Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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we review recent studies that experimentally challenge the PPAR-alpha activation MOA hypothesis, providing evidence that DEHP is hepatocarcinogenic in PPAR-alpha-null mice and that the MOA but not hepatocarcinogenesis is evoked by PPAR-alpha activation in a transgenic mouse model. We further examine whether relative potency for PPAR-alpha activation or other steps in the MOA correlates with tumorigenic potency. In addition, for most PPAR-alpha agonists of environmental concern, available data are insufficient to characterize relative human sensitivity to this rodent MOA or to induction of hepatocarcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSIONS: Our review and analyses raise questions about the hypothesized PPAR-alpha activation MOA as a sole explanation for rodent hepatocarcinogenesis by PPAR-alpha agonists and therefore its utility as a primary basis for assessing human carcinogenic risk from the diverse compounds that activate PPAR-alpha. These findings have broad implications for how MOA hypotheses are developed, tested, and applied in human health risk assessment. We discuss alternatives to the current approaches to these key aspects of mechanistic data evaluation.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Diethylhexyl Phthalate/toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Environmental Pollutants/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Liver Neoplasms/*chemically induced
MESH HEADINGS: Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Knockout
MESH HEADINGS: PPAR alpha/*agonists/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Peroxisome Proliferators/toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Risk Assessment/methods
MESH HEADINGS: Species Specificity eng

511. Hackbarth, J. S.; Galvez-Peralta, M.; Dai, N. T.; Loegering, D. A.; Peterson, K. L.; Meng, X. W.; Karnitz, L. M., and Kaufmann, S. H. Mitotic Phosphorylation Stimulates Dna Relaxation Activity of Human Topoisomerase I.


Rec #: 51249
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Human DNA topoisomerase I (topo I) is an essential mammalian enzyme that regulates DNA supercoiling during transcription and replication. In addition, topo I is specifically targeted by the anticancer compound camptothecin and its derivatives. Previous studies have indicated that topo I is a phosphoprotein and that phosphorylation stimulates its DNA relaxation activity. The locations of most topo I phosphorylation sites have not been identified, preventing a more detailed examination of this modification. To address this issue, mass spectrometry was used to identify four topo I residues that are phosphorylated in intact cells: Ser(10), Ser(21), Ser(112), and Ser(394). Immunoblotting using anti-phosphoepitope antibodies demonstrated that these sites are phosphorylated during mitosis. In vitro kinase assays demonstrated that Ser(10) can be phosphorylated by casein kinase II, Ser(21) can be phosphorylated by protein kinase Calpha, and Ser(112) and Ser(394) can be phosphorylated by Cdk1. When wild type topo I was pulled down from mitotic cells and dephosphorylated with alkaline phosphatase, topo I activity decreased 2-fold. Likewise, topo I polypeptide with all four phosphorylation sites mutated to alanine exhibited 2-fold lower DNA relaxation activity than wild type topo I after isolation from mitotic cells. Further mutational analysis demonstrated that Ser(21) phosphorylation was responsible for this change. Consistent with these results, wild type topo I (but not S21A topo I) exhibited increased sensitivity to camptothecin-induced trapping on DNA during mitosis. Collectively these results indicate that topo I is phosphorylated during mitosis at multiple sites, one of which enhances DNA relaxation activity in vitro and interaction with DNA in cells.
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acid Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: CDC2 Protein Kinase/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *Camptothecin/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: DNA/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: DNA Topoisomerases, Type I/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: *Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: K562 Cells
MESH HEADINGS: *Mitosis
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Biological
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
MESH HEADINGS: Phosphorylation
MESH HEADINGS: Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
MESH HEADINGS: Serine/chemistry eng

512. Hadjmohammadi, M. R.; Peyrovi, M., and Biparva, P. Comparison of C18 Silica and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as the Adsorbents for the Solid-Phase Extraction of Chlorpyrifos and Phosalone in Water Samples Using Hplc.


