Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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parathion, the latter in oxydemeton methyl poisoning. At first glance, this dichotomy is surprising since parathion is a pro-poison and has to be activated to the oxon, while the latter is still the ultimate inhibitor. Also oxime therapy in organophosphorus poisoning apparently gives perplexing results: Oximes are usually able to reactivate diethylphosphorylated AChE, but the efficiency may be occasionally markedly smaller than expected from kinetic data. Dimethylphosphorylated AChE is in general less amenable to oxime therapy, which largely fails in some cases of dimethoate poisoning where aging was much faster than expected from a dimethylphosphorylated enzyme. Similarly, poisoning by profenofos, an O,S-dialkyl phosphate, leads to a rapidly aged enzyme. Most surprisingly, these patients were usually well on admission, yet their erythrocyte AChE was completely inhibited. Analysis of the kinetic constants of the most important reaction pathways, determination of the reactant concentrations in vivo and comparison with computer simulations may reveal unexpected toxic reactions. Pertinent examples will be presented and the potentially underlying phenomena discussed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Organophosphorus insecticides, Oximes, Paraoxonase 1, Isomerides,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 641EW

398. Eziah, V. Y.; Rose, H. A.; Wilkes, M., and Clift, A. D. Biochemical Mechanisms of Insecticide Resistance in the Diamondback Moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidopterata: Yponomeutidae), in the Sydney Region, Australia. 2009; 48, (4): 321-327.

Rec #: 2090
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,EFV,MTM,PMR

399. Fabacher, D. L. Hepatic Microsomes from Freshwater Fish - I. In Vitro Cytochrome P-450 Chemical Interactions. 1982; 73, 277-283.

Rec #: 770
Keywords: IN VITRO

400. Fabro, L. and Varca, L. M. Pesticide usage by farmers in Pagsanjan-Lumban catchment of Laguna de Bay, Philippines. 2012; 106, 27-34.

Rec #: 59909
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticides have been of great benefit to agriculture in the Philippines by decreasing crop losses clue to insects, weeds, plant diseases, rodents, and other pests. However, they may build-up in the food chain and can cause contamination of the environment. We examined farmers' pesticide usage in southern sub-catchments of Laguna de Bay, which is a crucial water resource subject to intensive investigations to identify types and sources of pollution. Before the monitoring of pesticides in surface waters was commenced it was necessary to conduct a survey of the pesticides being used by the growers in the catchment in order to select the pesticides that should be monitored. Our survey found that nearly all growers in Lucban and Laguna, irrespective of crop grown, used the pyrethroid-based insecticides L-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin. In rice, pesticides were applied one to three times per season, while in vegetables, L-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin insecticides were applied five times and the other insecticides were applied two to four times throughout the cropping season. In Laguna other insecticides used were carbofuran, endosulfan and a formulated product of BPMC (fenobucarb) and chlorpyrifos. In Lucban other insecticides used were malathion, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, carharyl, niclosamide and metaldehyde. Butachlor and 2,4-D herbicides were used to control weeds and were applied once throughout the growing. Some fungicides were also applied. An estimation of the potential loads of chemicals moving into waterways has shown that L-cyhalothrin, pretilachlor, niclosamide, butalchlor, carbofuran and profenofos are most likely to be present in waterways in the Lucban and Pagsanjan regions in the largest quantities based on the quantities applied and/or use in a number of crops. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Keywords: Pesticide usage, Tropical agriculture
ISI Document Delivery No.: 929PO

401. Fallico, B. ; D'Urso, M. G., and Chiappara, E. Exposure to pesticides residues from consumption of Italian blood oranges. 2009; 26, (7): 1024-1032.

Rec #: 59919
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This paper reports the results of a 5-year study to evaluate pesticide levels, derived from orchard activities, on Italy's most common orange cultivar (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck, cv. Tarocco). Using a Bayesian approach, the study allowed both the qualitative (number) and quantitative distributions (amount) of pesticides to be determined with its own probability value. Multi-residue analyses of 460 samples highlighted the presence of ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, dicofol, etofenprox, fenazaquin, fenitrothion, imazalil, malathion and metalaxil-m. A total of 30.5% of samples contained just one pesticide, 2.16% two pesticides and 0.65% of samples had three pesticides present simultaneously. The most common residue was ethyl chlorpyrifos followed by methyl chlorpyrifos. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values for ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, as well as the distance from the safety level (non-observed adverse effect level, NOAEL), were calculated. The risk was differentiated (1) to take account of the period of actual citrus consumption (180 days) and (2) to discriminate the risk derived from eating oranges containing a certain level of chlorpyrifos from unspecified pesticides. The most likely EDI values for ethyl chlorpyrifos derived from Italian blood orange consumption are 0.01 and 0.006 mg/day calculated for 180 and 365 days, respectively. Considering the probability of the occurrence of ethyl chlorpyrifos, these EDI values are reduced to 2.6 x 10(-3) and 1.3 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. For methyl chlorpyrifos, the most likely EDI values are 0.09 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively; considering the probability of its occurrence, the EDI values decrease to 6.7 x 10(-3) and 3.4 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. The results confirmed that levels of pesticides in Italian Tarocco oranges derived from a known controlled chain of production are safe.
Keywords: EDI, NOAEL, Tarocco oranges, risk assessment, safety, risk, Monte Carlo
ISI Document Delivery No.: 457ZW

