Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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chlorpyrifos (CPF) and methyl parathion. OPs undergo cytochrome P-450 (CYP) mediated metabolism to form an active, highly toxic oxon intermediate metabolite which is the metabolite primarily responsible for the inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. Detoxification of the active oxon metabolite occurs primarily by enzymatic hydrolysis by paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The balance between activation and detoxification should, in-part, determine the risk to humans for a given OP. Metabolism of methyl parathion by recombinant human CYPs identified CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 as being the major enzymes involved in methyl parathion metabolism. These results are consistent with previous findings that CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 are the major enzymes involved in other OP metabolism, such as CPF. Additional work was conducted utilizing human biomonitoring data collected from Egyptian agricultural workers with known CPF exposure. Biological sample collection included urine, saliva and blood. Urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) were determined as a marker of CPF exposure. Saliva was used to genotype participants for polymorphisms within the main enzymes involved in CPF metabolism, CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and PON1. Whole blood was used to monitor cholinesterase activity while serum was used to determine PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (e.g., CPOase activity of PON1). Findings from the Egyptian population demonstrated a dose-effect relationship between urinary TCPy and both plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in humans exposed occupationally to CPF. The no-effect level (or inflection point) of the exposure-effect relationships has an average urinary TCPy level of 114 μg/g creatinine for BuChE and 3,161 μg/g creatinine for AChE. The most prevalent CYP2B6 genotype combinations within the population were CYP2B6 *1/*1 (44%), *1/*6 (38%), *6/*6 (8%) and *1/*5 (6%), while the frequency of the CYP2C19 genotype combinations were CYP2C19 *1/*1 (93%), *1/*2 (6%), *2/*2 (1%). The PON1 55 (p ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. When adjusted for urinary TCPy excretion and stratified by PON1 genotype, CPOase activity did not have a significant effect on cholinesterase inhibition. The biomonitoring data collected from the Egyptian agricultural workers was used to develop and optimize a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for dermal CPF exposure. The human PBPK/PD model is able to account for differences in worker habit (e.g. duration of exposure, skin exposure area, time to wash off) as well as interindividual differences in key metabolizing enzymes (i.e. CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and PON1). An assessment of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CPF in rats under exposure conditions which more closely reflects occupational exposure was also conducted. Results from the animal study were used to update an existing PBPK/PD rat model for CPF exposure so that it can account for repeated CPF exposures. Taken together, the results presented within this dissertation will contribute to future risk assessment efforts and mechanistic studies for OP exposure.
Start Page: 379
ISSN/ISBN: 9781267183477
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: 0383:Surgery
Keywords: 0470:Environmental Health
Keywords: 0419:Pharmacology
Keywords: Pesticide exposure
Keywords: Organophosphorus pesticides
Keywords: 0383:Toxicology
Keywords: Methyl parathion
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Organophosphorus pesticides
0383: Toxicology
0383: Surgery
0419: Pharmacology
Pesticide exposure
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2012
0470: Environmental Health
Ellison, Corie Anthony
Health and environmental sciences
Methyl parathion
2012-03-01 English

381. Engel, S. M.; Berkowitz, G. S.; Barr, D. B.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Siskind, J.; Meisel, S. J.; Wetmur, J. G., and Wolff, M. S. Prenatal organophosphate metabolite and organochlorine levels and performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in a multiethnic pregnancy cohort. 2007; 165, (12): 1397-1404.

Rec #: 59729
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Prenatal exposures to organophosphate pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls have been associated with abnormal neonatal behavior and/or primitive reflexes. In 1998-2002, the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Center (New York City) investigated the effects of indoor pesticide use and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls on pregnancy outcome and child neurodevelopment in an inner-city multiethnic cohort. The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was administered before hospital discharge (n = 311). Maternal urine samples were analyzed for six dialkylphosphate metabolites and malathion dicarboxylic acid. A random subset of maternal peripheral blood samples from the entire cohort (n = 194) was analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls and 1,1 '-dichloro-2,2 '-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene. Malathion dicarboxylic acid levels above the limit of detection were associated with a 2.24-fold increase in the number of abnormal reflexes (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 3.24). Likewise, higher levels of total diethylphosphates and total dialkylphosphates were associated with an increase in abnormal reflexes, as was total dimethylphosphates after paraoxonase expression was considered. No adverse associations were found with polychlorinated biphenyl or 1, 1 '-dichloro-2,2 '-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene levels and any behavior. The authors uncovered additional evidence that prenatal levels of organophosphate pesticide metabolites are associated with anomalies in primitive reflexes, which are a critical marker of neurologic integrity.
Keywords: neonatal screening, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, pregnancy,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 178SP

382. Engel, Stephanie M; Wetmur, James; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Chenbo; Barr, Dana Boyd; Canfield, Richard L, and Wolff, Mary S. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood. 2011 Aug; 119, (8): 1182-1188.

