan K. Does the Home Environment and the Sex of the Child Modify the Adverse Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos on Child Working Memory? 2012 Sep; 34, (5): 534-541.


Rec #: 38589
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=-1.714 (-3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=1.490 (-0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure.
Keywords: Age
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; CSA Neurosciences Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Prenatal experience
Keywords: N3 11003:Developmental neuroscience
Keywords: Development
Keywords: Short term memory
Keywords: Environmental factors
Keywords: Cognition
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Cognitive ability
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Side effects
Keywords: Sex
Date revised - 2012-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 534-541
ProQuest ID - 1113218769
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Age; Insecticides; Prenatal experience; Cognitive ability; Development; Environmental factors; Short term memory; Cognition; Side effects; Sex
Last updated - 2012-11-20
British nursing index edition - Neurotoxicology and Teratology [Neurotoxicol. Teratol.]. Vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 534-541. Sep 2012.
Corporate institution author - Horton, Megan K; Kahn, Linda G; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia
DOI - 1fb988c7-3699-4111-8d0fcsamfg201; 17214094; 0892-0362 English

571. Horton, Megan K; Rundle, Andrew; Camann, David E; Boyd Barr, Dana; Rauh, Virginia a, and Whyatt, Robin M. Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Piperonyl Butoxide and Permethrin on 36-Month Neurodevelopment. 2011 Mar; 127, (3): e699-e706.


Rec #: 47399
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Recent pesticide-monitoring results suggest that a shift in residential pesticide exposure from organophosphorus insecticides to pyrethroid insecticides has occurred. Pyrethroid insecticides are potential neurodevelopmental toxicants and have not been evaluated for developmental toxicity. Our objective was to explore the association between prenatal exposure to permethrin (a common pyrethroid) and piperonyl butoxide (a pyrethroid synergist) and 36-month neurodevelopment. Participants is this study were part of a prospective cohort of black and Dominican mothers and newborns living in low-income neighborhoods in New York City. We examined 36-month cognitive and motor development (using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, second edition) as a function of permethrin levels measured in maternal and umbilical cord plasma collected on delivery and permethrin and piperonyl butoxide levels measured in personal air collected during pregnancy. All models were controlled for gender, gestational age, ethnicity, maternal education, maternal intelligence, quality of the home environment, and prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and chlorpyrifos. Prenatal exposure to permethrin in personal air and/or plasma was not associated with performance scores for the Bayley Mental Developmental Index or the Psychomotor Developmental Index. After data adjustment, children more highly exposed to piperonyl butoxide in personal air samples (>4.34 ng/m(3)) scored 3.9 points lower on the Mental Developmental Index than those with lower exposures (95% confidence interval: -0.25 to -7.49). Prenatal exposure to piperonyl butoxide was negatively associated with 36-month neurodevelopment.
Keywords: Developmental Disabilities -- chemically induced
Keywords: Developmental Disabilities -- physiopathology
Keywords: Young Adult
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Nervous System -- drug effects
Keywords: Infant, Newborn
Keywords: Child Development -- drug effects
Keywords: Piperonyl Butoxide -- adverse effects
Keywords: Pregnancy
Keywords: Pesticide Synergists -- adverse effects
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Prospective Studies
Keywords: Cognition -- drug effects
Keywords: Pesticide Synergists
Keywords: 51-03-6
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Motor Activity -- drug effects
Keywords: Nervous System -- growth & development
Keywords: Follow-Up Studies
Keywords: Adolescent
Keywords: Piperonyl Butoxide
Keywords: Female
Keywords: Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Date completed - 2011-05-10
Date created - 2011-03-02
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - e699-e706
ProQuest ID - 855198977
SuppNotes - Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1976 Apr;14:29-37[789067]; Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2009 Jun 15;43(12):4294-300[19603637]; Cites: Pediatrics. 1991 Feb;87(2):219-27[1987535]; Cites: Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1988 Nov-Dec;10(6):497-503[3244341]; Cites: Dev Psychopathol. 1997 Summer;9(3):473-89[9327234]; Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2002 May;110(5):507-14[12003754]; Cites: Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2004 May-Jun;26(3):373-85[15113599]; Cites: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 Aug 7;206(2):246-54[15967215]; Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jun 15;165(12):1397-404[17406008]; Cites: J Med Toxicol. 2007 Sep;3(3):94-9[18072143]; Cites: Environ Health. 2008;7:50[18945337]; Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2010 Feb 1;408(5):1145-53[19896164]; Cites: J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1995 Feb;16(1):29-35[7730454]; Cites: Sci Total Environ. 1997 Jun 20;199(1-2):173-81[9200861]; Cites: Recent Results Cancer Res. 1998;154:39-46[10026992]; Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Jun;107 Suppl 3:409-19[10346990]; Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Jun;107 Suppl 3:451-60[10346993]; Cites: J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2000 Mar-Apr;10(2):159-67[10791597]; Cites: J Commun Disord. 2000 Nov-Dec;33(6):463-80; quiz 480-1[11141028]; Cites: Toxicology. 2002 Feb 1;171(1):3-59[11812616]; Cites: Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002;174:49-170[12132343]; Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jan;111(1):79-84[12515682]; Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Feb;111(2):201-5[12573906]; Cites: Food Addit Contam. 2003 Mar;20(3):207-14[12623643]; Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 May;111(5):749-56[12727605]; Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Mar;112(3):388-91[14998758]; Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Feb;113(2):123-36[15687048]; Cites: Neurotoxicology. 2005 Mar;26(2):199-209[15713341]; Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Mar;115(3):383-9[17431487]; Cites: Toxicology. 2007 Jul 1;236(1-2):61-75[17498859]; Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Dec;116(12):1681-8[19079720]; Cites: Environ Health. 2009;8:18[19379510]; Cites: Dev Med Child Neurol. 1992 Jul;34(7):633-41[1380931]
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Pediatrics, March 2011, 127(3):e699-e706
Corporate institution author - Horton, Megan K; Rundle, Andrew; Camann, David E; Boyd Barr, Dana; Rauh, Virginia A; Whyatt, Robin M
DOI - MEDL-21300677; 21300677; PMC3065142; 1098-4275 eng