Rec #: 77219
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: A comparison between C(18) silica and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the extraction of Chlorpyrifos and Phosalone in environmental water samples was carried out using HPLC. Parameters affecting the extraction were type and volume of elution solvent, pH and flow rate of sample through the adsorbent. The optimum conditions obtained by C(18) cartridge for adsorption of these pesticides were 4 mL dichloromethane as elution solvent, sample pH of 5, flow rate of 1 mL/min, and those for MWCNT cartridge were 3 mL dichloromethane, pH of 5 and flow rate of 10 mL/min, respectively. Optimized mobile phase for separation and determination of these compounds by HPLC was methanol/water (80:20 v/v) with pH=5 (adjusted with phosphate buffer). Under optimal chromatographic and SPE conditions, LOD, linear range and precision (RSD n=8) were 3.03x10(-3), 0.01-5.00 microg/mL and 2.7% for Chlorpyrifos and 4.03x10(-4), 0.01-5.00 microg/mL and 2.3% for Phosalone, in C(18) cartridge, respectively. These values for MWCNT were 4.02x10(-6), 0.001-0.500 microg/mL and 1.8% for Chlorpyrifos and 1.02x10(-6), 0.001-0.500 microg/mL and 1.5% for Phosalone, respectively.
MESH HEADINGS: Adsorption
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
MESH HEADINGS: Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
MESH HEADINGS: Nanotubes, Carbon/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Organothiophosphorus Compounds/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Particle Size
MESH HEADINGS: Reproducibility of Results
MESH HEADINGS: Silicon Dioxide/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: *Solid Phase Extraction
MESH HEADINGS: Surface Properties
MESH HEADINGS: Water Pollutants, Chemical/*chemistry eng

513. Hageman, K. J.; Hafner, W. D.; Campbell, D. H.; Jaffe, D. A.; Landers, D. H., and Simonich, S. L. M. Variability in Pesticide Deposition and Source Contributions to Snowpack in Western US National Parks. 2010; 44, (12): 4452-4458.


Rec #: 61159
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003-2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, alpha-HCH, chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intrapark replicate samples, and 59% for interannual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories, and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in U.S. national parks is due to regional pesticide use in North America.
Keywords: SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS, ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS, ATMOSPHERIC
ISI Document Delivery No.: 608WP

514. Hahn, Stefan; Schneider, Klaus; Gartiser, Stefan; Heger, Wolfgang; Mangelsdorf, Inge, and Hahn, Stefan. Consumer Exposure to Biocides - Identification of Relevant Sources and Evaluation of Possible Health Effects. 2010; 9, (1): 7.


