Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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Centers for Disease Control, Department of Health and Human Services. Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (2009) CDC, Atlanta, GA, pp 1529. Available via Accessed 18 Jan 2009
Costa, L G 2006 "Current issues in organophosphate toxicology" Clinica Chimica Acta 366 1-2 1-13
Eaton, David L., Daroff, Robert B. 2008 "Review of the toxicology of chlorpyrifos with an emphasis on human exposure and neurodevelopment" Critical Reviews in Toxicology 38 Suppl. 2 1-125
ELLMAN, G.L.; COURTNEY, K.D.; ANDRES Jr., V.; FEATHER-STONE, R.M. A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochemical pharmacology, 7. (1961): 88-95
Fabiny, D.L., Ertingshausen, G. 1971 "Automated reaction-rate method for determination of serum creatinine with the CentrifiChem." Clinical Chemistry 17 8 696-700
Farahat TM, Abdelrasoul GM, Amr MM, Shebl MM, Farahat FM, Anger WK. 2003. Neurobehavioural effects among workers occupationally exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. Occup Environ Med 60(4):279-286.
Farahat, Fayssal M.; Farahat, Taghreed M.; Fenske, Richard A.; Galvin, Kit; et al. Chlorpyrifos exposures in Egyptian cotton field workers. NeuroToxicology, 31. 3 (2010): 297-304. Elsevier
Foxenberg RJ, McGarrigle BP, Knaak JB, Kostyniak PJ, Olson JR. 2007. Human hepatic cytochrome p450-specific metabolism of parathion and chlorpyrifos. Drug Metab Dispos 35(2):189-193.
Garabrant, David H., Aylward, Lesa L. 2009 "Cholinesterase inhibition in chlorpyrifos workers: Characterization of biomarkers of exposure and response in relation to urinary TCPy" Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 19 7 634-642
Griffin, P.; Mason, H.; Heywood, K.; Cocker, J. Oral and dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos: A human volunteer study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 56. 1 (1999): 10-13. BMJ Publishing Group
Hines CJ, Deddens JA. 2001 . Determinants of chlorpyrifos exposures and urinary 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol levels among termiticide applicators. Ann Occup Hyg 45(4):309-321.
Kamanyire R, Karalliedde L. 2004. Organophosphate toxicity and occupational exposure. Occup Med (Lond) 54(2):69-75.
Khan DA, Bhatti MM, Khan FA, Naqvi ST, Karam A. 2008. Adverse effects of pesticides residues on biochemical markers in Pakistani tobacco farmers. Int J Clin Exp Med 1(3):274-282.
Kwong, Tai C. 2002 "Organophosphate pesticides: Biochemistry and clinical toxicology" Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 24 1 144-149
Mage, David T., Allen, Ruth H. 2004 "Estimating pesticide dose from urinary pesticide concentration data by creatinine correction in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III)" Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 14 6 457-465
MCONNELL, R.; CEDILLO, L.; KEIFER, M.; PALOMO, M. R. Monitoring organophosphate insecticide-exposed workers for cholinesterase depression : new technology for office or field use. Journal of occupational medicine, 34. 1 (1992): 34-37. Williams & Wilkins
Mileson, B E, Chambers, JE 1998 "Common mechanism of toxicity: A case study of organophosphorus pesticides" Toxicological Sciences 41 1 8-20
Quandt SA, Chen H, Grzywacz JG, Vallejos QM, Galvan L, Arcury TA. 2010. Cholinesterase depression and its association with pesticide exposure across the agricultural season among Latino farmworkers in North Carolina. Environ Health Perspect 118:635-639.
Rasoul, Gaafar M. Abdel, Abou Salem, Mahmoud E. 2008 "Effects of occupational pesticide exposure on children applying pesticides" NeuroToxicology 29 5 833-838
Steenland, Kyle, Dick, Robert B. 2000 "Neurologic function among termiticide applicators exposed to chlorpyrifos" Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 108 4 293-300
Thiermann H, Kehe K, Steinritz D, Mikler J, Hill I, Zilker T, et al. 2007. Red blood cell acetylcholinesterase and plasma butyrylcholinesterase status: important indicators for the treatment of patients poisoned by organophosphorus compounds. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 58(3):359-366.
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2006. Table 8. Toxicological endpoints and other factors used in the occupational and residential risk assessment for chlorpyrifos. In: Registration Eligibility Decision for Chlorpyrifos.Washington, DC:U.S. EPA, 21. Available: (accessed 19 December 20101.
Whyatt, Robin M., Garfinkel, Robin 2009 "A Biomarker Validation Study of Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure within an Inner-City Cohort during Pregnancy" Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) 117 4 559-567
Wilson, B.W., Henderson, J.D., Furman, J.L., Zeller, B.E., Michaelsen, D., 2009. Blood cholinesterases from Washington State orchard workers. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83, 59-61.
Wilson, B W, Sanborn, J R 1997 "Monitoring the pesticide-exposed worker" Occupational Medicine 12 2 347-363 English

405. Farahat, Fayssal M; Fenske, Richard a; Olson, James R; Galvin, Kit; Bonner, Matthew R; Rohlman, Diane S; Farahat, Taghreed M; Lein, Pamela J; Anger, Wkent, and Farahat, Fayssal M. Chlorpyrifos Exposures in Egyptian Cotton Field Workers. 2010 Jun; 31, (3): 297-304.

