Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells via baculovirus-mediated expression system. The expressed CYP6P7 protein was used for exploitation of its enzymatic activity against insecticides after reconstitution with the An. minimus NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase enzyme in vitro. The ability of CYP6P7 to metabolize pyrethroids and insecticides in the organophosphate and carbamate groups was compared with CYP6AA3. The results revealed that both CYP6P7 and CYP6AA3 proteins could metabolize permethrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin pyrethroid insecticides, but showed the absence of activity against bioallethrin (pyrethroid), chlorpyrifos (organophosphate), and propoxur (carbamate). CYP6P7 had limited capacity in metabolizing l-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid), while CYP6AA3 displayed activity toward l-cyhalothrin. Kinetic properties suggested that CYP6AA3 had higher efficiency in metabolizing type I than type II pyrethroids, while catalytic efficiency of CYP6P7 toward both types was not significantly different. Their kinetic parameters in insecticide metabolism and preliminary inhibition studies by test compounds in the flavonoid, furanocoumarin, and methylenedioxyphenyl groups elucidated that CYP6P7 had different enzyme properties compared with CYP6AA3. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keywords: cytochrome P450, pyrethroid, CYP6P7, CYP6AA3, kinetic study
ISI Document Delivery No.: 737BP

359. Dubey, K. K. and Fulekar, M. H. Chlorpyrifos Bioremediation in Pennisetum Rhizosphere by a Novel Potential Degrader Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MHF ENV20. 2012; 28, (4): 1715-1725.


Rec #: 2770
Keywords: BACTERIA
Call Number: NO BACTERIA (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

360. Dubinion, J. H.; Da Silva, A. A., and Hall, J. E. Enhanced Blood Pressure and Appetite Responses to Chronic Central Melanocortin-3/4 Receptor Blockade in Dietary-Induced Obesity.


Rec #: 50539
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Cites: Hypertension. 2003 Mar;41(3 Pt 2):625-33 (medline /12623970)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Hypertens. 2002 Jul;20(7):1245-50 (medline /12131511)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Neurosci. 2003 Jul 9;23(14):5998-6004 (medline /12853417)
COMMENTS: Cites: Hypertension. 2006 Feb;47(2):259-64 (medline /16380516)
COMMENTS: Cites: Endocr Rev. 2006 Dec;27(7):736-49 (medline /17077189)
COMMENTS: Cites: N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 1;360(1):44-52 (medline /19092146)
COMMENTS: Cites: Nat Med. 1995 Dec;1(12):1311-4 (medline /7489415)
COMMENTS: Cites: Nature. 1997 Jan 9;385(6612):165-8 (medline /8990120)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Clin Invest. 1997 Jul 15;100(2):270-8 (medline /9218503)
COMMENTS: Cites: Hypertension. 1997 Sep;30(3 Pt 2):619-23 (medline /9322991)
COMMENTS: Cites: Nature. 1997 Nov 27;390(6658):349 (medline /9389472)
COMMENTS: Cites: Diabetes. 1997 Dec;46(12):2040-3 (medline /9392493)
COMMENTS: Cites: Hypertension. 1999 Jan;33(1 Pt 2):542-7 (medline /9931162)
COMMENTS: Cites: Hypertension. 2006 Jul;48(1):58-64 (medline /16754792)
COMMENTS: Cites: Prev Med. 1987 Mar;16(2):235-51 (medline /3588564)
COMMENTS: Cites: Hypertension. 1998 Jan;31(1 Pt 2):409-14 (medline /9453337)
COMMENTS: Cites: Neurosci Lett. 1998 Jun 19;249(2-3):107-10 (medline /9682828)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov;85(11):4000-2 (medline /11095422)
COMMENTS: Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Jun;967:379-88 (medline /12079865)
COMMENTS: Cites: Hypertension. 2003 Mar;41(3 Pt 2):768-74 (medline /12623994)
ABSTRACT: METHOD: We examined the role of central nervous system (CNS) endogenous melanocortin 3/4 receptors (MC3/4R) activity in controlling cardiovascular and metabolic functions in Sprague Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (n = 6) for 10 months compared with rats fed a standard chow (normal fat, n = 8) starting at 3 weeks of age.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: At 7 months of age, high-fat rats were heavier (473 +/- 3 vs. 424 +/- 7 g), consumed more calories with larger, less frequent meals and had reduced respiratory quotient (RQ) compared with normal-fat rats. After 10 months on the diets, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) 24-h/day and i.v. (intravenous) infusions, and a 21G steel cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle for intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions. High-fat rats were heavier (528 +/- 14 vs. 477 +/- 11 g) with increased visceral adiposity and significantly higher MAP (108 +/- 3 vs. 102 +/- 1 mmHg). After a 5-day control period, the rats were infused with a MC3/4R antagonist (SHU-9119, 1 nmol/h, ICV) for 10 days followed by a 5-day recovery period. SHU-9119 infusion for 10 days increased caloric intake significantly more in high-fat rats (159 +/- 19 vs. 64 +/- 8 kcal). Despite increasing caloric intake and rapid weight gain, MC3/4R antagonism reduced MAP more in high-fat diet compared with normal-fat rats (-7.9 +/- 0.3 vs. -4.7 +/- 1.3 mmHg, average reduction of last 4 days of blockade).
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that a high-fat diet increases endogenous activity of the CNS MC3/4R and that an intact MC3/4 appears to play an important role in linking increased blood pressure with diet-induced obesity.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: *Appetite/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Azaperone
MESH HEADINGS: Blood Pressure/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Dietary Fats/adverse effects
MESH HEADINGS: Energy Intake
MESH HEADINGS: Heart Rate/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Hypertension/complications
MESH HEADINGS: Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones
MESH HEADINGS: Obesity/blood/*metabolism/*physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Random Allocation
MESH HEADINGS: Rats
MESH HEADINGS: Rats, Sprague-Dawley
MESH HEADINGS: Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 3/*antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors
MESH HEADINGS: Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4/*antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors
MESH HEADINGS: Weight Gain eng

361. Duffner, A. ; Ingwersen, J.; Hugenschmidt, C., and Streck, T. Pesticide Transport Pathways from a Sloped Litchi Orchard to an Adjacent Tropical Stream as Identified by Hydrograph Separation. 2012; 41, (4): 1315-1323.