572. Horwood, M. A. Rapid degradation of termiticides under field conditions. 2007; 46, 75-78.


Rec #: 61709
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Soil testing is used by regulatory agencies to determine the adequacy of termiticide application by pest controllers. Because tests may be carried out years after treatment, an accurate knowledge of termiticide degradation rates is crucial if determinations are to be valid. Degradation of exposed residues of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil and imidacloprid was investigated in a field trial conducted near Narrandera (inland New South Wales) and in Sydney. Samples of soil 75 mm deep were collected immediately after treatment and after 12 months from plots treated with termiticides to a minimum depth of 350 mm and analysed for termiticide residues. Bifenthrin and chlorfenapyr were the most persistent termiticides. Losses of chlorpyrifos exceeded 99% at both locations. Losses of fipronil and imidacloprid were 96% and 94%, respectively, at Narrandera and 67% and 50%, respectively, in Sydney. To explore the fate of chlorpyrifos, fipronil and imidacloprid in the soil profile at Narrandera, samples were collected 15 months after treatment to a depth of 450 mm, in 150 mm increments, from plots treated to a depth of 700 mm. In soil below 150 mm, chlorpyrifos and fipronil content was little changed from time of application whereas major losses of imidacloprid had occurred at all depths. These findings have implications for termite treatment regulation in Australia. Regulatory agencies have relied upon degradation rates observed in laboratory experiments to determine in situ treatment adequacy. Results of this field study suggest that termiticides can degrade more rapidly in situ than indicated by laboratory experiments.
Keywords: chemical half-lives, persistence, regulation, soil termiticides
ISI Document Delivery No.: 122LX

573. Hua, Xiude; Qian, Guoliang; Yang, Jifei; Hu, Baishi; Fan, Jiaqin; Qin, Na; Li, Gang; Wang, Yuyan, and Liu, Fengquan. Development of an immunochromatographic assay for the rapid detection of chlorpyrifos-methyl in water samples . 2010 Sep 15-; 26, (1): 189-194.


