Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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microextraction (SPME) fiber concentrations were used as a dose metric to evaluate the toxicity of hydrophobic pesticides, and concentrationresponse relationships were found for the hydrophobic pesticides tested in the two test species. The present study extends the use of fiber concentrations to organism body residues to specifically address biotransformation and provide the link to toxic response. Test compounds included the organochlorines p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE); two pyrethroids, permethrin and bifenthrin; and an organophosphate, chlorpyrifos. Toxicity, body residues, and biotransformation of the target compounds were determined for the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Significant regression relationships were found without regard to chemical, extent of biotransformation, or whether the chemical reached steady state in the organisms. The equilibrium SPME fiber concentrations correlated with the parent compound concentration in the biota; however, the regressions were duration specific. Furthermore, the SPME fiber-based toxicity values yielded species-specific regressions with the parent compoundbased toxicity values linking the use of SPME fiber as a dose metric with tissue residues to estimate toxic response. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 21682174. (c) 2012 SETAC
Keywords: Biotransformation, Body residue, Chironomus dilutus, Hyalella azteca,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 994NW

328. Ding, Yuping; Harwood, Amanda D; Foslund, Heather M; Lydy, Michael J, and Ding, Yuping. Distribution and Toxicity of Sediment-Associated Pesticides in Urban and Agricultural Waterways From Illinois, Usa. 2010 Jan 1; 29, (1): 149-157.

Rec #: 44339
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A statewide investigation of insecticide presence and sediment toxicity was conducted in Illinois, USA, from June to August 2008. Twenty sediment samples were collected from urban areas throughout Illinois, and 49 sediment samples were collected from 14 agriculture-dominated counties in central and southern Illinois. Ten-day sediment toxicity tests were conducted using the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and 59% of the urban sites and 2% of the agricultural locations sampled caused significant mortality in the amphipods. The field sediments were analyzed for 29 pesticides, including 19 organochlorines, one organophosphate, and nine pyrethroids. The detection frequencies of organochlorines, chlorpyrifos, and pyrethroids were 95, 65, and 95%, respectively, for urban sites, and 45, 6.1, and 47%, respectively, for agricultural sites. Based on toxic unit analysis, bifenthrin was the main contributor to the detected mortality in urban sediments. The present study provides the first broad assessment of pesticide prevalence in both urban and agriculture areas in Illinois.
Keywords: Environmental Engineering Abstracts (EN); CSA / ASCE Civil Engineering Abstracts (CE)
Date revised - 2011-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 149-157
ProQuest ID - 858424250
Last updated - 2012-12-05
British nursing index edition - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry [Environ. Toxicol. Chem.]. Vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 149-157. 1 Jan 2010.
Corporate institution author - Ding, Yuping; Harwood, Amanda D; Foslund, Heather M; Lydy, Michael J
DOI - 8e015f13-1f83-4939-af7ccsamfg201; 14429973; 1552-8618 English

329. Dishaw, Laura V; Powers, Christina M; Ryde, Ian T; Roberts, Simon C; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore a; Stapleton, Heather M, and Dishaw, Laura V. Is the Pentabde Replacement, Tris (1,3-Dichloro-2-Propyl) Phosphate (Tdcpp), a Developmental Neurotoxicant? Studies in Pc12 Cells. 2011 Nov 1; 256, (3): 281-289.

Rec #: 43079
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants.
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Fire retardant chemicals
Keywords: Dust
Keywords: Differentiation
Keywords: Dopamine
Keywords: Pheochromocytoma cells
Keywords: Oxidative stress
Keywords: Axonogenesis
Keywords: Ethers
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: DNA biosynthesis
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Cell number
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: oxidative stress
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Phosphates
Keywords: Phosphate
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Neurotoxicity
Keywords: DNA
Keywords: Fire retardants
Keywords: Side effects
Date revised - 2011-12-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 281-289
ProQuest ID - 911157707
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - DNA biosynthesis; Pesticides (organophosphorus); Data processing; Cell number; organophosphates; Fire retardant chemicals; Dust; Chlorpyrifos; Differentiation; Dopamine; Pheochromocytoma cells; Phosphate; Oxidative stress; Neurotoxicity; Axonogenesis; Ethers; Side effects; Phosphates; Organophosphates; Pesticides; DNA; Fire retardants; Toxicity; oxidative stress
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.]. Vol. 256, no. 3, pp. 281-289. 1 Nov 2011.
Corporate institution author - Dishaw, Laura V; Powers, Christina M; Ryde, Ian T; Roberts, Simon C; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A; Stapleton, Heather M
DOI - a9f0a390-9f6d-4c8a-af66csamfg201; 15964962; 0041-008X English