Rec #: 59329
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This study was performed to identify the transport pathways of pesticides from a sloped litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) orchard to a nearby stream based on a three-component hydrograph separation (baseflow, interflow, surface runoff). Dissolved silica and electrical conductivity were chosen as representative tracers. During the study period (30 d), 0.4 and 0.01% of the applied mass of atrazine and chlorpyrifos, respectively, were detected in the stream aft er 151 mm of rainfall. Baseflow (80-96%) was the dominant hydrological flow component, followed by interflow (3-18%) and surface runoff (1-7%). Despite its small contribution to total discharge, surface runoff was the dominant atrazine transport pathway during the first days aft er application because pesticide concentrations in the surface runoff flow component declined quickly within several days. Preferential transport with interflow became the dominant pathway of atrazine. Because chlorpyrifos was detected in the stream water only twice, it was not included in the hydrograph separation. A feature of the surface runoff pathway was the coincidence of pesticide and discharge peaks. In contrast, peak concentrations of pesticides transported by interflow occurred during the hydrograph recession phases. Stormflow generation and pesticide transport depended on antecedent rainfall. The combination of high-resolution pesticide concentration measurements with a three-component hydrograph separation has been shown to be a suitable method to identify pesticide transport pathways under tropical conditions.
Keywords: CLIMATE-SOIL CONTROLS, OPEN-FRACTURED SOIL, HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 968HA

362. Duirk, S. E.; Desetto, L. M., and Davis, G. M. Transformation of Organophosphorus Pesticides in the Presence of Aqueous Chlorine: Kinetics, Pathways, and Structure-Activity Relationships. 2009; 43, (7): 2335-2340.


Rec #: 59339
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of aqueous chlorine was investigated under simulated drinking water treatment conditions. Intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid (k(HOCl,OP)) and hypochlorite ion (k(OCl,OP)) for several OP pesticides. The reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with each OP pesticide was relatively rapid near neutral pH, k(HOCl,OP) = 0.86 - 3.56 x 10(6) M(-1)h(-1). HOCl reacts at the thiophosphate (P = S) moiety of the OP pesticide resuffing in the formation of the corresponding oxon (P = 0), which is more toxic than the parent pesticide. Hypochlorite ion (OCl(-)) was found not to oxidize OP pesticides but act like a nucleophile accelerating hydrolysis, k(OCl,OP) = 37.3-15 910 M(-1)h(-1). Both the k(HOCl,OP) and the k(OCl,OP) were found to correlate well with molecular descriptors within each subgroup of the OP pesticide class. A model was developed to predict the transformation of OP pesticides in the presence of aqueous chlorine. With hydrolysis rate coefficients, the transformation of OP pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions was found to be adequately predicted. The structure-activity relationships and model developed here could be used by risk assessors to determine exposure to OP pesticides and their transformation products in potable water.
Keywords: CONTAINING S-TRIAZINES, NATURAL-WATERS, DEGRADATION, CHLORPYRIFOS,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 427DI

363. Duirk, Stephen E; Desetto, Lisa M; Davis, Gary M; Lindell, Cristal; Cornelison, Christopher T , and Duirk, Stephen E. Chloramination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Found in Drinking Water Sources. 2010 Feb; 44, (3): 761-768.


Rec #: 48119
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pesticide. Therefore, a model was developed to examine the reaction of monochloramine (NH2Cl) and dichloramine (NHCl2) with chlorpyrifos (CP), diazinon (DZ), and malathion (MA). Monochloramine was found not to be very reactive with each OP pesticides, kNH2Cl,OP=11-21M super(-1)h super(-1). While, dichloramine (NHCl2) was found to be 2 orders of magnitude more reactive with each of the OP pesticides than monochloramine, kNHCl2,OP=2000-2900M super(-1)h super(-1), which is still three orders of magnitude less than the hypochlorous acid reaction rate coefficient with each OP pesticide. For each pesticide, the reactivity of the three chlorinated oxidants was then found to correlate with half-wave potentials (E1/2) of each oxidant. With reaction rate coefficients for the three chlorinated oxidations as well as neutral and alkaline hydrolysis rate coefficients for the pesticides, the model was used to determine the dominant reaction pathways as a function of pH. At pH 6.5, OP pesticide transformation was mostly due to the reaction of hypochlorous acid and dichloramine. Above pH 8, alkaline hydrolysis or the direct reaction with monochloramine was the primary degradation pathway responsible for the transformation of OP pesticides. This demonstrates the ability of models to be used as tools to elucidate degradation pathways and parameterize critical reaction parameters when used with select yet comprehensive data sets.
Keywords: Environmental Engineering Abstracts (EN); CSA / ASCE Civil Engineering Abstracts (CE)
Date revised - 2013-01-01
Language of summary - English
Number of references - 2
Pages - 761-768
ProQuest ID - 746073711
Last updated - 2013-01-07
British nursing index edition - Water Research [Water Res.]. Vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 761-768. Feb 2010.
Corporate institution author - Duirk, Stephen E; Desetto, Lisa M; Davis, Gary M; Lindell, Cristal; Cornelison, Christopher T
DOI - d5d56f36-bd19-4fec-a3b8csaobj202; 12930523; 0043-1354
Gray, Margerum, Huffman. Organometals and Organometalloids: Occurrence and Fate in the Environment.
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. English

364. Dunn, a M; Julien, G; Ernst, W R; Cook, a; Doe, K G; Jackman, P M, and Dunn, A M. Evaluation of Buffer Zone Effectiveness in Mitigating the Risks Associated With Agricultural Runoff in Prince Edward Island. 2011 Feb 1; 409, (5): 868-882.