Rec #: 40559
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Neurobehavioral deficits have been reported in Egyptian pesticide application teams using organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, but whether these effects are related to OP pesticide exposures has yet to be established. In preparation for a comprehensive study of the relationship between OP pesticide dose and neurobehavioral deficits, we assessed exposure within this population. We conducted occupational surveys and workplace observations, and collected air, dermal patch and biological samples from applicators, technicians and engineers involved in chlorpyrifos applications during cotton production to test the hypotheses that: (1) dermal exposure was an important contributor to internal dose and varied across body regions; and (2) substantial differences would be seen across the three job categories. Applicators were substantially younger and had shorter exposure histories than did technicians and engineers. Applicators and technicians were observed to have relatively high levels of skin or clothing contact with pesticide-treated foliage as they walked through the fields. Both dermal patch loadings of chlorpyrifos and measurements of a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (TCPy) in urine confirmed substantial exposure to and skin absorption of chlorpyrifos that varied according to job category; and dermal patch loading was significantly higher on the thighs than on the forearms. These findings support our hypotheses and support the need for research to examine neurobehavioral performance and exposures in this population. More importantly, the exposures reported here are sufficiently high to recommend urgent changes in work practices amongst these workers.
Keywords: CSA Neurosciences Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Foliage
Keywords: Skin
Keywords: Cotton
Keywords: N3 11028:Neuropharmacology & toxicology
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Clothing
Keywords: Pesticide applications
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Workers
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Keywords: Forearm
Date revised - 2010-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 297-304
ProQuest ID - 877586775
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Foliage; Workers; Cotton; Skin; Urine; Pesticides; Metabolites; Clothing; Forearm; Occupational exposure; Pesticide applications
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Neurotoxicology [Neurotoxicology]. Vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 297-304. Jun 2010.
Corporate institution author - Farahat, Fayssal M; Fenske, Richard A; Olson, James R; Galvin, Kit; Bonner, Matthew R; Rohlman, Diane S; Farahat, Taghreed M; Lein, Pamela J; Anger, WKent
DOI - c238f792-d76e-4de7-afc0csaobj202; 13202675; 0161-813X English

406. Fazekas, B. ; Woynarovichne, L. M.; Deakne, P. P.; Csaba, G., and Orosz, E. Pesticide poisoning of honey bees between 2007 and 2011. 2012; 134, (4): 213-220.

Rec #: 60029
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The authors confirmed pesticide toxicosis of honey bees in 151 cases during a five year period (2007-2011). A suddenly occurring mass bee death is always ground of suspicion for toxicosis. The suspicion is further confirmed by the presence of an exceptional number of shivering, unable to fly, proboscis stretching bees in hives and in their closer surroundings. The toxicosis becomes even more evident when huge bee losses with identical symptoms are observed in the near-by apiaries and also turns out that pesticides were used within the flight of the bees in the past days. 222 honey bee samples and 129 plant samples were sent for veterinary diagnostic laboratory examination. The presence of contagious diseases was excluded and 12 different pesticides were detected (by GC-MS, GC-NPD and HPLC) in 151 honey bee samples. In 64 cases the plant samples contained the same pesticide(s) as the honey bees from the given poisoning case, thus confirming the dependence of an effect upon a cause, namely the application of pesticides upon bee poisoning. Poisonings are most frequently caused by chloropyriphos and dimethoate (organophosphate chemical family), fipronil (phenylpyrazole chemical family) and six types of synthetic pyrethroids. The recited cases call attention to the fact that the application of pesticides in agriculture causes very often huge expenses linked to honey bee poisonings. The overall losses could be minimised by respecting the rules mentioned in licences and users guide.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 933OD

407. Feng, Y.; Li, M.; Zhang, H.; Zheng, B.; Han, H.; Wang, C.; Yan, J.; Tang, J., and Gao, G. F. Functional Definition and Global Regulation of Zur, a Zinc Uptake Regulator in a Streptococcus Suis Serotype 2 Strain Causing Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome.