Rec #: 47169
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides has been shown to negatively affect child neurobehavioral development. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. We examined the relationship between biomarkers of organophosphate exposure, PON1, and cognitive development at ages 12 and 24 months and 6-9 years. The Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study enrolled a multiethnic prenatal population in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Third-trimester maternal urine samples were collected and analyzed for organophosphate metabolites (n = 360). Prenatal maternal blood was analyzed for PON1 activity and genotype. Children returned for neurodevelopment assessments ages 12 months (n = 200), 24 months (n = 276), and 6-9 (n = 169) years of age. Prenatal total dialkylphosphate metabolite level was associated with a decrement in mental development at 12 months among blacks and Hispanics. These associations appeared to be enhanced among children of mothers who carried the PON1 Q192R QR/RR genotype. In later childhood, increasing prenatal total dialkyl- and dimethylphosphate metabolites were associated with decrements in perceptual reasoning in the maternal PON1 Q192R QQ genotype, which imparts slow catalytic activity for chlorpyrifos oxon, with a monotonic trend consistent with greater decrements with increasing prenatal exposure. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to organophosphates is negatively associated with cognitive development, particularly perceptual reasoning, with evidence of effects beginning at 12 months and continuing through early childhood. PON1 may be an important susceptibility factor for these deleterious effects.
Keywords: Aryldialkylphosphatase -- genetics
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Aryldialkylphosphatase
Keywords: Child
Keywords: Pregnancy
Keywords: Child, Preschool
Keywords: EC
Keywords: Infant
Keywords: Genotype
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Cognition -- drug effects
Keywords: Organophosphates -- toxicity
Keywords: Perception -- drug effects
Keywords: Female
Keywords: Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Date completed - 2011-11-28
Date created - 2011-08-02
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1182-1188
ProQuest ID - 880996013
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Environmental health perspectives, August 2011, 119(8):1182-1188
Corporate institution author - Engel, Stephanie M; Wetmur, James; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Chenbo; Barr, Dana Boyd; Canfield, Richard L; Wolff, Mary S
DOI - MEDL-21507778; 21507778; PMC3237356; 1552-9924 eng

383. Engelman, Catherine a; Grant, William E; Mora, Miguel a; Woodin, Marc, and Engelman, Catherine A. Modelling Effects of Chemical Exposure on Birds Wintering in Agricultural Landscapes: the Western Burrowing Owl (Athene Cunicularia Hypugaea) as a Case Study. 2012 Jan 10; 224, (1): 90-102.

Rec #: 46929
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove useful in helping prioritize the chemicals and transfer pathways targeted in future studies and also, as these new data become available, in assessing the relative danger to other birds of exposure to different types of agricultural chemicals.
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Defoliants
Keywords: Foraging behavior
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Skin
Keywords: Mathematical models
Keywords: Computers
Keywords: Landscape
Keywords: Wildlife
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Crops
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Aves
Keywords: Overwintering behavior
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Growth regulators
Keywords: Drift
Keywords: Athene cunicularia
Keywords: Ecology Abstracts
Keywords: D 04030:Models, Methods, Remote Sensing
Keywords: Prey
Date revised - 2012-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 90-102
ProQuest ID - 914081771
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Defoliants; Risk assessment; Foraging behavior; Mathematical models; Skin; Data processing; Wildlife; Landscape; Herbicides; Crops; Models; Soil; Overwintering behavior; Insecticides; Growth regulators; Drift; Prey; Aves; Athene cunicularia
Last updated - 2012-02-23
Corporate institution author - Engelman, Catherine A; Grant, William E; Mora, Miguel A; Woodin, Marc
DOI - OB-c005701d-5005-44aa-b4e3csamfg201; 16129923; 0304-3800 English

384. Ennin, S. A.; Banful, B.; Andoh-Mensah, E.; Issaka, R. N.; Lamptey, J. N.; Aduening-Manu, J.; Bolfrey-Arku, G., and Dery, S. K. Food Crop Intercropping Alternatives, for Replanting Coconut Farms Destroyed by Lethal Yellowing Disease. SOIL; 2009; 7, (3/4): 581-587.

Rec #: 2870
Notes: EcoReference No.: 160343
Chemical of Concern: CPY

385. Ensminger, Michael; Bergin, Rick; Spurlock, Frank, and Goh, Kean S. Pesticide Concentrations in Water and Sediment and Associated Invertebrate Toxicity in Del Puerto and Orestimba Creeks, California, 2007-2008. 2011 Apr; 175, (1-4): 573-87.

