Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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Lower concentrations of pyriproxyfen showed less toxicity toward the microbial community. From cluster analysis, the structure of the bacterial community showed roughly a 60 % similarity throughout the experiment period in the control experiment, indicating the stability within soil microbiota without chemical agitation. However, the similarity was lower than 50 % both in the one and 10 mg Kg(-1) of insecticide pyriproxyfen spiked experiment, indicating the soil bacterial community changed after the insecticide pyriproxyfen was applied.
Keywords: Juvenile hormone analog, pyriproxyfen, biodegradation, polymerase chain
ISI Document Delivery No.: 916AD

200. Chatzicharisis, Ioannis; Thomidis, Thomas; Tsipouridis, Constantinos; Mourkidou-Papadopoulou, Efthimia, and Vryzas, Zisis. Residues of Six Pesticides in Fresh Peach--Nectarine Fruits After Preharvest Treatment. 2012 Sep; 40, (4): 311-317.

Rec #: 42589
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: One of the key features of the new cultural systems is the control of harmful agents with environment-friendly methods. In this study, the residue levels of chlorothalonil, iprodione, bupirimate, pirimicarb, chlorpyrifos and fenoxycarb in different peach--nectarine cultivars were investigated. It was found that, with the exception of chlorpyrifos, the residue levels of all pesticides were lower than the Maximum Residues Limits (MRLs) in all peach--nectarine cultivars used. The detected levels of chlorpyrifos were higher than the MRLs in the cultivar 'Maria Bianca' 7 days after application, but in cv. 'Legory Hkcb' dropped to very low levels 27 days after application. The degradation over time of the above pesticides in fruits was investigated in the peach cv. 'Andross'. The detected residue levels of bupirimate, iprodione, fenoxycarb, chlorpyrifos and pirimicarb in this peach cultivar were much lower than those recommended by the European Union (MRLs) 33, 22, 22, 28, and 63 days, respectively, after application, whereas the residue levels of chlorothalonil were below the limit of detection by the analytical method used. All pesticides showed a reduction over time. When examining the levels of residues of pirimicarb and chlorpyrifos in peaches (cv. 'Andross') sampled from different parts of the tree canopy, no significant difference was found between samples collected from the top and the middle parts of the canopy; however, residues of pirimicarb were significantly higher in samples collected at the bottom of the canopy. Overall, the pesticide regime gave residue levels much lower than those of MRLs, in all peach--nectarine cultivars. This use of chemicals is in accordance with features of the new cultural systems to produce fruits with no or minimal pesticide residues, in contrast to the conventional system in which pesticide residues are not considered. Attention should however be paid to chlorpyrifos which should be applied at least 27 days before harvest. Factors related to the cultivars and the position of fruits in the tree canopy should be considered when sampling fruits for pesticide residues analysis.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Keywords: Agriculture--Crop Production And Soil
Copyright - Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Language of summary - English
Pages - 311-317
ProQuest ID - 1037313224
Last updated - 2012-11-20
Place of publication - Dordrecht
Corporate institution author - Chatzicharisis, Ioannis; Thomidis, Thomas; Tsipouridis, Constantinos; Mourkidou-papadopoulou, Efthimia; Vryzas, Zisis
DOI - 2748892001; 71461062; 108342; PYOA; SPVLPYOA12600404231
ADASKAVEG, J. E., OGAWA, J. M. 1994 "Penetration of iprodione into mesocarp fruit tissue and suppression of gray mold and brown rot of sweet cherries" Plant Disease 78 3 293-296
Agrios, G. (2004). Guidelines for Integrated Pome Cultivation 2004. 14th ed. Workgroup for Integrated Fruit Production in South Tyrol Haus des Apfels (Terlano (BZ), Italy).
Danis, Theocharis G., Karagiozoglou, Despoina T. 2011 "Evaluation of pesticides residues in Greek peaches during 2002-2007 after the implementation of integrated crop management" Food Chemistry 126 1 97-103
Erklc, L., Uygun, N. 1997 "Studies on the effects of some pesticides on white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ.-Tozz.) (Homoptera: Diaspidae) and its side-effects on two common scale insect predators." Crop Protection 16 1 69-72