Rec #: 47459
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: To minimize the risk posed by runoff from row crops, Prince Edward Island introduced buffer legislation in 2000. The legislation mandates 10-m and 20-m buffers, respectively, for moderate sloped (i.e. 5%) agricultural fields that border streams. Since 2001, Environment Canada has been evaluating the effectiveness of various buffer widths on operational farms in reducing toxicity and contaminant concentrations in runoff. Sample collectors, placed in 44 fields at the field edge (0m), 10m and at distances out to 30m, collected overland flow following rainfall-induced runoff events. Samples were collected within 24 hours of an event and analysed for seven pesticides (endosulfan, chlorothalonil, carbofuran, linuron, metribuzin, metalaxyl, mancozeb), water quality parameters and Daphnia magna toxicity. The 10-m buffer required for moderate sloped fields was effective at reducing contaminant concentrations but not always to less than lethal concentrations to Daphnia magna. Limited data beyond 10m for fields of both slope types precluded making recommendations on a suitable buffer width for shallow sloped fields and evaluating the effectiveness of 20-m buffers for steep sloped fields. When paired data were combined and statistically tested for all fields, the studied pesticides underwent a 52-98% and 68-100% reduction in aqueous and particulate concentrations within 10m and 30m, respectively. In addition, by 10m, soluble phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and total suspended solids were reduced by 34%, 38% and 64%, respectively. Results suggest buffer zones on operational farms are capable of achieving contaminant reductions comparable to those reported for controlled experiments. Inconsistent siting of sample collectors beyond 10m limited the evaluation of the effects of field slope and buffer width on buffer effectiveness on working farms. Future studies on buffer efficiency on operational farms should focus on building the data set beyond 10m and evaluating load reductions.
Keywords: Farms
Keywords: M2 556:General (556)
Keywords: buffers
Keywords: Phosphorus
Keywords: Statistical analysis
Keywords: Particulates
Keywords: Q5 01502:Methods and instruments
Keywords: Water quality
Keywords: Freshwater
Keywords: Toxicity tests
Keywords: Environmental factors
Keywords: Daphnia magna
Keywords: Risks
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Islands
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: farms
Keywords: Freshwater crustaceans
Keywords: Slopes
Keywords: Agricultural runoff
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: SW 3050:Ultimate disposal of wastes
Keywords: Rainfall runoff
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Overland flow
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: R2 23090:Policy and planning
Keywords: Risk
Keywords: Canada, Prince Edward Island
Keywords: Lethal limits
Keywords: Water Pollution Effects
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Fungicides
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: Runoff
Keywords: Legislation
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Canada, Prince Edward Island
Pages - 868-882
ProQuest ID - 855515698
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Lethal limits; Freshwater crustaceans; Pesticides; Toxicity; Environmental factors; Toxicity tests; Agricultural runoff; Risks; Legislation; Rainfall runoff; Statistical analysis; Water quality; Overland flow; Islands; farms; buffers; Fungicides; Phosphorus; Particulates; Risk; Agricultural Chemicals; Farms; Pollutants; Water Pollution Effects; Slopes; Runoff; Daphnia magna; Canada, Prince Edward Island; Freshwater
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Dunn, A M; Julien, G; Ernst, W R; Cook, A; Doe, K G; Jackman, P M
DOI - OB-ef973e89-e460-48a6-bd18csamfg201; 14366916; CS1146295; 0048-9697 English

365. Durieux, E. D. H.; Farver, T. B.; Fitzgerald, P. S.; Eder, K. J., and Ostrach, D. J. Natural factors to consider when using acetylcholinesterase activity as neurotoxicity biomarker in Young-Of-Year striped bass (Morone saxatilis). 2011; 37, (1): 21-29.


Rec #: 59379
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is one of the most common biomarkers of neurotoxicity used in aquatic organisms. However, compared to its extensive use as biomarker, the effects of natural factors on AChE activity remain unclear especially in estuarine fishes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural factors on AChE activity of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) juveniles. Brain AChE activity was measured in YOY (Young-Of-Year) individuals collected monthly from August 2007 to January 2008 at 12 different sites in the San Francisco Estuary system. The spatio-temporal variability of AChE was analyzed relative to water temperature and salinity as well as fish size. AChE activity was highly positively correlated with water temperature and to a lesser extent negatively with fish size while no relationship was detected with salinity. Taking into account these natural factors when using AChE as a biomarker will help to determine and understand the effects of neurotoxic contaminants on fish in estuarine systems.
Keywords: Fish, Biomarker, Acetylcholinesterase, Brain, Temperature, Salinity,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 733HO

366. Dusch, M. E.; Westlake, W. E., and Gunther, F. A. Determination of Dursban Insecticide in Water, Mud, Vegetation, Fish, Ducks, Insects, and Crustacea. 1970; 18, (1): 178-179.


Rec #: 1770
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Call Number: NO CHEM METHODS (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

367. Dutta, Moutushi; Sardar, Devashis; Pal, Raktim, and Kole, Ramen K. Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Microbial Biomass and Activities in Tropical Clay Loam Soil. 2010 Jan; 160, (1-4): 385-91.