Rec #: 51089
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Zinc is an essential trace element for all living organisms and plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes. However, an excess of zinc is extremely deleterious to cells. Bacteria have evolved complex machineries (such as efflux/influx systems) to control the concentration at levels appropriate for the maintenance of zinc homeostasis in cells and adaptation to the environment. The Zur (zinc uptake regulator) protein is one of these functional members involved in the precise control of zinc homeostasis. Here we identified a zur homologue designated 310 from Streptococcus suis serotype 2, strain 05ZYH33, a highly invasive isolate causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Biochemical analysis revealed that the protein product of gene 310 exists as a dimer form and carries zinc ions. An isogenic gene replacement mutant of gene 310, the Delta310 mutant, was obtained by homologous recombination. Physiological tests demonstrated that the Delta310 mutant is specifically sensitive to Zn(2+), while functional complementation of the Delta310 mutant can restore its duration capability, suggesting that 310 is a functional member of the Zur family. Two-dimensional electrophoresis indicated that nine proteins in the Delta310 mutant are overexpressed in comparison with those in the wild type. DNA microarray analyses suggested that 121 genes in the Delta310 mutant are affected, of which 72 genes are upregulated and 49 are downregulated. The transcriptome of S. suis serotype 2 with high Zn(2+) concentrations also showed 117 differentially expressed genes, with 71 upregulated and 46 downregulated. Surprisingly, more than 70% of the genes differentially expressed in the Delta310 mutant were the same as those in S. suis serotype 2 that were differentially expressed in response to high Zn(2+) concentration, consistent with the notion that 310 is involved in zinc homeostasis. We thus report for the first time a novel zinc-responsive regulator, Zur, from Streptococcus suis serotype 2.
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acid Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: Bacterial Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Blotting, Western
MESH HEADINGS: Cations, Divalent/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Computational Biology
MESH HEADINGS: Dimerization
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Genetic Complementation Test
MESH HEADINGS: Mass Spectrometry
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
MESH HEADINGS: Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
MESH HEADINGS: Shock, Septic/*microbiology
MESH HEADINGS: Streptococcal Infections/*microbiology
MESH HEADINGS: Streptococcus suis/drug effects/*genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Transcription, Genetic/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Zinc/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology eng

408. Fenoll, J.; Hellin, P.; Martinez, C. M.; Miguel, M., and Flores, P. Multiresidue Method for Analysis of Pesticides in Pepper and Tomato by Gas Chromatography with Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detection. Departamento de Calidad y Garantia Alimentaria, C/Mayor s/n,IMIDA, Murcia, Spain////: SOIL; 2007; 105, (2): 711-719.

Rec #: 1920

409. Fenoll, Jose; Ruiz, Encarnacion; Flores, Pilar; Hellin, Pilar; Navarro, Simon, and Fenoll, Jose. Reduction of the Movement and Persistence of Pesticides in Soil Through Common Agronomic Practices. 2011 Nov; 85, (8): 1375-1382.

Rec #: 43039
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Laboratory and field studies were conducted in order to determine the leaching potential of eight pesticides commonly used during pepper cultivation by use of disturbed soil columns and field lysimeters, respectively. Two soils with different organic matter content (soils A and B) were used. Additionally, soil B was amended with compost (sheep manure). The tested compounds were cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos-methyl, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, endosulfan, malathion and tolclofos-methyl. In soil B (lower organic matter content), only endosulfan sulphate, malathion and tolclofos-methyl were found in leachates. For the soil A (higher organic matter content) and amended soil B, pesticide residues were not found in the leachates. In addition, this paper reports on the use of common agronomic practices (solarization and biosolarization) to enhance degradation of these pesticides from polluted soil A. The results showed that both solarization and biosolarization enhanced the degradation rates of endosulfan, bifenthrin and tolclofos-methyl compared with the control. Most of the studied pesticides showed similar behavior under solarization and biosolarization conditions. However, chlorpyrifos was degraded to a greater extent in the solarization than in biosolarization treatment. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of organic amendment in reducing the pollution of groundwater by pesticide drainage and in the use of solarization and biosolarization in reducing the persistence of pesticides in soil.
Keywords: Sulfates
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Organic matter
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Leachates
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1375-1382
ProQuest ID - 910058315
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sulfates; Chlorpyrifos; Soil; Degradation; Organic matter; Pesticides; Leachates; Malathion; Endosulfan
Last updated - 2012-01-26
Corporate institution author - Fenoll, Jose; Ruiz, Encarnacion; Flores, Pilar; Hellin, Pilar; Navarro, Simon
DOI - OB-0055fb49-d6c3-48f0-9698csamfg201; 16058870; 0045-6535 English

410. Fenske, Richard a; Farahat, Fayssal M; Galvin, Kit; Fenske, Ellis K, and Olson, James R. Contributions of Inhalation and Dermal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos Dose in Egyptian Cotton Field Workers. 2012 Sep; 18, (3): 198-209.

Rec #: 38569
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos exposures were assessed in 12 Egyptian cotton field workers. 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) was measured in 24-hour urine samples to estimate absorbed dose. Workshift air samples were used to calculate chlorpyrifos inhalation dose. Patches on legs had the highest chlorpyrifos loading rates among body regions sampled. Geometric mean chlorpyrifos air concentrations were 5-1, 8-2, and 45...0 ...g/m3 for engineers, technicians, and applicators, respectively; peak TCPy urinary concentrations were 75-129, 78-261, and 487-1659 ...g/l, respectively; geometric mean doses were 5-2-5-4, 8-6-9-7, and 50-57 ...g/kg, respectively, considering TCPy excretion half-life values of 27 and 41 hours. All worker doses exceeded the acceptable operator exposure level of 1-5 ...g/kg/day. An estimated 94-96% of the dose was attributed to dermal exposure, calculated as the difference between total dose and inhalation dose. Interventions to reduce dermal exposure are warranted in this population, particularly for the hands, feet, and legs. (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae/symbols omitted.)
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