Rec #: 44309
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background: Products containing biocides are used for a variety of purposes in the home environment. To assess potential health risks, data on products containing biocides were gathered by means of a market survey, exposures were estimated using a worst case scenario approach (screening), the hazard of the active components were evaluated, and a preliminary risk assessment was conducted. Methods: Information on biocide-containing products was collected by on-site research, by an internet inquiry as well as research into databases and lists of active substances. Twenty active substances were selected for detailed investigation. The products containing these substances were subsequently classified by range of application; typical concentrations were derived. Potential exposures were then estimated using a worst case scenario approach according to the European Commission's Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment. Relevant combinations of scenarios and active substances were identified. The toxicological data for these substances were compiled in substance dossiers. For estimating risks, the margins of exposure (MOEs) were determined. Results: Numerous consumer products were found to contain biocides. However, it appeared that only a limited number of biocidal active substances or groups of biocidal active substances were being used. The lowest MOEs for dermal exposure or exposure by inhalation were obtained for the following scenarios and biocides: indoor pest control using sprays, stickers or evaporators (chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos) and spraying of disinfectants as well as cleaning of surfaces with concentrates (hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, glutardialdehyde). The risk from aggregate exposure to individual biocides via different exposure scenarios was higher than the highest single exposure on average by a factor of three. From the 20 biocides assessed 10 had skin-sensitizing properties. The biocides isothiazolinone (mixture of 5-chloro-2-methyl-2H-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-2H-isothiazolin-3-one, CMI/MI), glutardialdehyde, formaldehyde and chloroacetamide may be present in household products in concentrations which have induced sensitization in experimental studies. Conclusions: Exposure to biocides from household products may contribute to induction of sensitization in the population. The use of biocides in consumer products should be carefully evaluated. Detailed risk assessments will become available within the framework of the EU Biocides Directive.
Keywords: H 9000:Consumer and Recreation Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Inhalation
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Consumer products
Keywords: Hydrogen peroxide
Keywords: Sprays
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Formaldehyde
Keywords: R2 23060:Medical and environmental health
Keywords: Biocides
Keywords: Internet
Date revised - 2013-01-01
Language of summary - English
Number of references - 26
Pages - 7
ProQuest ID - 1272701363
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Inhalation; Chlorpyrifos; Risk assessment; Consumer products; Hydrogen peroxide; Sprays; Formaldehyde; Biocides; Internet
Last updated - 2013-02-08
British nursing index edition - Environmental Health (London) [Environ. Health]. Vol. 9, no. 1, 7 p. 2010.
Corporate institution author - Hahn, Stefan; Schneider, Klaus; Gartiser, Stefan; Heger, Wolfgang; Mangelsdorf, Inge
DOI - fd442282-482b-419e-8ee4mfgefd107; 17522737; 1476-069X English

515. Hale, T. M. ; Bushfield, T. L.; Woolard, J.; Pang, J. J.; Rees-Milton, K. J., and Adams, M. A. Changes Critical to Persistent Lowering of Arterial Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Occur Early in Antihypertensive Treatment.


Rec #: 50379
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) produces reductions in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and vascular structure that persist after treatment cessation. This study used an intermittent treatment strategy to determine the time course of changes in MAP, vascular resistance properties, and the tissue levels of endothelin.
ABSTRACT: METHODS: Adult SHRs were treated with enalapril and low sodium diet for three 2-week treatment cycles, each separated by 2-week washout periods. MAP was measured via radiotelemetry. Hindlimb structurally based vascular resistance properties were assessed after two treatment cycles. Endothelin was measured in mesenteric vessels, renal cortex and medulla in untreated SHR (Con), and at day 10 of the first and third treatment cycles.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: Treatment produced a persistent reduction in MAP; however, the magnitude of change in the 'off-treatment' level decreased following successive treatments (cycle 1: -15 ± 1.7%, cycle 2: -8 ± 1.9%, and cycle 3: -1 ± 1.7%). Reduction in hindlimb vascular structure after two cycles of treatment was not different from that previously observed after one cycle. Endothelin levels were significantly elevated during the third cycle in renal medulla (Con: 797 ± 102 pg/g tissue, cycle 1: 767 ± 81 pg/g tissue, cycle 3: 1097 ± 205 pg/g tissue) and mesenteric vessels (Con: 711 ± 226 pg/g tissue, cycle 1: 696 ± 231 pg/g tissue, cycle 3: 1063 ± 741 pg/g tissue). Concomitant treatment with an endothelin antagonist did not impact arterial pressure.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that during ACEI treatment, most of the changes that confer persistent changes in MAP and vascular structure occur within the first 2 weeks. Elevation in endothelin levels is likely unrelated to arterial pressure.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Antihypertensive Agents/*therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Apoptosis
MESH HEADINGS: *Blood Pressure
MESH HEADINGS: Enalapril/*therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Endothelin-1/blood
MESH HEADINGS: Hypertension/*drug therapy/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Myocardium/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Organ Size
MESH HEADINGS: Rats
MESH HEADINGS: Rats, Inbred SHR
MESH HEADINGS: Receptors, Endothelin/antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors
MESH HEADINGS: *Vascular Resistance eng

516. Hall, L. and Anderson, R. D. Historical trends analysis of 2004 to 2009 toxicity and pesticide data for California's central valley. 2012; 47, (6): 801-811.