402. Fan, Siqi and Zhang, Minghua. Pesticides Used on Walnuts in California: Use Patterns and Potential Impacts on Surface Water. 2012: (UMI# 1529960 ).

Rec #: 51599
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Walnuts are an important specialty crop in California. In 2010, they reached a production of 503,000 tons which accounted for 99% of national production, and created profits over one billion dollars statewide. The major regions growing walnuts in California include the Sacramento Basin, San Joaquin Basin and Tulare Lake Basin. To maximize crop production, a large amount of pesticides was applied to control pests: The amount of active ingredient (AI) used in pesticide products exceeded 1000 tons annually in 1995-2009, which could have posed potential pollution to surface water. This study looked into both pesticide use and its potential impact on surface water from 1995 to 2009 on California walnuts, focusing on the pesticide categories of fungicides, insecticides and herbicides. A pesticide risk evaluation model, Pesticide Use Risk Evaluation (PURE), was applied in this study to quantitatively analyze potential impact of pesticide use on surface water. Results showed that among the three main basins, the Sacramento Basin had the highest fungicide risk intensity on surface water (annual average value: 978.25 R/ha, 42% and 358% higher than San Joaquin and Tulare Lake), due to a heavy use of copper hydroxide and maneb. San Joaquin had the highest insecticide risk intensity (973.73 R/ha, 33% and 56% higher than the Sacramento Basin and Tulare Lake) resulting mainly from chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, chloropicrin, and malathion use. Herbicide showed a consistent low risk intensity (<50 R/ha) in all basins. The Mann-Kendall test showed fungicide and insecticide risk intensity presented a consistently decreasing trend in all basins, while herbicide risk intensity presented an increasing trend in Tulare Lake. A finer spatial scale analysis was conducted at township level (6Ă—6 mile 2 ) to assess the use and risk patterns in more details, the results of which are presented as GIS maps. Finally, based on some lab experiments observing pyrethroid use can cause mite outbreaks, a case study was carried out to examine the relationship between pyrethroid and miticide use on California walnuts and their potential impact on surface water. A developed model captured the relationship as the miticide use intensity is positively correlated with pyrethroid use intensity until it reaches a maximum value. Through a comprehensive pesticide use and risk analysis on California walnut, important conclusions are made. For example, pesticides such as copper hydroxide and chlorpyrifos have high toxicity in surface water. Our analysis indicates that if they were replaced by more environmentally benign pesticides - such as kaolin and petroleum oil - the overall risk scores and environmental impacts would decrease. These results can be useful to help local walnut growers make decisions on pesticide choices, and help regulators to make suggestions and integrated pesticide management on critical regions.
Start Page: 124
ISSN/ISBN: 9781267758798
Keywords: Pesticide
Keywords: California walnut
Keywords: 0388:Hydrologic sciences
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Ipm
Keywords: Gis
Keywords: 0473:Agriculture
Keywords: 0595:Water Resource Management
Keywords: Earth sciences
Keywords: Biological sciences
Keywords: Pesticide risk model
California walnut
Surface water
0388: Hydrologic sciences
0595: Water Resource Management
0473: Agriculture
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2012
Fan, Siqi
Biological sciences
Earth sciences
Pesticide risk model English

403. FANG, Hua; YU, Yunlong; CHU, Xiaoqiang; WANG, Xiuguo; YANG, Xiaoe, and YU, Jingquan. Degradation of chlorpyrifos in laboratory soil and its impact on soil microbial functional diversity. 2009; 21, (3): 380-386.

Rec #: 1490
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Degradation of chlorpyrifos at different concentrations in soil and its impact on soil microbial functional diversity were investigated under laboratory condition. The degradation half-live of chlorpyrifos at levels of 4, 8, and 12 mg/kg in soil were calculated to be 14.3, 16.7, and 18.0 d, respectively. The Biolog study showed that the average well color development (AWCD) in soils was signifficantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by chlorpyrifos within the ffirst two weeks and thereafter recovered to a similar level as the control. A similar variation in the diversity indices (Simpson index 1/D and McIntosh index U) was observed, but no signifficant difference among the values of the Shannon-Wiener index HÇ_ was found in chlorpyrifos-treated soils. With an increasing chlorpyrifos concentration, the half-life of chlorpyrifos was signifficantly (P ëń 0.05) extended and its inhibitory effect on soil microorganisms was aggravated. It is concluded that chlorpyrifos residues in soil had a temporary or short-term inhibitory effect on soil microbial functional diversity. Biolog/ chlorpyrifos/ community-level physiological proffile/ microbial functional diversity

404. Farahat, Fayssal M; Ellison, Corie a; Bonner, Matthew R; Mcgarrigle, Barbara P; Crane, Alice L; Fenske, Richard a; Lasarev, Michael R; Rohlman, Diane S; Anger, W Kent; Lein, Pamela J, and Olson, James R. Biomarkers of Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Effect in Egyptian Cotton Field Workers. 2011 Jun; 119, (6): 801-6.