Rec #: 40809
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Clay loam soil from agricultural field of Gangetic alluvial zone of West Bengal was investigated to evaluate the effect of chlorpyrifos application at field rate (0.5 mg kg-1 soil) and 100 times of the field rate (50 mg kg-1 soil) on soil microbial variables under laboratory conditions. Acetone-induced stress on soil microorganisms was evident in the initial stages in terms of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) content in soil and basal soil respiration (BSR) in control soil samples which received acetone only as compared to control soil without acetone. The soil MBC content increased significantly by application of chlorpyrifos. The BSR and the fluorescein diacetate hydrolysing activity (FDHA) were not adversely affected by chlorpyrifos at field rate, whilst the chemical at higher dosage significantly decreased the metabolic activities of soil microbes in terms of BSR and FDHA. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Keywords: Soil Pollutants -- toxicity
Keywords: 8640:Chemical industry
Keywords: Pesticide Residues
Keywords: 9179:Asia & the Pacific
Keywords: 9130:Experimental/theoretical
Keywords: Biomass
Keywords: Pesticide Residues -- toxicity
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Soil Pollutants
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Environmental Monitoring
Keywords: Soil Microbiology
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: 1530:Natural resources
Keywords: 8400:Agriculture industry
Keywords: West Bengal India
Copyright - Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010
Language of summary - English
Location - West Bengal India
Pages - 385-91
ProQuest ID - 221985001
Document feature - Equations; Tables; References
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - West Bengal India
Last updated - 2012-03-04
Place of publication - Dordrecht
Corporate institution author - Dutta, Moutushi; Sardar, Devashis; Pal, Raktim; Kole, Ramen K
DOI - 1919402701; 49831681; 108264; EVMT; 19083110; SPVLEVMT10661160702 English

368. Dyk, M. B.; Liu, Y.; Chen, Z. S.; Vega, H., and Krieger, R. I. Fate and distribution of fipronil on companion animals and in their indoor residences following spot-on flea treatments. 2012; 47, (10): 913-924.


Rec #: 59439
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Use of fipronil {5-amino-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]-4-trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carbonitrile CAS 120068-37-3} topical pet products on dogs and cats introduces low level residues into residences. Distribution and fate studies of fipronil on pets and in residences were performed to evaluate potential determinants of human exposure. Fipronil, desulfinyl fipronil, fipronil sulfone and fipronil sulfide were measured on hair clippings and brushed hair. The derivatives usually represented <10% of fipronil applied. Cotton gloves worn over impervious nitrile gloves, cotton cloths placed indoors in locations frequented by pets, and cotton socks worn by residents as direct dosimeters collected fipronil and its derivatives listed above in low amounts during 4-week study periods. Subsequent acid hydrolysis urine biomonitoring did not reveal significant excretion of biomarkers at ppb levels. The human exposure potential of fipronil is low relative to levels of health concern.
Keywords: Fipronil, companion animals, flea control, biomonitoring, exposure
ISI Document Delivery No.: 001BG

369. Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert, and Dyk, Melinda Bigelow. Pilot Biomonitoring of Adults and Children Following Use of Chlorpyrifos Shampoo and Flea Collars on Dogs. 2011 Jan; 46, (1): 97-104.


Rec #: 40129
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.
Keywords: Collars
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Age
Keywords: X 24340:Cosmetics, Toiletries & Household Products
Keywords: Agricultural wastes
Keywords: Handlers
Keywords: Food contamination
Keywords: Children
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: USA
Keywords: Creatinine
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Gender
Keywords: biomonitoring
Keywords: Excretion
Keywords: Shampoos
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA
Number of references - 22
Pages - 97-104
ProQuest ID - 918040684
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Collars; Age; Agricultural wastes; Handlers; Children; Food contamination; biomarkers; Chlorpyrifos; Creatinine; Insecticides; Urine; Pesticides; biomonitoring; Excretion; Shampoos; Bioindicators; Gender; USA
Last updated - 2012-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes [J. Environ. Sci. Health, Pt. B: Pestic., Food Contam., Agric. Wastes]. Vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 97-104. Jan 2011.
Corporate institution author - Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert
DOI - ecdee296-fef7-485c-aa30mfgefd101; 14296422; 0360-1234; 1532-4109
Barr, D. B. and Angerer, J. (2006) Potential uses of biomonitoring data: a case study using the organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos and malathion. Environ. Health Perspect., 114, pp. 1763-1769.
Boone, J. S. , Tyler, J. W. , Davis, M. K. and Chambers, J. E. (2006) Effects of topical phosmet on fur residue and cholinesterase activity of dogs. Toxicol. Mechan. Methods, 16, pp. 275-280.
Boone, J. S. , Tyler, J. W. and Chambers, J. E. (2001) Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environ. Health Perspect., 109, pp. 1109-1114.
California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) (2008) Pesticide Use Reporting: An Overview of California's Unique Full Reporting System, California Department of Pesticide Regulation, Sacramento
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2005) Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health Pub. No. 05-0570, CDC, Atlanta, GA
Chambers, J. E. , Boone, J. S. , Davis, M. K. , Moran, J. E. and Tyler, J. W. (2007) Assessing transferable residues from intermittent exposure to flea control collars containing the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos. J. Exp. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol., 17, pp. 656-666.
Chambers, J. E. and Davis, M. K. (2009) Exposure of adults and children to organophosphorus insecticides used in flea collars on pet dogs. Pesticides in Household, Structural and Residential Pest Management, pp. 163-173. ACS Symposium Series: American Chemical Society
Craig, M. , Gupta, R. C. , Canerdy, T. D. and Britton, D. M. (2005) Human exposure to imidacloprid from dogs treated with advantage. Toxicol. Mechan. Methods, 15:4, pp. 287-291.
Davis, M. K. , Boone, J. S. , Moran, J. E. , Tyler, J. W. and Chambers, J. E. (2008) Assessing intermittent pesticide exposure from flea control collars containing the organophosphorus insecticide tetrachlorvinphos. J. Exp. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol., 18, pp. 564-570.
Driver, J. , Ross, J. , Bigelow Dyk, M. , Guerino, F. and Holden, L. (2010) Pet Care Products used for insect pest control. Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology,, pp. 1077-1090. Elsevier/Academic Press, San Diego, CA
Eaton, D. L. , Daroff, R. B. , Autrup, H. , Bridges, J. , Buffler, P. , Costa, L. G. , Coyle, J. , McKann, G. , Mobley, W. C. , Nadel, L. , Neubert, D. , Schulte-Hermann, R. and Spencer, P. S. (2008) Review of the Toxicology of Chlorpyrifos With an Emphasis on Human Exposure and Neurodevelopment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 38, pp. 1-125.
Gupta, R. C. , Masthay, M. B. , Canerdy, T. D. , Acosta, T. M. , Provost, R. J. , Britton, D. M. , Atieh, B. H. and Keller, R. J. (2005) Human exposure tol selamectin from dogs treated with revolution: Methodological consideration for selamectin isolation. Toxicol. Mech. Methods., 15, pp. 317-321.
Jennings, K. A. , Canerdy, T. D. , Keller, R. J. , Atieh, B. H. , Doss, R. B. and Gupta, R. C. (2002) Human exposure to fipronil from dogs treated with Frontline. Vet. Human Toxicol., 44:5, pp. 301-303.
Koch, H. M. and Angerer, J. (2001) Analysis of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in urine samples from the general population using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry after steam distillation and solid phase extraction. J. Chromatog. B Biomed. Sci. Appl., 759:1, pp. 43-49.
Krieger, R. I. , Bernard, C. E. , Dinoff, T. M. , Ross, J. H. and Williams, R. L. (2001) Biomonitoring of persons exposed to insecticides used in residences. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 45:1001, pp. S143-S153.
Morgan, M. , Stout, D. , Jones, P. and Barr, D. (2008) An observational study of the potential for human exposures to pet-borne diazinon residues following lawn applications. Environ. Resear., 107, pp. 336-342.
Morgan, M. , Stout, D. and Wilson, N. (2001) Feasibility of the potential for human exposures to pet-borne diazinon residues following lawn applications. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 66, pp. 295-300.
Morgan, M. , Sheldon, L. , Croghan, C. , Jones, P. , Robertson, G. , Chuang, J. , Wilson, N. and Lyu, C. (2005) Exposures of preschool children to chlorpyrifos and its degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in their everyday environments. J. Exp. Analysis Environ. Epidemiol., 15, pp. 297-309.
Nolan, R. J. , Rick, D. L. , Freshour, N. L. and Saunders, J. H. (1984) Chlorpyrifos: pharmacokinetics in human volunteers. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 73, pp. 8-15.
Snyder, W. S. , Cook, M. J. , Nasset, E. S. , Karhausen, L. R. , Howelles, G. P. and Tipton, I. H. (1994) Report of the Task Group on Reference Man: ICRP-23, Pergamon, New York
USEPA (1997) Science Advisory Council for Exposure Policy Number 12: Recommended Revisions to the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C.
USEPA (2000) Smegal, Human D. C. Health Risk Assessment: Chlorpyrifos, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Health Effects Division (7509C), Washington, D.C. English