FAOSTAT (2007). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Statistical Database-Agriculture. FAOSTAT.
Greek Ministry of Agriculture, Organization of Certification and Supervision of Agricultural Products. (1999). AGRO 2.2: Management of Agricultural EnvironmentâIntegrated Crop Management, Part 2: Demands for the Application in Plant Production. Athens: AGROCERT.
Hernández, D., Mansanét, V. 1999 "Use of Confidor® 200 SL in vegetable cultivation in Spain." Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer 52 3 374-385
Immaraju, J. A., Immaraju, J. A. 1998 "The commercial use of azadirachtin and its integration into viable pest control programmes." Pesticide Science 54 3 285-289
Jalali, Mohammad Amin, Van Leeuwen, Thomas 2009 "Toxicity of selected insecticides to the two-spot ladybird Adalia bipunctata" PHYTOPARASITICA 37 4 323-326
Kuldova, Jelena, Ricankova, Michaela 1996 "Efficacy of selected juvenoids on egg hatchability of the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta, and the grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, in laboratory and field experiments" Ochrana Rostlin 32 1 19-25
Lalancette, N., Robison, D. M. 2002 "Effect of fungicides, application timing, and canker removal on incidence and severity of constriction canker of peach." Plant Disease 86 7 721-728
Lentza-Rizos, Chaido 1995 "Residues of Iprodione in Fresh and Canned Peaches after Pre- and Postharvest Treatment" Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43 5 1357-1360
Li, D-X, Tian, J 2007 "Influence of chlorpyrifos and abamectin on the functional response of Scolothrips takahashii Prisener to hawthorn spider mite Tetranychus viennensis Zacher" ACTA ENTOMOLOGICA SINICA 50 5 467-473
Maximum Residues Limits (2011). pesticides/public/index.cfm?event0substance.selection%26ch01
Mustafa, A., Butt, A., Tahir, H. M., & Bilal, M. (2011). Susceptibility of Wolf Spider, Lycosa terrestris (Araneae: Lycosidae) to chlorpyrifos. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 43, 403-405.
Nabeshima, T, Kozaki, T 2003 "An amino acid substitution on the second acetylcholinesterase in the pirimicarb-resistant strains of the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae" Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 307 1 15-22
Needham, L L, Patterson, D G 1996 "Reference range data for assessing exposure to selected environmental toxicants" Toxicology and Industrial Health 12 3-4 507-513
O'Malley, M. (1997). Clinical evaluation of pesticide exposure and poisonings. Lancet North American Edition, 349, 1161-1166.
Paloukis, S. S., Navrozidis, E. I. 1997 "Integrated control of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ. Tozz.) (Homoptera, Diaspididae) on peach and kiwi trees in northern Greece." Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri No. 52 111-116
Pinero, Jaime C., Dorn, Silvia 2009 "Response of female oriental fruit moth to volatiles from apple and peach trees at three phenological stages" Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 131 1 67-74
Poulsen, M E, Naef, A 2009 "Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple" JOURNAL OF HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE & BIOTECHNOLOGY ISAFRUIT Special Issue 58-61
Pree, D. J., Whitty, K. J., Van, D. L., & Walker, G. M. (1998). Resistance to insecticides in oriental fruit moth populations (Grapholita molesta) from the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario. Canadian Entomology, 130, 245-256.
Rumbos, I. C., Papaioannou-Souliotis, P. 2000 "Promotion of integrated pest control system in viticulture in Greece with respect to predatory mites." Bulletin OILB/SROP 23 4 125-126
Soto-Estrada, A., FoÃŒrster, H. 2003 "New fungicides and application strategies based on inoculum and precipitation for managing stone fruit rust on peach in California" Plant Disease 87 9 1094-1101
TAWFIQ MUSTAFA, M., HAMDAN, A. S. 1989 "Toxicity of certain insecticides to the green peach aphid" Tropical Pest Management 35 4 359-361
Zettler, J. L., Arthur, F. H. 2000 "Chemical control of stored product insects with fumigants and residual treatments." Crop Protection 19 8/10 577-582 English

201. Chauhan, N. ; Narang, J., and Pundir, C. S. Immobilization of rat brain acetylcholinesterase on porous gold-nanoparticle-CaCO(3) hybrid material modified Au electrode for detection of organophosphorous insecticides. 2011; 49, (5): 923-929.