330. Djogbenou, L.; Pasteur, N.; Akogbeto, M.; Weill, M., and Chandre, F. Insecticide resistance in the Anopheles gambiae complex in Benin: a nationwide survey. 2011; 25, (3): 256-267.

Rec #: 59199
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Benin has embraced World Health Organization-recommended preventive strategies to control malaria. Its National Malaria Control Programme is implementing and/or coordinating various actions and conducting evaluation trials of mosquito control strategies. Mosquito control is based on the use of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, but the efficacy of these strategies to control malaria vectors is endangered by insecticide resistance. Here, we present the results of a nationwide survey on the status of insecticide susceptibility and resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) carried out in Benin in 2006-2007 (i.e. before extensive vector control was undertaken). Overall, our study showed that the S molecular form of An. gambiae s. s. predominates and is widely distributed across the country, whereas the frequency of the M form shows a strong decline with increasing latitude. Susceptibility to DDT, permethrin, carbosulfan and chlorpyrifos-methyl was assessed; individual mosquitoes were identified for species and molecular forms, and genotyped for the kdr and ace-1 loci. Full susceptibility to chlorpyrifos-methyl was recorded and very few samples displayed resistance to carbosulfan. High resistance levels to permethrin were detected in most samples and almost all samples displayed resistance to DDT. The kdr-Leu-Phe mutation was present in all localities and in both molecular forms of An. gambiae s. s. Furthermore, the ace-1(R) mutation was predominant in the S form, but absent from the M form. By contrast, no target modification was observed in Anopheles arabiensis. Resistance in the An. gambiae S molecular form in this study seemed to be associated with agricultural practices. Our study showed important geographic variations which must be taken into account in the vector control strategies that will be applied in different regions of Benin. It also emphasizes the need to regularly monitor insecticide resistance across the country and to adapt measures to manage resistance.
Keywords: Anopheles gambiae s.l., ace-1(R) mutation, insecticides, kdr(R)
ISI Document Delivery No.: 803DJ

331. Doganlar, Z. B. Physiological and Genetic Responses to Pesticide Mixture Treatment of Veronica beccabunga. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Art, Agri Ibrahim Cecen University, 04200, Agri, Turkey, Springer Science+Business Media, Van Godewijckstraat 30 Dordrecht 3311 GX Netherlands//: SOIL; 2012; 223, (9): 6201-6212.

Rec #: 2700
Keywords: MIXTURE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ATZ,CPY,DS,ETN,MLX

332. Doggett, S. L.; Dwyer, D. E.; PeĀ¤as, P. F., and Russell, R. C. Bed Bugs: Clinical Relevance and Control Options.

Rec #: 73389
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
ABSTRACT: Since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. These bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. Cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. Occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. If bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or eythematous rashes. Often, bites occur in lines along the limbs. Over 40 pathogens have been detected in bed bugs, but there is no definitive evidence that they transmit any disease-causing organisms to humans. Anemia may result when bed bugs are numerous, and their allergens can trigger asthmatic reactions. The misuse of chemicals and other technologies for controlling bed bugs has the potential to have a deleterious impact on human health, while the insect itself can be the cause of significant psychological trauma. The control of bed bugs is challenging and should encompass a multidisciplinary approach utilizing nonchemical means of control and the judicious use of insecticides. For accommodation providers, risk management procedures should be implemented to reduce the potential of bed bug infestations.
MESH HEADINGS: Bedbugs/*growth &
MESH HEADINGS: development
MESH HEADINGS: Communicable Diseases/*transmission
MESH HEADINGS: Ectoparasitic Infestations/complications/*epidemiology/*prevention &
MESH HEADINGS: control/psychology
MESH HEADINGS: Insect Bites and Stings/*epidemiology
MESH HEADINGS: World Health eng

333. Domingues, I.; Agra, A. R.; Monaghan, K.; Soares, A. M. V. M., and Nogueira, A. J. A. Cholinesterase and Glutathione-S-Transferase Activities in Freshwater Invertebrates as Biomarkers to Assess Pesticide Contamination. 2010; 29, (1): 5-18.