Rec #: 61189
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The goals of this study were to conduct temporal trends analysis of 2004-2009 toxicity and pesticide data sets for four Central Valley Water Quality Coalitions in California. The general conclusions from analysis of 6 years of toxicity and pesticide data from these Central Valley Coalitions is that a significant decline has occurred with Ceriodaphnia toxicity, diazinon concentrations and chlorpyrifos concentrations. There was no data to support a significant increase in toxicity or pesticide concentrations from any of the data sets analyzed from 2004 to 2009. In addition, the percent of diazinon and chlorpyrifos samples exceeding water quality objectives of these organophosphate insecticides has also declined significantly from 2004 to 2009. Interpretation of all toxicity and pesticide data used in this analysis within a "weight of evidence context" suggests that water quality conditions have generally improved in the Central Valley Region of California from 2004 to 2009.
Keywords: Trends analysis, pesticides, toxicity data, water quality objectives,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 924BP

517. Hall, Patricia. Gc/Ms and Gc/Ms/Ms Analysis and Atmospheric Concentrations of Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides and Selected Current Use Herbicides in Saskatchewan. 2011.


Rec #: 51689
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: From April 2003 to April 2004, atmospheric samples were collected at Bratt's Lake, Saskatchewan (an agricultural site approximately 30 km SSW of Regina). These samples were used to develop a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis method, to improve the collection efficiency of the commonly used polyurethane foam (PUF) plug and to examine the atmospheric concentrations and trends in concentration of the targeted pesticides (organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and three current use herbicides). The GC-MS and GC tandem MS (GC-MS/MS) methods were developed by comparing different ionization modes (electron ionization (El) and negative chemical ionization (NCI)) and MS techniques (selected ion monitoring (SIM) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM)). NCI-SIM provided the best sensitivity and selectivity for the targeted list of pesticides with method detection limits (MDL) for most OCs of less than 10 pg μL -1 (corresponds to an atmospheric concentration of approximately 55 pg m-3 for a 1-day sample and 13 pg m-3 for a 4-day sample). EI SIM was used for some pesticides that had high MDLs with NCI-SIM. The methods included 19 OP pesticides, 28 OC pesticides and 3 pre-emergent herbicides. During sample collection, 7 different granular sorbents (XAD-2, XAD-4, Tenax-TA, Chromosorb-102 (Chrom), Chromosorb-108, Chromosorb-750, and Anasorb-747) were compared for their ability improve collection of gas phase pesticides compared to a 7.62 cm PUF plug. The sorbent was sandwiched between two smaller (2.54 cm on bottom, 5.08 cm on top) PUF plugs. These sample layers were analyzed separately to determine how the pesticide was being collected. The PUF/sorbent improved the collection efficiency for ethalfluralin, trifluralin and chlorpyrifos, but collected similar amounts to the PUF alone for triallate. The most effective sorbents were XAD-2, Chrom-108, Tenax-TA, and XAD-4. Chrom-102 and Anasorb 747 improved collection efficiency, but not as much, while Chrom-750 was the least effective. Four pesticides were detected more frequently than others, chlorpyrifos (an OP insecticide), ethalfluralin, triallate, and trifluralin (herbicides). In addition, 36 pesticides (14 OCs and 22 OPs) were detected at least once, mainly on the four-day samples. The commonly detected pesticides were analyzed to determine if there was a contribution from volatilization. Chlorpyrifos was detected at the highest atmospheric concentrations (up to 250000 pg m -3 ). The maximum concentrations for ethalfluralin, trifluralin and triallate were 1330 pg m-3 , 1010 pg m-3 and 27300 pg m-3 , respectively.
Start Page: 209
ISSN/ISBN: 9780494885963
Keywords: 0486:Analytical chemistry
Keywords: 0371:Atmospheric Chemistry
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Organochlorine
Keywords: Earth sciences
Keywords: Pure sciences
Keywords: Organophosphorus
9780494885963
Hall, Patricia
64047241
0486: Analytical chemistry
Herbicides
66569
Organochlorine
n/a
English
Organophosphorus
0371: Atmospheric Chemistry
NR88596
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2011
Pesticides
2011
2770143871
2012-11-19
1074790552
Pure sciences
Earth sciences English