370. Eddleston, Michael; Eyer, Peter; Worek, Franz; Juszczak, Edmund; Alder, Nicola; Mohamed, Fahim; Senarathna, Lalith; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Azher, Shifa; Jeganathan, K; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Von Meyer, Ludwig; Dawson, Andrew H; Sheriff, Mohamed Hussain Rezvi, and Buckley, Nick a. Pralidoxime in Acute Organophosphorus Insecticide Poisoning--a Randomised Controlled Trial. 2009 Jun 30; 6, (6): 1-e1000104.


Rec #: 48469
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Poisoning with organophosphorus (OP) insecticides is a major global public health problem, causing an estimated 200,000 deaths each year. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of pralidoxime, this antidote's effectiveness remains unclear. We aimed to determine whether the addition of pralidoxime chloride to atropine and supportive care offers benefit. We performed a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of pralidoxime chloride (2 g loading dose over 20 min, followed by a constant infusion of 0.5 g/h for up to 7 d) versus saline in patients with organophosphorus insecticide self-poisoning. Mortality was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included intubation, duration of intubation, and time to death. We measured baseline markers of exposure and pharmacodynamic markers of response to aid interpretation of clinical outcomes. Two hundred thirty-five patients were randomised to receive pralidoxime (121) or saline placebo (114). Pralidoxime produced substantial and moderate red cell acetylcholinesterase reactivation in patients poisoned by diethyl and dimethyl compounds, respectively. Mortality was nonsignificantly higher in patients receiving pralidoxime: 30/121 (24.8%) receiving pralidoxime died, compared with 18/114 (15.8%) receiving placebo (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-3.26, p = 0.12). Incorporating the baseline amount of acetylcholinesterase already aged and plasma OP concentration into the analysis increased the HR for patients receiving pralidoxime compared to placebo, further decreasing the likelihood that pralidoxime is beneficial. The need for intubation was similar in both groups (pralidoxime 26/121 [21.5%], placebo 24/114 [21.1%], adjusted HR 1.27 [95% CI 0.71-2.29]). To reduce confounding due to ingestion of different insecticides, we further analysed patients with confirmed chlorpyrifos or dimethoate poisoning alone, finding no evidence of benefit. Despite clear reactivation of red cell acetylcholinesterase in diethyl organophosphorus pesticide poisoned patients, we found no evidence that this regimen improves survival or reduces need for intubation in patients with organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. The reason for this failure to benefit patients was not apparent. Further studies of different dose regimens or different oximes are required.
Keywords: 51-55-8
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Pralidoxime Compounds -- adverse effects
Keywords: P7MU9UTP52
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Pralidoxime Compounds -- pharmacokinetics
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase -- metabolism
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Organoplatinum Compounds
Keywords: EC 3.1.1.7
Keywords: Poisoning -- mortality
Keywords: Atropine -- pharmacology
Keywords: Male
Keywords: Antidotes
Keywords: Intubation, Intratracheal
Keywords: Antidotes -- therapeutic use
Keywords: Pralidoxime Compounds -- therapeutic use
Keywords: Antidotes -- pharmacokinetics
Keywords: pralidoxime
Keywords: Drug Therapy, Combination
Keywords: Insecticides -- poisoning
Keywords: Organoplatinum Compounds -- poisoning
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Antidotes -- adverse effects
Keywords: Female
Keywords: Atropine
Keywords: Pralidoxime Compounds
Date completed - 2009-07-23
Date created - 2009-06-30
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - e1000104
ProQuest ID - 67437257
Genetic sequence - ISRCTN55264358; ISRCTN
SuppNotes - Cites: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;66(4):451-2[18662291]; Cites: Clin Chim Acta. 1999 Oct;288(1-2):73-90[10529460]; Cites: BMC Public Health. 2007;7:357[18154668]; Cites: Lancet. 2008 Feb 16;371(9612):579-87[18280328]; Cites: Lancet. 2008 Feb 16;371(9612):597-607[17706760]; Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Dec;36(6):1235-42[17726039]; Cites: Lancet. 2006 Dec 16;368(9553):2136-41[17174705]; Cites: Lancet. 2006 Dec 16;368(9553):2110-1[17174692]; Cites: Inj Prev. 2006 Oct;12(5):333-7[17018677]; Cites: J Appl Toxicol. 2006 May-Jun;26(3):262-8[16583462]; Cites: Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Mar;25(3):157-62[16634335]; Cites: Crit Care Med. 2006 Feb;34(2):502-10[16424734]; Cites: Lancet. 2005 Oct 22-28;366(9495):1452-9[16243090]; Cites: Crit Care. 2004 Dec;8(6):R391-7[15566582]; Cites: N Engl J Med. 1955 Aug 18;253(7):266-71[13244813]; Cites: J Assoc Physicians India. 1996 Aug;44(8):529-31[9251423]; Cites: Lancet. 1992 May 9;339(8802):1136-8[1349368]; Cites: Lancet. 1992 Jul 4;340(8810):64[1351653]; Cites: Anaesth Intensive Care. 1986 Nov;14(4):458-60[3551677]; Cites: Indian J Med Res. 1977 Sep;66(3):460-8[598919]; Cites: J Pharm Sci. 1972 Nov;61(11):1765-9[4569114]; Cites: Toxicol Rev. 2003;22(3):165-90[15181665]; Cites: J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004;42(1):113-6[15083947]; Cites: Arch Toxicol. 2002 Sep;76(9):523-9[12242610]; Cites: Neth J Med. 2008 Apr;66(4):146-8[18424860]
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - PLoS medicine, June 30, 2009, 6(6):e1000104
Corporate institution author - Eddleston, Michael; Eyer, Peter; Worek, Franz; Juszczak, Edmund; Alder, Nicola; Mohamed, Fahim; Senarathna, Lalith; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Azher, Shifa; Jeganathan, K; Jayamanne, Shaluka; von Meyer, Ludwig; Dawson, Andrew H; Sheriff, Mohamed Hussain Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A
DOI - MEDL-19564902; 19564902; PMC2696321; 1549-1676 eng