Rec #: 70
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: EcoReference No.: 152619

334. Dos Santos, Luciane G; Lourencetti, Carolina; Pinto, Alicio a; Pignati, Wanderlei a; Dores, Eliana Fgc, and Dos Santos, Luciane G. Validation and Application of an Analytical Method for Determining Pesticides in the Gas Phase of Ambient Air. 2011 Feb; 46, (2): 150-162.

Rec #: 43569
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A method for determining atmospheric concentrations of eight pesticides applied to corn and soybean crops in Mato Grosso state, Brazil is presented. The method involved a XAD-2 resin cartridge coupled to a low volume air pump at 2 L min-1 over 8 hours. Pesticides were recovered from the resin using sonication with n-hexane:ethyl acetate and determined by GC-MS. Good accuracy (76-128%) and precision (CV < 20%) were obtained for atrazine, chlorpyrifos, alpha - and beta -endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, flutriafol, malathion, metolachlor and permethrin. Method detection ranged from 9.0 to 17.9 ng m super(-3). This method was applied to 61 gas phase samples collected between December 2008 and June 2009. Atrazine and endosulfan were detected both in urban and rural areas indicating the importance of atmospheric dispersion of pesticides in tropical areas. The simple and efficient extraction method and sampling system employed was considered suitable for identifying pesticides in areas of intense agricultural production.
Keywords: Resins
Keywords: Pollution detection
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Agricultural production
Keywords: Pollution dispersion
Keywords: Wastes
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Q5 01502:Methods and instruments
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Acetate
Keywords: Atrazine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pumps
Keywords: Brazil, Mato Grosso
Keywords: ENA 01:Air Pollution
Keywords: Dispersion
Date revised - 2011-04-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Brazil, Mato Grosso
Number of references - 53
Pages - 150-162
ProQuest ID - 860377750
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pollution detection; Acetate; Pesticides; Wastes; Pumps; Herbicides; Dispersion; Chlorpyrifos; Resins; Agricultural production; Pollution dispersion; Atrazine; Malathion; Endosulfan; Brazil, Mato Grosso
Last updated - 2012-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes [J. Environ. Sci. Health, Pt. B: Pestic., Food Contam., Agric. Wastes]. Vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 150-162. Feb 2011.
Corporate institution author - Dos Santos, Luciane G; Lourencetti, Carolina; Pinto, Alicio A; Pignati, Wanderlei A; Dores, Eliana FGC
DOI - 3d82958a-bee8-40c2-a841mfgefd101; 14432022; CS1146869; 0360-1234; 1532-4109
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335. Dotan, S.; Pinkas, A.; Slotkin, T. A., and Yanai, J. An avian model for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. 2010; 32, (4): 481-488.

Rec #: 59259
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A fast and simple model which uses lower animals on the evolutionary scale is beneficial for developing procedures for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. Here, we established a procedure for the derivation of chick neural stem cells, establishing embryonic day (E) 10 as optimal for progression to neuronal phenotypes. Cells were obtained from the embryonic cerebral hemispheres and incubated for 5-7 days in enriched medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) according to a procedure originally developed for mice. A small percentage of the cells survived, proliferated and formed nestin-positive neurospheres. After removal of the growth factors to allow differentiation (5 days), 74% of the cells differentiated into all major lineages of the nervous system, including neurons (Beta Ill tubulin-positive, 54% of the total number of differentiated cells), astrocytes (GFAP-positive, 26%), and oligodendrocytes (04-positive, 20%). These findings demonstrate that the cells were indeed neural stem cells. Next, the cells were transplanted in two allograft chick models; (1) direct cerebral transplantation to 24-h-old chicks, followed by post-transplantation cell tracking at 24 h, 6 days and 14 days, and (2) intravenous transplantation to chick embryos on E13, followed by cell tracking on E19. With both methods, transplanted cells were found in the brain. The chick embryo provides a convenient, precisely-timed and unlimited supply of neural progenitors for therapy by transplantation, as well as constituting a fast and simple model in which to evaluate the ability of neural stem cell transplantation to repair neural damage, steps that are critical for progress toward therapeutic applications. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Chick, Neural stem cell derivation, Intra-cerebral transplantation,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 620VF