Rec #: 43449
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The California's San Joaquin River and its tributaries including Orestimba (ORC) and Del Puerto (DPC) Creeks are listed on the 2006 US EPA Clean Water Act §303(d) list for pesticide impairment. From December 2007 through June 2008, water and sediment samples were collected from both creeks in Stanislaus County to determine concentrations of organophosphorus (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides and to identify toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. OPs were detected in almost half (10 of 21) of the water samples, at concentrations from 0.005 to 0.912 μg L^sup -1^. Diazinon was the most frequently detected OP, followed by chlorpyrifos and dimethoate. Two water samples were toxic to C. dubia; based on median lethal concentrations (LC^sub 50^), chlorpyrifos was likely the cause of this toxicity. Pyrethroids were detected more frequently in sediment samples (18 detections) than in water samples (three detections). Pyrethroid concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.005 to 0.021 μg L^sup -1^. These concentrations were well below reported C. dubia LC^sub 50^s, and toxicity was not observed in laboratory bioassays. Cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in sediment samples at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 74.4 ng g^sup -1^, dry weight. At DPC, all but one sediment sample caused 100% toxicity to H. azteca. Based on estimated toxicity units (TU), bifenthrin was likely responsible for this toxicity and λ-cyhalothrin also contributed. At ORC, survival of H. azteca was significantly reduced in four of the 11 sediment samples. However, pyrethroids were detected in only two of these samples. Based on TUs, bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin likely contributed to the toxicity. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: 8640:Chemical industry
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical -- analysis
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical -- toxicity
Keywords: Invertebrates -- metabolism
Keywords: United States--US
Keywords: 9130:Experimental/theoretical
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: 1540:Pollution control
Keywords: Environmental Monitoring
Keywords: California
Keywords: Invertebrates -- drug effects
Keywords: 8400:Agriculture industry
Keywords: Geologic Sediments -- analysis
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical
Keywords: 9190:United States
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical -- metabolism
Copyright - Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011
Language of summary - English
Location - United States--US
Pages - 573-87
ProQuest ID - 854983161
Document feature - Tables; References
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - United States--US
Last updated - 2012-03-07
Place of publication - Dordrecht
Corporate institution author - Ensminger, Michael; Bergin, Rick; Spurlock, Frank; Goh, Kean S
DOI - 2282796541; 58844181; 108264; EVMT; 20563640; SPVLEVMT106611751-41552
Amweg, E. L., Weston, D. P., & Ureda, N. M. (2005). Use and toxicity of pyrethroid pesticides in the Central Valley, California, U.S.A. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24, 966972;
AMWEG, Erin L., WESTON, Donald P. 2006 "Pyrethroid insecticides and sediment toxicity in urban creeks from California and Tennessee" Environmental Science & Technology 40 5 1700-1706
Bacey, J., Starner, K., & Spurlock, F. (2004). The occurrence and concentration of esfenvalerate and permethrin in water and sediment in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Watersheds. CDPR Report EH 0401. Accessed 31 July 2008.
CAL/EPA (2009). Central valley regional water quality control board. 1 June 2009.
CDPR (2009a). California Department of Pesticide Regulations Pesticide Information Portal, Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data. Accessed 22 Sept 2008.
CDPR (2009b). Insecticide analytical methods. 17 November 2008.
Erratum 24, 13001301.
Gunasekara, A. (2006). California Department of Pesticide Regulation SOP number METH005.00: Instructions for calibration and use of total organic carbon (CD-85A) instrument. Accessed 31 Oct 2007.
Haver, D. L., Oki, L., Bondarenko, S., Holmes, R., Mazalewski, R., Majcherek, T., et al. (2008). Detection of pesticides in residential runoff, (p. 41). Abstracts, 5th Biennial CALFED Science Conference, Sacramento, CA.
Holmes, R. W., Anderson, B. S., Phillips, B. M., Hunt,J. W., Crane, D. B., Mekebri, A., et al. (2008). Statewide investigation of the role of pyrethroid pesticides in sediment toxicity in Californias urban waterways. Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 70037009.
Hunt, J. W., Anderson, B. S., Phillips, B. M., Nicely,P. N., Tjeerdema, R. S., Puckett, H. M., et al. (2003). Ambient toxicity due to chlorpyrifos in a central California coastal watershed. Environmental Monitoring And Assessment, 82, 83112.
Kelley K, Starner K (2004) Preliminary results for study 219: monitoring surface waters and sediments of the Salinas and San Joaquin river basins for synthetic pyrethroid pesticides, Sacramento, CA
MAUND, Steve J., HAMER, Mick J. 2002 "Partitioning, bioavailability, and toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin in sediments" Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 21 1 9-15
Spurlock, F., Bacey, J., Starner, K., Gill, S. (2005). A probabilistic screening model for evaluating pyrethroid surface water monitoring data. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 109, 161179.
Spurlock, F. (2002). Analysis of diazinon and chlorpyrifos surface water monitoring and acute toxicity bioassay data, 19912001. CDPR Report EH 0101. Accessed 4 March 2009.
Starner, K., Spurlock, F., Gill, S., Goh, K., Feng, H., Hsu, J., et al. (2003). Monitoring surface waters of the San Joaquin River Basin for selected summer-use pesticides, 2002. CDPR Report EH 0303. Accessed 4 March 2009.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2010). ECO TOX database. Accessed28 Oct 2008.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2009). Office of Pesticide Programs. Aquatic Life Benchmarks. Accessed 6 Aug 2009.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1971). National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL), Microbio-logical and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division (MCEARD). Method 160.2, Residue, Non-Filterable (Gravimetric, Dried at 103 105 C). Accessed 21 June 2007.
University of California, Davis. (2009). Aquatic Toxicity Lab. Accessed 29 July 2009.
Werner, Ingeborg, Deanovic, Linda A. 2000 "Insecticide-caused toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia (Cladocera) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA" Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 19 1 215-227
Weston, D. P., You, J., & Lydy, M. J. (2004). Distribution and toxicity of sediment-associated pesticides in agriculture-dominated water bodies of Californias Central Valley. Environmental Science & Technology, 38, 27522759.
Weston, Donald P., You, Jing 2008 "Sediment Toxicity in Agricultural Areas of California and the Role of Hydrophobic Pesticides" Synthetic Pyrethroids:OCCURRENCE AND BEHAVIOR IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS 991 26-54
Weston, Donald P., Zhang, Minghua 2008 "Identifying the cause and source of sediment toxicity in an agriculture-influenced creek" Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 27 4 953-962
Xu, Y., Spurlock, F., Wang, Z., & Gan, J. (2007). Comparison of five methods for measuring sediment toxicity of hydrophobic contaminants. Environmental Science & Technology, 41, 83948399.
Yang, W. C., Hunter, W., Spurlock, F., & Gan, J. (2007). Bioavailability of permethrin and cyfluthrin in surface waters with low levels of dissolved organic matter.Journal of Environmental Quality, 36, 16781685.
You, Jing, Pehkonen, Sari 2008 "Chemical availability and sediment toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to Hyalella azteca: Application to field sediment with unexpectedly low toxicity" Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 27 10 2124-2130
Zhang, Xuyang, Zhang, Minghua 2008 "Identification of hotspots for potential pyrethroid runoff: a GIS modeling study in San Joaquin River Watershed of California, USA" Environmental Geology 55 6 1195-1206 English