371. Edwards, M. D.; Bartlett, W., and Booth, I. R. Pore Mutations of the Escherichia Coli Mscs Channel Affect Desensitization but Not Ionic Preference.


Rec #: 51309
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Mechanosensitive channels rescue bacterial cells from a fate of lysis when they transfer from a high- to low-osmolarity environment. Of three Escherichia coli mechanosensitive proteins studied to date, only MscS-Ec demonstrates a small anionic preference and a desensitized, nonconducting state under sustained pressure. Little is known about the mechanisms generating these distinctive properties. Eliminating the sole positive charge in the MscS-Ec pore region (Arg(88)) did not alter anionic preference. Adding positive charges at either end of the pore did not augment anionic preference, and placing negative charges within the pore did not diminish it. Thus, pore charges do not control this characteristic. However, from this analysis we identified mutations in the hinge region of the MscS-Ec pore helix (at Gly(113)) that profoundly affected ability of the channel to desensitize. Substitution with nonpolar (Ala, Pro) or polar (Asp, Arg, Ser) residues inhibited transition to the desensitized state. Interestingly, Gly(113) replaced with Met did not impede desensitization. Thus, although Gly is not specifically required at position 113, MscS desensitization is strongly influenced by the residue situated here. Mutations at residues further into the pore also regulated desensitization. Transition to this unique mechanosensitive channel state is discussed in terms of existing data.
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acid Substitution
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Membrane/chemistry/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Computer Simulation
MESH HEADINGS: Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Ion Channel Gating/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Ion Channels/chemistry/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Lipid Bilayers/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Mechanotransduction, Cellular/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: *Models, Biological
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Chemical
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Molecular
MESH HEADINGS: *Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
MESH HEADINGS: Porosity
MESH HEADINGS: Stress, Mechanical eng

372. Egeghy, P P; Hubal, Eac; Tulve, N S; Melnyk, L J; Morgan, M K; Fortmann, R C; Sheldon, L S, and Egeghy, P P. Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements From Selected Us Epa Children's Observational Exposure Studies. 2011 May; 8, (5): 1727-1754.


Rec #: 43399
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children's exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that impact their exposures. Urinary metabolite concentration measurements from these studies are consolidated here to identify trends, spatial and temporal patterns, and areas where further research is required. Namely, concentrations of the metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol or TCPy), diazinon (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol or IMP), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid or 3-PBA) are presented. Information on the kinetic parameters describing absorption and elimination in humans is also presented to aid in interpretation. Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations. Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations. Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications. The observed relationships between urinary metabolite levels and estimates of pesticide intake may be affected by differences in the contribution of each exposure route to total intake, which may vary with exposure intensity and across individuals.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: EPA
Keywords: USA
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Absorption
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: P 6000:TOXICOLOGY AND HEALTH
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA
Pages - 1727-1754
ProQuest ID - 899137691
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Bioindicators; EPA; Organophosphates; Urine; Pesticides; Absorption; Metabolites; Children; USA
Last updated - 2012-05-07
British nursing index edition - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health]. Vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1727-1754. May 2011.
Corporate institution author - Egeghy, P P; Hubal, EAC; Tulve, N S; Melnyk, L J; Morgan, M K; Fortmann, R C; Sheldon, L S
DOI - MD-0017487831; 15772622; 1660-4601 English

373. Ehrich, M.; Van Tassell, R.; Li, Y. B.; Zhou, Z. G., and Kepley, C. L. Fullerene antioxidants decrease organophosphate-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition in vitro. 2011; 25, (1): 301-307.