518. Hama, H. Insecticide Resistance of Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella in Japan. 1990; 24, (1): 22-30.


Rec #: 90
Keywords: REFS CHECKED,REVIEW
Call Number: NO REFS CHECKED (ACP,CBL,CPY,CPYM,DDVP,DMT,DZ,FNT,FNV,MDT,MLN,MOM,PFF,PIRM,SMT,TCF), NO REVIEW (ACP,CBL,CPY,CPYM,DDVP,DMT,DZ,FNT,FNV,MDT,MLN,MOM,PFF,PIRM,SMT,TCF)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACP,CBL,CPY,CPYM,DDVP,DMT,DZ,FNT,FNV,MDT,MLN,MOM,PFF,PIRM,SMT,TCF

519. Han, C; Zhu, L-S; Wang, J; Wang, J-H; Xie, H; Su, J, and Han, C. Residue Analysis of Chlorpyrifos and Its Toxic Metabolite Tcp in Water by Hplc. 2009 Jul; 28, ( 7): 1552-1556.


Rec #: 41139
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A method was developed for analysis the residues of chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in water. In this method, different conditions of mobile phase, different kinds of extraction solvents and different amount of extraction solvents were studied. Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, chloroform and petroleum ether were tested as the extraction solvent, respectively. And the best extraction was obtained when using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent Water samples were extracted by two step liquid-liquid distribution, 50 mL ethyl acetate was used in the first partitioning step, and 30 mL was used in the second. The detection method was based on using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with reversed-phase C sub(18) column, and gradient UV detector. The column was maintained at 25 C with a mobile phase flow rate of 1.0 mL; min super(-1). The mobile phase was consisted of methanol-water (90:10, V/V) or acetonitrile-water (90:10, V/V). Chlorpyrifos and TCP were all detected at 300 nm. The retention times of chlorpyrifos and TCP were 6.4 min and 3.6 min when using methanol-water (90:10, V/V) as mobile phase, and 5.6 min and 2.5 min when using acetonitrile-water(90:10, V/V). The detection limits for chlorpyrifos and TCP were found to be 0.5 ng and 0.15 ng, respectively. When adding chlorpyrifos and TCP at the concentration of 0.0165 mg; L super(-1), the average recoveries of chlorpyrifos and TCP from water samples were about 91.4%6105.1% and 90.6%6105.4%, and the relative standard deviation ranged from 0.99%64.12% to 0.29%69.33%. The lowest detectable concentration of chlorpyrifos and TCP in water sample were 2 ng; mL super(-1) and 0.6 ng; mL super(-1). The results showed that the method met the demands of pesticide residue analysis.
Keywords: High-performance liquid chromatography
Keywords: Water sampling
Keywords: Water Analysis
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Water Sampling
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: petroleum ether
Keywords: Flow rates
Keywords: Chloroform
Keywords: Standard Deviation
Keywords: Petroleum
Keywords: Liquid Chromatography
Keywords: Ethers
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Residues
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Solvents
Keywords: Pesticide Residues
Keywords: AQ 00003:Monitoring and Analysis of Water and Wastes
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Standard deviation
Keywords: Dichloromethane
Keywords: Liquid chromatography
Keywords: Ethyl acetate
Keywords: Pesticides
Date revised - 2009-09-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1552-1556
ProQuest ID - 20795543
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - High-performance liquid chromatography; Chlorpyrifos; Chloroform; Dichloromethane; Standard deviation; Pesticide residues; Ethyl acetate; Solvents; Metabolites; petroleum ether; Residues; Water sampling; Liquid chromatography; Petroleum; Pesticides; Ethers; Flow rates; Standard Deviation; Water Analysis; Water Sampling; Pesticide Residues; Liquid Chromatography
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Agro-Environment Science [J. Agro-Environ. Sci.]. Vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1552-1556. Jul 2009.
Corporate institution author - Han, C; Zhu, L-S; Wang, J; Wang, J-H; Xie, H
DOI - MD-0010406365; 10876940; 1672-2043 English