Rec #: 57709
Keywords: METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from rat brain was immobilized onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assembled on the surface of porous calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) microsphere. The resulting AChE-AuNPs-CaCO(3) bioconjugate was mounted on the surface of Au electrode with the help of silica sol-gel matrix to prepare the working electrode. This electrode was connected to Ag/AgCl (3 M/saturated KCl) as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode through a potentiostat to construct an organophosphorus (OP) biosensor. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The biosensor showed optimum response at pH 7.0, 30 degrees C, when polarized at +0.2 V. Two OP compounds, malathion and chlorpyrifos could be detected in the range of 0.1-100 nM and 0.1-70 nM, respectively at 2.0-3.0% inhibition level of AChE. The sensor was reactivated by immersing it in 0.1 mM 2-pyridine aldoxime for 10 min. The detection limit of the sensor was 0.1 nM for both malathion and chlorpyrifos. The biosensor exhibited good reusability (50 times without considerable loss) and storage stability (50% within 60 days, when stored at 4 degrees C). (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Rat brain, CaCO(3) nanoparticles, AuNPs,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 846XT

202. ---. Immobilization of Rat Brain Acetylcholinesterase on Porous Gold-Nanoparticle-Caco₃ Hybrid Material Modified Au Electrode for Detection of Organophosphorous Insecticides.

Rec #: 74979
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from rat brain was immobilized onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assembled on the surface of porous calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) microsphere. The resulting AChE-AuNPs-CaCO(3) bioconjugate was mounted on the surface of Au electrode with the help of silica sol-gel matrix to prepare the working electrode. This electrode was connected to Ag/AgCl (3M/saturated KCl) as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode through a potentiostat to construct an organophosphorus (OP) biosensor. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The biosensor showed optimum response at pH 7.0, 30°C, when polarized at +0.2V. Two OP compounds, malathion and chlorpyrifos could be detected in the range of 0.1-100 nM and 0.1-70 nM, respectively at 2.0-3.0% inhibition level of AChE. The sensor was reactivated by immersing it in 0.1 mM 2-pyridine aldoxime for 10 min. The detection limit of the sensor was 0.1 nM for both malathion and chlorpyrifos. The biosensor exhibited good reusability (50 times without considerable loss) and storage stability (50% within 60 days, when stored at 4°C).
MESH HEADINGS: Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Biosensing Techniques/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Brain/*enzymology
MESH HEADINGS: Calcium Carbonate/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Electrochemistry/methods
MESH HEADINGS: Enzymes, Immobilized/chemistry/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Equipment Reuse
MESH HEADINGS: GPI-Linked Proteins/chemistry/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Gold/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
MESH HEADINGS: Insecticides/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Limit of Detection
MESH HEADINGS: Malathion/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Nanoparticles/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Organophosphorus Compounds/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Potentiometry/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Pralidoxime Compounds/chemistry

203. Chauhan, Nidhi; Narang, Jagriti; Pundir, C S, and Chauhan, Nidhi. Immobilization of Rat Brain Acetylcholinesterase on Zns and Poly(Indole-5-Carboxylic Acid) Modified Au Electrode for Detection of Organophosphorus Insecticides. 2011 Nov 15; 29, (1): 82-88.