Rec #: 59549
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Although organophosphate (OP)-induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition is the critical mechanism causing toxicities that follow exposure, other biochemical events, including oxidative stress, have been reported to contribute to OP toxicity. Fullerenes are carbon spheres with antioxidant activity. Thus, we hypothesized that fullerenes could counteract the effects of OP compounds and tested this hypothesis using two in vitro test systems, hen brain and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Cells were incubated with eight different derivatized fullerene compounds before challenge with paraoxon (0 control, 5 x 10(-8), 10(-7), 2 x 10(-7) or 5 x 10(-7) M) or diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP, 0 = control, 5 x 10(-6), 10(-5), 2 x 10(-5), and 5 x 10(-5) M) and measurement of AChE activities. Activities of brain and SH-SY5Y AChE with OP compounds alone ranged from 55-83% lower than non-treated controls after paraoxon and from 60-92% lower than non-treated controls after DFP. Most incubations containing 1 and 10 mu M fullerene derivatives brought AChE activity closer to untreated controls, with improvements in AChE activity often >20%. Using dissipation of superoxide anion radicals as an indicator (xanthine oxidation as a positive control), all fullerene derivatives demonstrated significant antioxidant capability in neuroblastoma cells at 1 mu M concentrations. No fullerene derivative at 1 mu M significantly affected neuroblastoma cell viability, when determined using either Alamar Blue dye retention or a luminescent assay for ATP production. These studies suggest that derivatized fullerene nanomaterials have potential capability to ameliorate OP-induced AChE inhibition resulting in toxicities. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Fullerenes, Organophosphates, Acetylcholinesterase inhibition
ISI Document Delivery No.: 716YY

374. Eisenhauer, N.; Klier, M.; Partsch, S.; Sabais, A. C. W.; Scherber, C.; Weisser, W. W., and Scheu, S. No Interactive Effects of Pesticides and Plant Diversity on Soil Microbial Biomass and Respiration. 2009; 42, (1): 31-36.


Rec #: 2850
Keywords: BACTERIA
Call Number: NO BACTERIA (CPY,DMT,FTZ)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DMT,FTZ

375. Eisenhauer, N.; Sabais, A. C. W.; Schonert, F., and Scheu, S. Soil Arthropods Beneficially Rather than Detrimentally Impact Plant Performance in Experimental Grassland Systems of Different Diversity. Georg-August-University Goettingen, J.F. Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, Berliner Str. 28, 37073 Goettingen, Germany, Elsevier Science, P.O. Box 800 Kidlington Oxford OX5 1DX UK//: SOIL; 2010; 42, (9): 1418-1424.


Rec #: 2810
Keywords: NO CONC
Call Number: NO CONC (CPY)
Notes: EcoReference No.: 160326
Chemical of Concern: CPY

376. Ellero, S.; Chakhtoura, G.; Barreau, C.; Langouet, S.; Benelli, C.; Penicaud, L.; Beaune, P., and de Waziers, I. Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Cytochromes P450 in Human White Adipose Tissue: Expression and Induction. 2010; 38, (4): 679-686.


Rec #: 59639
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Lipophilic pollutants can accumulate in human white adipose tissue (WAT), and the consequences of this accumulation are still poorly understood. Cytochromes P450 (P450s) have recently been found in rat WAT and shown to be inducible through mechanisms similar to those in the liver. The aim of our study was to describe the cytochrome P450 pattern and their induction mechanisms in human WAT. Explants of subcutaneous and visceral WAT and primary culture of subcutaneous adipocytes were used as WAT models, and liver biopsies and primary culture of hepatocytes were used as liver models to characterize P450 expression in both tissues. The WAT and liver models were then treated with typical P450 inducers (rifampicin, phenobarbital, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin) and lipophilic pollutants (lindane, prochloraz, and chlorpyrifos), and the effects on P450 expression were studied. P450 expression was considerably lower in WAT than in the liver, except for CYP1B1 and CYP2U1, which were the most highly expressed adipose P450s in all individuals. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin and prochloraz induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in both tissues. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor was also present in WAT. In contrast, neither phenobarbital nor rifampicin treatment induced CYP2 or CYP3 mRNA in WAT, and constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor were almost undetectable. These results suggest that the mechanisms by which P450s of family 1 are regulated in the liver are also functional in human WAT, but those regulating CYP2 and CYP3 expression are not.
Keywords: BREAST-CANCER, AH RECEPTOR, GUINEA-PIG, ENZYMES, CELLS, RAT,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 570JJ

377. Ellison, C. A.; Tian, Y.; Knaak, J. B.; Kostyniak, P. J., and Olson, J. R. Human Hepatic Cytochrome P450-Specific Metabolism of the Organophosphorus Pesticides Methyl Parathion and Diazinon. 2012; 40, (1): 1-5.