Rec #: 39689
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely used organophosphorus pesticide (OP), is metabolized to CPF-oxon, a potent cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, and trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). Urinary TCPy is often used as a biomarker for CPF exposure, whereas blood ChE activity is considered an indicator of CPF toxicity. However, whether these biomarkers are dose related has not been studied extensively in populations with repeated daily OP exposures. We sought to determine the relationship between blood ChE and urinary TCPy during repeated occupational exposures to CPF. Daily urine samples and weekly blood samples were collected from pesticide workers (n=38) in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt, before, during, and after 9-17 consecutive days of CPF application to cotton fields. We compared blood butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities with the respective urinary TCPy concentrations in each worker. Average TCPy levels during the middle of a 1- to 2-week CPF application period were significantly higher in pesticide applicators (6,437 μg/g creatinine) than in technicians (184 μg/g) and engineers (157 μg/g), both of whom are involved in supervising the application process. We observed a statistically significant inverse correlation between urinary TCPy and blood BuChE and AChE activities. The no-effect level (or inflection point) of the exposure-effect relationships has an average urinary TCPy level of 114 μg/g creatinine for BuChE and 3,161 μg/g creatinine for AChE. Our findings demonstrate a dose-effect relationship between urinary TCPy and both plasma BuChE and red blood cell AChE in humans exposed occupationally to CPF. These findings will contribute to future risk assessment efforts for CPF exposure.
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Pyridones -- urine
Keywords: Occupational Exposure
Keywords: Young Adult
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Butyrylcholinesterase
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Risk Assessment
Keywords: Biological Markers -- blood
Keywords: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Pyridones
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Butyrylcholinesterase -- blood
Keywords: Pyridones -- metabolism
Keywords: Insecticides -- metabolism
Keywords: Insecticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Keywords: O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphate
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase -- blood
Keywords: Gossypium
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Egypt
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- analogs & derivatives
Keywords: Biological Markers -- urine
Keywords: Biological Markers
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- metabolism
Copyright - Copyright National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Jun 2011
Language of summary - English
Pages - 801-6
ProQuest ID - 874993576
Last updated - 2012-10-31
Place of publication - Research Triangle Park
Corporate institution author - Farahat, Fayssal M; Ellison, Corie A; Bonner, Matthew R; McGarrigle, Barbara P; Crane, Alice L; Fenske, Richard A; Lasarev, Michael R; Rohlman, Diane S; Anger, W Kent; Lein, Pamela J; Olson, James R
DOI - 2392308901; 62813521; 67001; ENHP; 21224175; INODENHP0007259824
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Steenland K, Dick RB, Howell RJ, Chrislip OW, Hines CJ, Reid TM, et al. 2000. Neurologic function among termiticide applicators exposed to chlorpyrifos. Environ Health Perspect 108:293-300.
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Albers, J W, Berent, S 2004 "The effects of occupational exposure to chlorpyrifos on the neurologic examination of central nervous system function: A prospective cohort study" Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 46 4 367-378
Alexander BH, Burns CJ, Bartels MJ, Acquavella JF, Mandel JS, Gustin C, et al. 2006. Chlorpyrifos exposure in farm families: results from the farm family exposure study. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 16(5):447-456
Amitai, G; Moorad, D; Adani, R; Doctor, B P. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase by chlorpyrifos-oxon. BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, 56. 3 (1998): 293-299. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Arcury, Thomas A., Grzywacz, Joseph G. 2010 "Repeated Pesticide Exposure Among North Carolina Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers" American Journal of Industrial Medicine 53 8 802-813
Aurbek, N., Thiermann, H. 2009 "Suitability of human butyrylcholinesterase as therapeutic marker and pseudo catalytic scavenger in organophosphate poisoning: A kinetic analysis" Toxicology 259 3 133-139
Barr, D. B., Allen, R. 2005 "Concentrations of selective metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in the United States population." Environmental Research 99 3 314-326
Barr DB, Barr JR, Driskell WJ, Hill RH, Jr., Ashley DL, Needham LL, et al. 1999. Strategies for biological monitoring of exposure for contemporary-use pesticides. Toxicol Ind Health 15(1-2): 168-179.
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