520. Han, Don-Hee and Han, Don-Hee. Airborne Concentrations of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Korean Pesticide Manufacturing/Formulation Workplaces. 2011; 49, (6): 703-713.


Rec #: 43649
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticide manufacturing/formulation workers rather than farmers or applicators or people living with them are primarily exposed to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). However, airborne concentrations in the workplace have rarely been determined. A total of 121 air samples (personal or area sampling) were collected at 4 factories where chlorpyrifos, EPN, parathion, and phorate, were manufactured/formulated from March through July, 2007-2008. Samples were collected by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method and were analyzed by GC-MS. The geometric mean (GM) level of airborne chlorpyrifos was 0.17 mg/m3, 85% Korean Occupational Exposure Limit (KOEL) of 0.2 mg/m3, and at 95% confidence, airborne concentrations exceeded the KOEL 58.8% of the time or less, indicating that this concentration level was unacceptable according to exposure assessment using a LogNorm2 registered . However, compared with levels of TLV and/or PEL and/or WEL, the GM concentration levels of other OPs were remarkably low (range, 0.1-15.0%) and that these levels of concentrations to the other OPs were acceptable. The levels of airborne concentrations of OPs depended on isolation of the process; in other words, the levels depended on the extent to which the process was automated. The reason that the airborne concentration levels, except for those of chlorpyrifos, were very much lower than expected may be attributable to the fact that there was not exposed to 100% toxic active ingredients in pesticide formulation workplaces because of the use of supplemental agents or additives to produce complete pesticides. This study is limited since there were seldom or neither any data of previous studies to be compared with the study results nor dermal exposure data. The results were used to revise KOELs for OPs in 2010.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Factories
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Occupational safety
Keywords: Air sampling
Keywords: H 1000:Occupational Safety and Health
Keywords: Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Additives
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Keywords: Parathion
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 703-713
ProQuest ID - 918054343
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Factories; Occupational safety; Pesticides; Air sampling; Additives; Occupational exposure; Parathion
Last updated - 2012-12-14
British nursing index edition - Industrial Health [Ind. Health]. Vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 703-713. 2011.
Corporate institution author - Han, Don-Hee
DOI - 9068bd31-949c-41c1-863ccsamfg201; 16156294; 1880-8026 English

521. Han, Xiao-Le; Tian, Fang-Fang; Ge, Yu-Shu; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Lai, Lu; Li, Dong-Wei; Yu, Qiu-Liyang; Wang, Jia; Lin, Chen, and Liu, Yi. Spectroscopic, structural and thermodynamic properties of chlorpyrifos bound to serum albumin: A comparative study between BSA and HSA. 2012 Apr 2-; 109, (0): 1-11.


Rec #: 1110
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide which could bind with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The binding behavior was studied employing fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, UVÇôvis absorption spectroscopy, electrochemistry and molecular modeling methods. The fluorescence spectra revealed that CPF causes the quenching of the fluorescence emission of serum albumin. SternÇôVolmer plots were made and quenching constants were thus obtained. The results suggested the formation of the complexes of CPF with serum albumins, which were in good agreement with the results from electrochemical experiments. Association constants at 25 -_C were 3.039 +ù 105 mol LêÆ1 for HSA, and 0.3307 +ù 105 mol LêÆ1 for BSA, which could affect the distribution, metabolism, and excretion of pesticide. The alterations of protein secondary structure in the presence of CPF were confirmed by the evidences from UV and CD spectra. Site competitive experiments also suggested that the primary binding site for CPF on serum albumin is close to tryptophan residues 214 of HSA and 212 of BSA, which was further confirmed by molecular modeling. Chlorpyrifos/ Serum albumin/ Fluorescence quenching/ Circular dichroism/ Electrochemistry/ FRET