Rec #: 59689
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are a public health concern due to their worldwide use and documented human exposures. Phosphorothioate OPs are metabolized by cytochrome P450s (P450s) through either a dearylation reaction to form an inactive metabolite, or through a desulfuration reaction to form an active oxon metabolite, which is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor. This study investigated the rate of desulfuration (activation) and dearylation (detoxification) of methyl parathion and diazinon in human liver microsomes. In addition, recombinant human P450s were used to determine the P450-specific kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max)) for each compound for future use in refining human physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models of OP exposure. The primary enzymes involved in bioactivation of methyl parathion were CYP2B6 (K(m) = 1.25 mu M; V(max) = 9.78 nmol . min(-1) . nmol P450(-1)), CYP2C19 (Km = 1.03 mu M; V(max) = 4.67 nmol . min(-1) . nmol P450(-1)), and CYP1A2 (K(m) = 1.96 = mu M; V(max) = 5.14 nmol . min(-1) . nmol P450(-1)), and the bioactivation of diazinon was mediated primarily by CYP1A1 (K(m) = 3.05 mu M; V(max) = 2.35 nmol . min(-1) . nmol P450(-1)), CYP2C19 (K(m) = 7.74 mu M; V(max) = 4.14 nmol . min(-1) . nmol P450(-1)), and CYP2B6 (K(m) = 14.83 mu M; V(max) = 5.44 nmol . min(-1) . nmol P450(-1)). P450-mediated detoxification of methyl parathion only occurred to a limited extent with CYP1A2 (K(m) = 16.8 mu M; V(max) = 1.38 nmol . min(-1) . nmol P450(-1)) and 3A4 (K(m) = 104 mu M; V(max) = 5.15 nmol . min(-1) . nmol P450(-1)), whereas the major enzyme involved in diazinon detoxification was CYP2C19 (K(m) = 5.04 mu M; V(max) = 5.58 nmol . min(-1) . nmol P450(-1)). The OP-and P450-specific kinetic values will be helpful for future use in refining human PBPK/PD models of OP exposure.
Keywords: HUMAN LIVER-MICROSOMES, PBPK/PD MODELS, CHLORPYRIFOS, BIOTRANSFORMATION,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 866UZ

378. Ellison, Corie a; Abou El-Ella, Soheir S; Tawfik, Maha; Lein, Pamela J; Olson, James R, and Ellison, Corie A. Allele and Genotype Frequencies of Cyp2b6 and Cyp2c19 Polymorphisms in Egyptian Agricultural Workers. 2012 Jan; 75, (4): 232-241.


Rec #: 42969
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Genetic variability in cytochrome P-450 (CYP) has the potential to modify pharmacological and toxicological responses to many chemicals. Both CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 are pharmacologically and toxicologically relevant due to their ability to metabolize multiple drugs and environmental contaminants, including the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 variants in an indigenous Egyptian population (n = 120) that was shown to be occupationally exposed to chlorpyrifos. Further, the genotyping data was compared for Egyptians with previously studied populations to determine between population differences. Allelic frequencies were CYP2B6 1459C > T (3.8%), CYP2B6 785A > G (30.4%), CYP2B6 516G > T (28.8%), CYP2C19 681G > A (3.8%), and CYP2C19 431G > A (0%). The most prevalent CYP2B6 genotype combinations were CYP2B6 *1/*1 (44%), *1/*6 (38%), *6/*6 (8%), and *1/*5 (6%). The frequency of the CYP2C19 genotype combinations were CYP2C19 *1/*1 (93%), *1/*2 (6%), and *2/*2 (1%). The frequency of the CYP2B6 516G > T and CYP2B6 785A > G polymorphisms in this Egyptian cohort is similar to that found North American and European populations but significantly different from that reported for West African populations, while that of CYP2B6 1459C > T is similar to that found in Africans and African Americans. The observed frequency of CYP2C19 681G > A in Egyptians is similar to that of African pygmies but significantly different from other world populations, while CYP2C19 431 G > A was significantly different from that of African pygmies but similar to other world populations.
Keywords: Environmental Engineering Abstracts (EN); CSA / ASCE Civil Engineering Abstracts (CE)
Date revised - 2012-11-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 232-241
ProQuest ID - 1069194303
Last updated - 2012-11-06
British nursing index edition - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues [J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, A: Curr. Iss.]. Vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 232-241. Jan 2012.
Corporate institution author - Ellison, Corie A; Abou El-Ella, Soheir S; Tawfik, Maha; Lein, Pamela J; Olson, James R
DOI - 55182b7f-ce83-43d9-9924mfgefd107; 17139341; 1528-7394; 1087-2620 English

379. Ellison, Corie a; Crane, Alice L; Bonner, Matthew R; Knaak, James B; Browne, Richard W; Lein, Pamela J; Olson, James R, and Ellison, Corie A. Pon1 Status Does Not Influence Cholinesterase Activity in Egyptian Agricultural Workers Exposed to Chlorpyrifos. 2012 Dec 15; 265, (3): 308-315.


Rec #: 38459
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n=120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P less than or equal to 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P less than or equal to 0.05) and PON1 192 (P less than or equal to 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal.
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Egypt, Arab Rep.
Keywords: Depression
Keywords: paraoxonase 1
Keywords: Population studies
Keywords: H 1000:Occupational Safety and Health
Keywords: Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Paraoxon
Keywords: Genotypes
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Cholinesterase
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Blood levels
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Blood
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Saliva
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Date revised - 2012-12-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Egypt, Arab Rep.
Pages - 308-315
ProQuest ID - 1257740101
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Agriculture; Pesticides (organophosphorus); Depression; paraoxonase 1; Population studies; Metabolites; Genotypes; Toxicity; Paraoxon; Cholinesterase; Chlorpyrifos; Blood; Urine; Saliva; Occupational exposure; Pesticides; Blood levels; Egypt, Arab Rep.
Last updated - 2013-01-25
British nursing index edition - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.]. Vol. 265, no. 3, pp. 308-315. 15 Dec 2012.
Corporate institution author - Ellison, Corie A; Crane, Alice L; Bonner, Matthew R; Knaak, James B; Browne, Richard W; Lein, Pamela J; Olson, James R
DOI - 3b02d6a3-36e6-4d29-a1c2csamfg201; 17425627; 0041-008X English

380. Ellison, Corie Anthony and Olson, James R. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides. 2012: (UMI# 3495181 ).


Rec #: 51639
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are the most widely used insecticide in the United States and throughout the world, and as such, human exposure to OPs is a concern. The development of human data regarding OP exposure, metabolism, effects and susceptibility are all important needs for the human risk assessment process. The work presented within this dissertation focuses on generating data that will be relevant for the human risk assessment of two common OPs,
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