Rec #: 1270
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: A rapid (less than 10 min), qualitative and semi-quantitative immunochromatography using colloidal gold-antibody probe was successfully developed and applied in determination of chlorpyrifos-methyl (a wide-spectrum organophosphorus pesticide) in water samples. The qualitative detection limit of chlorpyrifos-methyl was determined as 0.6 ++g mlęĆ1 by using immunochromatography. In the semi-quantitative experiment, the detection results of chlorpyrifos-methyl were scanned by a membrane strip reader, and a detection curve representing the scanned data average was obtained. After conversion, it was observed that in the range of 50 Çô 12,150 ng mlęĆ1, the graph between logit(B/B0) and logarithm of concentration of chlorpyrifos-methyl was linear, from which, the regression equation (y = ęĆ2.5229x + 7.5951, R2 = 0.9889) and IC50 value (1024.39 ng mlęĆ1) was obtained, respectively. Meanwhile, the detection limit was calculated as 132.91 ng mlęĆ1 by the extrapolation of B0 ęĆ 2SD. In addition, the cross-reactivities were less than 1% with tested analog compounds and regarded as negligible. The recoveries obtained by standard chlorpyrifos-methyl addition to water samples were 102.5Çô107.6%. Overall, to our knowledge, this is the first report of qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of chlorpyrifos-methyl by immunochromatography. Chlorpyrifos-methyl/ Gold immunochromatographic assay/ Colloidal gold/ One-step strip test/ Pesticide residue

574. Hubal, E. A. C.; Nishioka, M. G.; Ivancic, W. A.; Morara, M., and Egeghy, P. P. Comparing surface residue transfer efficiencies to hands using polar and nonpolar fluorescent tracers. 2008; 42, (3): 934-939.


Rec #: 61789
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Transfer of chemicals from contaminated surfaces such as foliage, floors, and furniture is a potentially significant source of both occupational exposure and children's residential exposure. Increased understanding of relevant factors influencing transfers from contaminated surfaces to skin and resulting dermal-loading will reduce uncertainty in exposure assessment. In a previously reported study, a fluorescence imaging system was developed, tested, and used to measure transfer of riboflavin residues from surfaces to hands. Parameters evaluated included surface type, surface loading, contact motion, pressure, duration, and skin condition. Results of the initial study indicated that contact duration and pressure were not significant for the range of values tested, but that there are potentially significant differences in transfer efficiencies of different compounds. In the study reported here, experimental methods were refined and additional transfer data were collected. A second fluorescent tracer, Uvitex OB, with very different physicochemical properties than riboflavin, was also evaluated to better characterize the range of transfers that may be expected for a variety of compounds. Fluorescent tracers were applied individually to surfaces and transfers to skin were measured after repeated hand contacts with the surface. Additional trials were conducted to compare transfer of tracers and coapplied pesticide residues. Results of this study indicate that dermal loadings of both tracers increase through the seventh brief contact. Dermal loading of Uvitex tends to increase at a higher rate than dermal loadings of riboflavin. Measurement of co-applied tracer and pesticide suggest results for these two tracers may provide reasonable bounding estimates of pesticide transfer.
Keywords: CHILDRENS RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE, IMAGING TECHNIQUE, DERMAL EXPOSURE,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 257CU

575. Huen, K.; Harley, K.; Brooks, J.; Hubbard, A.; Bradman, A.; Eskenazi, B., and Holland, N. Developmental Changes in PON1 Enzyme Activity in Young Children and Effects of PON1 Polymorphisms. 2009; 117, (10): 1632-1638.