336. Douard, V. and Ferraris, R. P. Regulation of the Fructose Transporter Glut5 in Health and Disease.

Rec #: 51159
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Fructose is now such an important component of human diets that increasing attention is being focused on the fructose transporter GLUT5. In this review, we describe the regulation of GLUT5 not only in the intestine and testis, where it was first discovered, but also in the kidney, skeletal muscle, fat tissue, and brain where increasing numbers of cell types have been found to have GLUT5. GLUT5 expression levels and fructose uptake rates are also significantly affected by diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and inflammation and seem to be induced during carcinogenesis, particularly in the mammary glands. We end by highlighting research areas that should yield information needed to better understand the role of GLUT5 during normal development, metabolic disturbances, and cancer.
MESH HEADINGS: Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Fructose/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Glucose Transporter Type 5/blood/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Hypertension/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Inflammation/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Intestines/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Obesity/metabolism eng

337. Dounin, V.; Constantinof, A.; Schulze, H.; Bachmann, T. T., and Kerman, K. Electrochemical detection of interaction between Thioflavin T and acetylcholinesterase. 2011; 136, (6): 1234-1238.

Rec #: 59269
Keywords: METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The electrochemical oxidation of the benzothiazole dye Thioflavin T (ThT) was found to be modulated by its interaction with electric eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Modifications of AChE by trace amounts of small molecule inhibitors such as carbachol and paraoxon were detectable electrochemically using minimal reagents and with greater sensitivity than attainable through conventional fluorescence approaches. This property appears to be unique to ThT, since its closely related neutral derivative BTA-1 only interacts with AChE, but is not significantly affected by the presence of small molecule inhibitors.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 727MV

338. Dow Chemical Co. Determination of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Green Plants, Kernels, Kernels and Cobs, Cobs and Husks, and Husks of Sweet Corn Growth From Seed Treated with Lorsban Insecticide. SOIL; 1974.

Rec #: 680
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

339. ---. Determination of Residues of Chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Tissues of Cattle Receiving a Single Treatment of Dursban Spoton. 1976.

Rec #: 690
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

340. ---. Determination of Residues of Chloropyrifos its Oxygen Analog and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Tissues of Cattle Fed Chloropyrifos. 1972.

Rec #: 640
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

341. ---. Determination of Residues of Chlorpyrifos and Its Oxygen Analog in Peaches by Gas Chromatography. SOIL; 1969.

Rec #: 620
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

342. ---. Dursban Mosquito Issue. 1968; 24, (2): 1.

Rec #: 2040
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

343. ---. Dursban Residues in the Omental Fat of Cattle Following Two Dip Applications. 1967.

Rec #: 610
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

344. ---. The Effect of Formulation of Dursban Residues in Omental Fat of Cattle Following Single Spray Application. 1966.

Rec #: 730
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

345. ---. Report No. NBA-9: Absorption, Excretion, and Distribution of 0-0 Diethyl 0-3,5,6-Trichloro-2,6-C14-2-Pyridyl Phosphorothiate (C-14-Dowco 179) in Rats. 1971.

Rec #: 630
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

346. ---. Residues of Chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Tissues of Swine Fed Chloropyrifos. 1972.

Rec #: 650
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

347. ---. Residues of Chloropyrifos, Its Oxygen Analog, and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Milk and Cream from Cows Fed Chloropyrifos. 1972.

Rec #: 670
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

348. ---. Residues of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichlor-2-Pyridinol in Field Corn Following Multiple Applications of Lorsban Insecticides. SOIL; 1981.

Rec #: 710
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

349. ---. Residues of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Corn Process Fractions Following Treatment of Grain with Lorsban 4E Insecticide. SOIL; 1981.