522. Han, Yongtao; Li, Wenming; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Li, Yuanbo; Kong, Zhiqiang; Liang, Xuyang, and Zheng, Yongquan. The behavior of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in tomatoes during home canning. 2013 Jun; 31, (2): 560-565.


Rec #: 860
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The behavior of home canning on residue levels of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in tomatoes was assessed. The residues were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after each step including washing, peeling, homogenization, simmering, and sterilization. Results showed that the amount of chlorpyrifos after washing reduced 29.9%, while the amount of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol after washing remained the same as that in raw tomatoes. Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol were proved to be mostly retained in tomato skin. The peeling process caused the loss of 63.5% of chlorpyrifos and 53.3% of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol from tomatoes, with the processing factor of peeling at 0.09 and 0.43 respectively, whereas homogenization, simmering, and sterilization process had little effects on the removal of chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol residue. Tomato/ UPLC-MS/MS/ Chlorpyrifos/ 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol/ Processing

523. Handal, A. J.; Harlow, S. D.; Breilh, J., and Lozoff, B. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides During Pregnancy and Neurobehavioral Development of Infants and Toddlers. 2008; 19, (6): 851-859.


Rec #: 61229
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background: Few studies have examined the effects of in utero exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on neurobehavioral development in infants and young children. This study considers the potential effects of maternal occupation in the cutflower industry during pregnancy on neurobehavioral development in Ecuadorian children. Methods: Data were collected during 2003-2004 for 121 children aged 3-23 months and living in the rural highland region of Cayambe, Ecuador. Children were administered the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and were given specific developmental tests including prehension (reach-and-grasp) and visual skills. Information was gathered on maternal health and work characteristics, the home environment, and child health status. Growth measurements and a hemoglobin finger-prick blood test were obtained. We conducted multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Children whose mothers worked in the flower industry during pregnancy scored lower on communication (8% decrease in score, 95% confidence interval [CI]: - 16% to 0.5%) and fine motor skills (13% decrease, 95% CI: -22% to -5), and had a higher odds of having poor visual acuity (odds ratio = 4.7 [CI =1.1-20]), compared with children whose mothers did not work in the flower industry during pregnancy, after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: Maternal occupation in the cut-flower industry during pregnancy may be associated with delayed neurobehavioral development of children aged 3-23 months. Possible hazards associated with working in the flower industry during pregnancy include pesticide exposure, exhaustion, and job stress.
Keywords: ACUITY CARD PROCEDURE, FETAL LEAD-EXPOSURE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 362IP

524. Handal, A. J.; Lozoff, B.; Breilh, J., and Harlow, S. D. Neurobehavioral development in children with potential exposure to pesticides. 2007; 18, (3): 312-320.