Rec #: 61829
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an enzyme that detoxifies activated organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is also involved in oxidative stress pathways. OBJECTIVES: PON1 activity in newborns is lower than in adults, but the ontogeny of PON1 activity is poorly characterized in young children. We examined the effects of age and PON1 genotype on enzyme activity in a birth cohort of Mexican-American children. METHODS: We determined three substrate-specific measures of PON1 activity in 1, 143 plasma samples collected longitudinally from 458 children at five time points from birth through 7 years of age, and genotyped PON1 polymorphisms at positions 192 and -108 in these children. RESULTS: Contrary to previous reports that PON1 activities plateau by 2 years of age, we observed an age-dependent increase in all three PON1 measures from birth through 7 years of age (p < 0.0001). The PON1(192) genotype significantly modified the effect of age on paraoxonase (POase) activity (p < 0.0001) such that increases in enzyme activity with age were influenced by the number of R alleles in a dose-dependent manner. Children with the PON1(-108CC192RR) diplotype had significantly higher mean PON1 activities and also experienced steeper increases of POase activity over time compared with children with the PON1(-108TT192QQ) diplotype. CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of the PON1 enzyme, which is involved in protection against OPs and oxidative stress, persist in young children past 2 years of age through at least 7 years of age. Future policies addressing pesticide exposure in children should take into account that the window of vulnerability to OPs in young children may last beyond infancy.
Keywords: age, children, enzymatic assay, longitudinal birth cohort,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 503JI

576. Huen, Karen; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Yousefi, Paul; Boyd Barr, Dana; Eskenazi, Brenda, and Holland, Nina. Organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and urine of women and newborns living in an agricultural community. 2012 Aug; 117, (0): 8-16.


Rec #: 5070
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Organophosphate pesticides are widely used and recent studies suggest associations of in utero exposures with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. Few studies have characterized organophosphate pesticides in human plasma or established how these levels correlate to urinary measurements. We measured organophosphate pesticide metabolites in maternal urine and chlorpyrifos and diazinon in maternal and cord plasma of subjects living in an agricultural area to compare levels in two different biological matrices. We also determined paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotypes (PON1192 and PON1êÆ108) and PON1 substrate-specific activities in mothers and their newborns to examine whether PON1 may affect organophosphate pesticide measurements in blood and urine. Paraoxonase/ Organophosphate pesticides/ Biomarkers/ Cord blood/ Maternal blood/ Urinary metabolites

577. Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina, and Huen, Karen. Longitudinal Changes in Pon1 Enzymatic Activities in Mexican-American Mothers and Children With Different Genotypes and Haplotypes. 2010 Apr 15; 244, (2): 181-189.