Rec #: 720
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

350. ---. Residues of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Grain and Milling Fractions Following Multiple Applications of Lorsban 4E Insecticide to Sorghum. SOIL; 1978.

Rec #: 700
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

351. ---. Residues of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Sorghum Green Plant, Silage, dry Plant and Grain Following Multiple Applications with Lorsban Insecticide. SOIL; 1976.

Rec #: 740
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

352. ---. Residues of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Tissues and Eggs from Chickens Fed Chlorpyrifos. 1972.

Rec #: 660
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

353. Drury, D. D.; Baker, C. A.; Gundlach, J. C., and Ahmadpour, J. Chlorination - Dechlorination and Toxicity Testing. D.D.Drury, Chino Basin Municipal Water District, Fontana, CA//: 1997; 9, (7): 49-52.

Rec #: 750
Keywords: SURVEY
Call Number: NO SURVEY (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

354. Druzina, B. and Stegu, M. Degradation study of selected organophosphorus insecticides in natural waters. 2007; 87, (15): 1079-1093.

Rec #: 59289
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The degradation of 15 organophosphorus insecticides was studied in drinking, ground, and surface waters under different laboratory-controlled and environmental conditions. Surface waters originated from rivers Savinja (near the city of Celje) and Kamniska Bistrica (at the spring), which both belong to the Danube river basin. Groundwater was collected from wells (70m deep) in Ljubljana, which are the direct source of drinking water for the capital. These matrices were selected on the basis of their different chemical composition and microbial activity. Major factors influencing the degradation were determined, such as temperature, oxygen, sunlight, pH, and type of water. The degradation of atrazine, present in many water sources in Slovenija, was followed simultaneously as a reference under the same conditions. The degradation kinetics was followed by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection, which also allowed the identification of some degradation by-products, such as oxon analogues paraoxon, dyfoxon, malaoxon, phenyl-methyl sulfoxide, fenthion sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and phorate sulfone. The results show that the half-lives of the selected organophosphorus insecticides varied from 4 to 192 days or more, depending on the water source and experimental conditions. As a result, kinetically constants and half-lives were calculated for every tested insecticide, and major degradation products were determined.
Keywords: organophosphorus insecticides, environmental fate, degradation
ISI Document Delivery No.: 223VV

355. Du, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, L. M.; Lu, D. L., and Lin, Y. H. Integrated Lateral Flow Test Strip with Electrochemical Sensor for Quantification of Phosphorylated Cholinesterase: Biomarker of Exposure to Organophosphorus Agents. 2012; 84, (3): 1380-1385.

Rec #: 59299
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An integrated lateral flow test strip with an electrochemical sensor (LFTSES) device with rapid, selective, and sensitive response for quantification of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents has been developed. The principle of this approach is based on parallel measurements of postexposure and baseline acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity, where reactivation of the phosphorylated AChE is exploited to enable measurement of the total amount of AChE (including inhibited and active) which is used as a baseline for calculation of AChE inhibition. Quantitative measurement of phosphorylated adduct (OP-AChE) was realized by subtracting the active AChE from the total amount of AChE. The proposed LFTSES device integrates immunochromatographic test strip technology with electrochemical measurement using a disposable screen printed electrode which is located under the test zone. It shows a linear response between AChE enzyme activity and enzyme concentration from 0.05 to 10 nM, with a detection limit of 0.02 nM. On the basis of this reactivation approach, the LFTSES device has been successfully applied for in vitro red blood cells inhibition studies using chlorpyrifos oxon as a model OP agent. This approach not only eliminates the difficulty in screening of low-dose OP exposure because of individual variation of normal AChE values but also avoids the problem in overlapping substrate specificity with cholinesterases and avoids potential interference from other electroactive species in biological samples. It is baseline free and thus provides a rapid, sensitive, selective, and inexpensive tool for in-field and point-of-care assessment of exposures to OP pesticides and nerve agents.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 886OH

356. Du, M.; Butchi, N. B.; Woods, T., and Peterson, K. E. Poly-Thymidine Oligonucleotides Mediate Activation of Murine Glial Cells Primarily Through Tlr7, Not Tlr8.