386. Ergene, A.; Tan, S.; Yilmaz, F.; Topcu, S.; Kaya, A.; Arslanoglu, I., and Yalcin, E. Cytogenetic damage in Allium cepa root meristems induced by Dursban 4 and Antracol WP 7 pesticides: Abstracts of the 14th European Congress on BiotechnologyBarcelona, Spain 13Çô16 September, 2009. 2009 Sep; 25, Supplement, (0): S372.

Rec #: 2330
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

387. Ershova, E. A. and Kagan, Y. S. Toxicological and Hygienic Evaluation of the Relative Selectivity of Pesticide Activity. E.A.Ershova, VNII Gig. Toksikol. Pestits. Polim. Plast. Mass, Kiev, USSR////: 1987(8): 92-93(RUS).

Rec #: 760
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

388. Escher, Beate I; Cowan-Ellsberry?, Christina E; Dyer, Scott; Embry, Michelle R; Erhardt#, Susan; Halder, Marlies; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Johanning, Karla; Oosterwijk, Mattheus T T; Rutishauser, Sibylle; Segner?, Helmut; Nichols+, John , and Rutishauser, Sibylle. Protein and Lipid Binding Parameters in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Blood and Liver Fractions to Extrapolate From an in Vitro Metabolic Degradation Assay to in Vivo Bioaccumulation Potential of Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals. 2011 May 23; 24, (7): 1134-1143.

Rec #: 43319
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Binding of hydrophobic chemicals to colloids such as proteins or lipids is difficult to measure using classical microdialysis methods due to low aqueous concentrations, adsorption to dialysis membranes and test vessels, and slow kinetics of equilibration. Here,
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