Rec #: 47959
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation and also detoxifies the oxon derivatives of certain neurotoxic organophosphate (OP) pesticides. PON1 activity in infants is low compared to adults, rendering them with lower metabolic and antioxidant capacities. We made a longitudinal comparison of the role of genetic variability on control of PON1 phenotypes in Mexican-American mothers and their children at the time of delivery (n =388 and 338, respectively) and again 7 years later (n =280 and 281, respectively) using generalized estimating equations models. At age 7, children's mean PON1 activities were still lower than those of mothers. This difference was larger in children with genotypes associated with low PON1 activities (PON1 a108TT , PON1 192QQ , and PON1 a909CC ). In mothers, PON1 activities were elevated at delivery and during pregnancy compared to 7 years later when they were not pregnant (p <0.001). In non-pregnant mothers, PON1 polymorphisms and haplotypes accounted for almost 2-fold more variation of arylesterase (AREase) and chlorpyrifos-oxonase (CPOase) activity than in mothers at delivery. In both mothers and children, the five PON1 polymorphisms (192, 55, a108, a909, a162) explained a noticeably larger proportion of variance of paraoxonase activity (62-78%) than AREase activity (12.3-26.6%). Genetic control of PON1 enzymatic activity varies in children compared to adults and is also affected by pregnancy status. In addition to known PON1 polymorphisms, unidentified environmental, genetic, or epigenetic factors may also influence variability of PON1 expression and therefore susceptibility to OPs and oxidative stress.
Keywords: Age
Keywords: Antioxidants
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Gene polymorphism
Keywords: paraoxonase 1
Keywords: Aryldialkylphosphatase
Keywords: enzymatic activity
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; CSA Neurosciences Abstracts
Keywords: Genotypes
Keywords: Haplotypes
Keywords: epigenetics
Keywords: Oxidative stress
Keywords: Enzymatic activity
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Mathematical models
Keywords: N3 11028:Neuropharmacology & toxicology
Keywords: Arylesterase
Keywords: haplotypes
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Children
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Pregnancy
Keywords: Lipoproteins
Keywords: Neurotoxicity
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Genetic control
Keywords: Infants
Date revised - 2010-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 181-189
ProQuest ID - 877573716
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Age; Mathematical models; Antioxidants; Gene polymorphism; Arylesterase; paraoxonase 1; Aryldialkylphosphatase; organophosphates; Children; Pregnancy; Haplotypes; epigenetics; Oxidative stress; Pesticides; Neurotoxicity; Lipoproteins; Genetic control; Enzymatic activity; Infants; Organophosphates; enzymatic activity; Genotypes; haplotypes
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.]. Vol. 244, no. 2, pp. 181-189. 15 Apr 2010.
Corporate institution author - Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina
DOI - 2173183e-4e06-444b-a2b8csaobj201; 13023703; 0041-008X English

578. Huen, Karen; Richter, Rebecca; Furlong, Clement; Eskenazi, Brenda, and Holland, Nina. Validation of PON1 enzyme activity assays for longitudinal studies. 2009 Apr; 402, (1Çô2): 67-74.


Rec #: 3120
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Background Paraoxonase/ Arylesterase/ PON1 activity/ Enzymatic assay/ Children/ Storage/ Technical variability/ Temperature/ Organophosphate/ Pesticides/ Oxidative stress/ FreezeÇôthaw/ Birth cohort

579. Huijbregts, M. A. J.; Thissen, U.; Guinee, J. B.; Jager, T.; Kalf, D.; Van de Meent, D.; Ragas, A. M. J.; Sleeswijk, A. W., and Reijnders, L. Priority Assessment of Toxic Substances in Life Cycle Assessment. Part I: Calculation of Toxicity Potentials for 181 Substances with the Nested Multi-media Fate, Exposure and Effects Model USES-LCA. M.A.J.Huijbregts, Interfaculty Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, NL-1018 VZ, Neth//: 2000; 41, (4): 541-573.


Rec #: 890
Keywords: MODELING
Call Number: NO MODELING (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

580. Hull, L. A. Concentrate Airblast Insect Experiment, 2005. 2006; 31, 9 p. (A15).


Rec #: 1740
Keywords: MIXTURE
Call Number: NO MIXTURE (ALSV,AZ,CPY,HTX,IMC,MFZ,PSM)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ABM,ACT,ALSV,AZ,CPY,CTD,HTX,IMC,MFZ,NVL,PSM,TAP

581. Hull, L. A. and Biddinger, D. J. Apple, Tufted Apple Bud Moth Control Tactics, 1992. 1993; 18, 44-46 (35A).


Rec #: 140
Keywords: BIOLOGICAL TOXICANT,MIXTURE
Call Number: NO BIOLOGICAL TOXICANT (CPY,FPP,MOM,MP,PSM,TUZ), NO MIXTURE (CPY,FPP,MOM,MP,PSM,TUZ)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,FPP,MOM,MP,PSM,TUZ

582. Hull, L. A. and Krawcyzk, G. Airblast Concentrate Insecticide Evaluation on Apple, 1997. 1998; 23, 18-21 (14A).


Rec #: 150
Keywords: MIXTURE
Call Number: NO MIXTURE (AZ,CPY,ES,FYC,IMC,MOM,MP,PSM,TUZ)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ABM,AZ,CPY,ES,FYC,IMC,MOM,MP,PSM,TUZ

583. Hunt, J; Anderson, B; Phillips, B; Tjeerdema, R; Largay, B; Beretti, M; Bern, a, and Hunt, J. Use of Toxicity Identification Evaluations to Determine the Pesticide Mitigation Effectiveness of on-Farm Vegetated Treatment Systems. 2008 Nov; 156, (2): 348-358.