Rec #: 50099
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The functional role of murine TLR8 in the inflammatory response of the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. Murine TLR8 does not appear to respond to human TLR7/8 agonists, due to a five amino acid deletion in the ectodomain. However, recent studies have suggested that murine TLR8 may be stimulated by alternate ligands, which include vaccinia virus DNA, phosphothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) or the combination of phosphothioate poly-thymidine oligonucleotides (pT-ODNs) with TLR7/8 agonists. In the current study, we analyzed the ability of pT-ODNs to induce activation of murine glial cells in the presence or absence of TLR7/8 agonists. We found that TLR7/8 agonists induced the expression of glial cell activation markers and induced the production of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mixed glial cultures. In contrast, pT-ODNs alone induced only low level expression of two cytokines, CCL2 and CXCL10. The combination of pT-ODNs along with TLR7/8 agonists induced a synergistic response with substantially higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared to CL075. This enhancement was not due to cellular uptake of the agonist, indicating that the pT-ODN enhancement of cytokine responses was due to effects on an intracellular process. Interestingly, this response was also not due to synergistic stimulation of both TLR7 and TLR8, as the loss of TLR7 abolished the activation of glial cells and cytokine production. Thus, pT-ODNs act in synergy with TLR7/8 agonists to induce strong TLR7-dependent cytokine production in glial cells, suggesting that the combination of pT-ODNs with TLR7 agonists may be a useful mechanism to induce pronounced glial activation in the CNS.
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Shape/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Cerebral Cortex/cytology
MESH HEADINGS: Cytokines/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Down-Regulation/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Endocytosis/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Endosomes/drug effects/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Membrane Glycoproteins/antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Neuroglia/drug effects/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Oligonucleotides/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Poly T/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Quinolines/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Thiazoles/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Toll-Like Receptor 7/antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Toll-Like Receptor 8/antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Up-Regulation/drug effects eng

357. Duan, H-M; Wang, K-Y; Wang, M; Jiang, L-L; Qiao, K; Ren, X-X, and Duan, H-M. Degradative Characteristics of Bacillus Cereus Hy-1 to Methyl-Parathion and Chlorpyrifos. 2010 Mar; 29, (3): 437-443.

Rec #: 40709
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A bacterial strain, Bacillus cereus HY-1, was isolated from the treatment system of the pesticide enterprises and its degradative characteristics to methyl-parathion and chlorpyrifos were studied by using the methods of enrichment culturing and the ultraviolet spectrophotometer determination. The results showed that the bacteria could utilize the methyl-parathion or chlorpyrifos as the unique phosphorus source. The optimal conditions for degrading methyl-parathion were as follows: the temperature of 30 similar to 35 degree C, the initial pH of 6 similar to 8, the initial methyl-parathion concentration of 10 similar to 50 mg times L super(-1) and the inoculation amount of 20% in the experiment(v/v). The results also indicated that the optimal conditions for degrading chlorpyrifos was similar as above, except the different concentration of glucose or the substrate concentration.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Temperature
Keywords: Phosphorus
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Keywords: spectrophotometers
Keywords: pH
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 437-443
ProQuest ID - 813813380
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Pesticides; Temperature; Phosphorus; spectrophotometers; pH
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Duan, H-M; Wang, K-Y; Wang, M; Jiang, L-L; Qiao, K; Ren, X-X
DOI - OB-MD-0013562522; 12927715; 1672-2043 English

358. Duangkaew, P.; Pethuan, S.; Kaewpa, D.; Boonsuepsakul, S.; Sarapusit, S., and Rongnoparut, P. CHARACTERIZATION OF MOSQUITO CYP6P7 AND CYP6AA3: DIFFERENCES IN SUBSTRATE PREFERENCE AND KINETIC PROPERTIES. 2011; 76, (4): 236-248.

Rec #: 59309
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in insecticide resistance in insects. We previously observed an increase in CYP6P7 and CYP6AA3 mRNA expression in Anopheles minimus mosquitoes during the selection for deltamethrin resistance in the laboratory. CYP6AA3 has been shown to metabolize deltamethrin, while no information is known for CYP6P7. In this study, CYP6P7 was heterologously expressed in the
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