Rec #: 61239
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background: Children may be at higher risk than adults from pesticide exposure, due to their rapidly developing physiology, unique behavioral patterns, and interactions with the physical environment. This preliminary study conducted in Ecuador examines the association between household and environmental risk factors for pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral development. Methods: We collected data over 6 months in the rural highland region of Cayambe, Ecuador (2003-2004). Children age 24-61 months residing in 3 communities were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and the Visual Motor Integration Test. We gathered information on maternal health and work characteristics, the home and community environment, and child characteristics. Growth measurements and a hemoglobin finger-prick blood test were obtained. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Results: Current maternal employment in the flower industry was associated with better developmental scores. Longer hours playing outdoors were associated with lower gross and fine motor and problem solving skills. Children who played with irrigation water scored lower on fine motor skills (8% decrease; 95% confidence interval = -9.31 to -0.53), problem-solving skills (7% decrease; -8.40 to -0.39), and Visual Motor Integration test scores (3% decrease; -12.00 to 1.08). Conclusions: These results suggest that certain environmental risk factors for exposure to pesticides may affect child development, with contact with irrigation water of particular concern. However, the relationships between these risk factors and social characteristics are complex, as corporate agriculture may increase risk through pesticide exposure and environmental contamination, while indirectly promoting healthy development by providing health care, relatively higher salaries, and daycare options.
Keywords: CENTRAL WASHINGTON-STATE, AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY, PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 161DA

525. Harnly, M. E.; Bradman, A.; Nishioka, M.; McKone, T. E.; Smith, D.; McLaughlin, R.; Kavanagh-Baird, G.; Castorina, R., and Eskenazi, B. Pesticides in Dust from Homes in an Agricultural Area. 2009; 43, (23): 8767-8774.


Rec #: 61289
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We collected indoor dust samples from homes in the Salinas Valley of California. Of 22 pesticides measured in 504 samples, permethrins and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos were present in highest amounts. In multivariate Tobit regression models among samples from 197 separate residences, reported agricultural uses of chlorpyrifos, a herbicide (2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA)), and a fungicide (iprodione) on agricultural fields were significantly (p < 0.01) associated, with 83%, 19%, and 49% increases, respectively, in dust concentrations for each kg applied per day, near participant homes, in the month or season prior to sample collection. However, agricultural use of diazinon, which was 2.2 times that of chlorpyrifos, and of permethrin were not significantly associated with dust levels. Other variables independently associated with dust levels included temperature and rainfall, farmworkers storing work shoes in the home, storing a diazinon product in the home, housing density, having a home less clean, and having an air conditioner. Permethrins, chlorpyrifos, DCPA, and iprodione have either a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow),) greater than 4.0, a very low vapor pressure, or both. Health risk assessments for pesticides that have these properties may need to include evaluation of exposures to house dust.
Keywords: SALINAS VALLEY, CARPET DUST, EXPOSURE, CHILDREN, ASSOCIATION, COMMUNITY,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 522ZM

526. Harris, Eric Sj; Cao, Shugeng; Littlefield, Bruce a; Craycroft, Jane a; Scholten, Robert; Kaptchuk, Ted; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Woolf, Alan D; Eisenberg, David M, and Chen, Hubiao. Heavy Metal and Pesticide Content in Commonly Prescribed Individual Raw Chinese Herbal Medicines. 2011 Sep 15; 409, (20): 4297-4305.


Rec #: 43139
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues (especially chlorpyrifos) in raw CHMs are advised.
Keywords: Pollution monitoring
Keywords: Metals
Keywords: herbal medicines
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: P 6000:TOXICOLOGY AND HEALTH
Keywords: Lead
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Mercury
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: China, People's Rep.
Keywords: heavy metals
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Location - China, People's Rep.
Pages - 4297-4305
ProQuest ID - 889697616
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Metals; Pollution monitoring; herbal medicines; Pesticide residues; Pesticides; Mercury; Lead; heavy metals; China, People's Rep.
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Harris, Eric SJ; Cao, Shugeng; Littlefield, Bruce A; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Kaptchuk, Ted; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Woolf, Alan D; Eisenberg, David M
DOI - OB-de7a021b-05e4-45ef-ae19csamfg201; 15619633; 0048-9697 English

527. Harris, W.; Munoz, D.; Bonner, P. L. R., and Hargreaves, A. J. Effects of phenyl saligenin phosphate on cell viability and transglutaminase activity in N2a neuroblastoma and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines. 2009; 23, (8): 1559-1563.


Rec #: 61309
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The main aim of this study was to determine whether sub-lethal concentrations of the
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