Rec #: 45449
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations.
Keywords: Outlets
Keywords: Farms
Keywords: Water sampling
Keywords: permethrin
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Ponds
Keywords: Ceriodaphnia dubia
Keywords: mitigation
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: INE, USA, California
Keywords: farms
Keywords: Sediment Contamination
Keywords: inflow
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pollution
Keywords: Coasts
Keywords: Sediment pollution
Keywords: Cypermethrin
Keywords: Inlets
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: Permethrin
Keywords: Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: Hyalella azteca
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: cypermethrin
Keywords: Coastal zone
Keywords: Water Pollution Effects
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: Runoff
Date revised - 2008-12-01
Language of summary - English
Location - INE, USA, California
Pages - 348-358
ProQuest ID - 19497276
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Farms; Cypermethrin; Pesticides; Permethrin; Toxicity; Diazinon; Pollution; Ponds; Runoff; Sediments; Coasts; Sediment pollution; Water sampling; permethrin; cypermethrin; mitigation; Coastal zone; farms; inflow; Outlets; Agricultural Chemicals; Inlets; Water Pollution Effects; Sediment Contamination; Hyalella azteca; Ceriodaphnia dubia; INE, USA, California
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Environmental Pollution [Environ. Pollut.]. Vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 348-358. Nov 2008.
Corporate institution author - Hunt, J; Anderson, B; Phillips, B; Tjeerdema, R; Largay, B; Beretti, M; Bern, A
DOI - MD-0008874685; 8615654; 0269-7491 English

584. Huskova, R.; Matisova, E.; Svorc, L.; Mocak, J., and Kirchner, M. Comparison of negative chemical ionization and electron impact ionization in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of endocrine disrupting pesticides. 2009; 1216, (24): 4927-4932.


Rec #: 61859
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The study of pesticide residues belonging to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) (23 analytes of different chemical classes - organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, dicarboximides, phtalamides, dinitroanilines, pyrazole, triazinone) in apple matrix with conventional capillary GC-NCl-MS (with methane as reagent gas) in comparison to El ionization is presented. For sample preparation QuEChERS method was applied. The lowest calibration levels (LCLs) for all pesticides were determined in both modes. Calibration in the NCl mode was performed at the concentration levels from 0,11 to 500 mu g kg(-1) (R(2) > 0.999) and for El in the range from 5 to 500 mu g kg(-1) (R(2) > 0.99). From LCLs the instrumental limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were calculated. Chemometric Study of pesticide signals in two MS modes was performed. Repeatability of all measurements, expressed by the relative standard deviations of absolute peak areas was better than 10% for the majority of compounds. Significantly lower values were obtained for the NCl mode. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Conventional capillary GC-MS, Negative chemical ionization, Electron
ISI Document Delivery No.: 454GW

585. Hussain, S. ; Siddique, T.; Arshad, M., and Saleem, M. Bioremediation and Phytoremediation of Pesticides: Recent Advances. 2009; 39, (10): 843-907.


Rec #: 61869
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The use of genetically modified or native microorganisms and plants to degrade or remove pollutants has emerged as a powerful technology for in situ remediation. An understanding of the genetic basis of the mechanisms of how microorganisms and plants biodegrade pollutants and how they interact with the environment is important for successful implementation of this technology. Recent studies have demonstrated that microbes and transgenic plants produce pesticide-degradaing enzymes that can mineralize different groups of pesticides and their metabolites with greater efficiency.
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