Rec #: 43029
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A novel, highly sensitive amperometric biosensor for detection of organophosphorus (OP) compounds has been constructed, based on rat brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) immobilized onto nanocomposite of ZnS-nanoparticles (ZnSNPs) and poly(indole-5-carboxylic acid) electrodeposited on Au electrode. In the presence of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) as a substrate, ZnSNPs promoted electron transfer reactions at a lower potential and catalyzed electrochemical oxidation of enzymatically formed thiocholine, thus increasing detection sensitivity. Under optimum conditions (phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 and 30 degree C), the inhibition of AChE by malathion and chlorpyrifos was proportional to their concentrations in the range, 0.1-50nM and 1.5-40nM, respectively. The biosensor determined malathion and chlorpyrifos in spiked tap water samples with a acceptable accuracy (95-100%). The enzyme electrode had long-storage stability (50% retention of initial activity within 2months, when stored at 4 degree C).
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Brain
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Chloride
Keywords: Electron transfer
Keywords: CSA Neurosciences Abstracts; Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: N3 11145:Methodology
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Biosensors
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Phosphate
Keywords: Electrodes
Keywords: Oxidation
Keywords: W 30955:Biosensors
Keywords: pH effects
Keywords: Immobilization
Date revised - 2011-11-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 82-88
ProQuest ID - 902372043
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Acetylcholinesterase; Brain; Enzymes; Chloride; Electron transfer; Malathion; Biosensors; Chlorpyrifos; Insecticides; Phosphate; Oxidation; Electrodes; pH effects; Immobilization
Last updated - 2012-08-10
British nursing index edition - Biosensors and Bioelectronics [Biosensors Bioelectron.]. Vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 82-88. 15 Nov 2011.
Corporate institution author - Chauhan, Nidhi; Narang, Jagriti; Pundir, C S
DOI - 53941068-f065-4a3c-a199csamfg201; 15763427; 0956-5663 English

204. Chauhan, Nidhi; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar, and Chauhan, Nidhi. An Amperometric Biosensor Based on Acetylcholinesterase Immobilized Onto Iron Oxide Nanoparticles/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Gold Electrode for Measurement of Organophosphorus Insecticides. 2011 Sep 2; 701, (1): 66-74.

Rec #: 43159
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe sub(3O) sub(4)NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe sub(3O) sub(4)/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe sub(3O) sub(4)NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 degree C, 600 mu M substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA mu M super(-1), reusability (more than 50 times) and stability (2 months). The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water.)
Keywords: iron oxides
Keywords: Sensors
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: monocrotophos
Keywords: Spectroscopy
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Biosensors
Keywords: Carbon
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Zea mays
Keywords: Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: W 30955:Biosensors
Keywords: Gold
Keywords: pH effects
Keywords: Milk
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Electrodes
Keywords: nanotubes
Keywords: Seedlings
Keywords: Iron
Keywords: nanoparticles
Keywords: nanotechnology
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 66-74
ProQuest ID - 907952240
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Milk; iron oxides; Pesticide residues; Acetylcholinesterase; monocrotophos; Spectroscopy; Malathion; Endosulfan; Biosensors; Chlorpyrifos; Carbon; Insecticides; Electrodes; Pesticides; Gold; nanotubes; Seedlings; pH effects; nanoparticles; Sensors; Iron; nanotechnology; Zea mays
Last updated - 2012-09-10
British nursing index edition - Analytica Chimica Acta [Anal. Chim. Acta]. Vol. 701, no. 1, pp. 66-74. 2 Sep 2011.
Corporate institution author - Chauhan, Nidhi; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar
DOI - 46479967-2ac4-461a-852bcsaobj201; 15372226; 0003-2670 English

205. Chen, Chen; Li, Yun; Chen, Mingxue; Chen, Zhijun, and Qian, Yongzhong. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in milled rice (Oryza sativa) on the Chinese market and dietary risk assessment. 2009; 26, (3): 340-347.

Rec #: 52499
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The present study investigates the occurrence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues in milled rice samples obtained form local markets in China during the period 2004-2006 and estimates their cumulative exposure. Concentrations of OP pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). The results showed that 9.3% of the samples contained detectable residues of at least one of the seven target OP pesticides (chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, omethoate, methamidophos, parathion-methyl, parathion and triazophos) mainly used for agriculture in China, with concentrations ranging 0.011-1.756 mg kg-1. Rice consumption data was obtained from an individual food consumption survey. Relative potency factors (RPFs) for each pesticide were calculated with methamidophos as the index compound (IC), using 1- or 2-year chronic non-observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) for AChE inhibition, mostly in rat brain, obtained from international evaluations of pesticides. Exposure to AChE-inhibiting pesticides for the population above 7 years old at P99.9 represented 52-94.5% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) expressed as methamidophos. Estimated exposure for children aged 2-4 and 4-7 years at P99.9 were 119 and 104.3% of the ADI level, respectively. This study suggests that a yearly monitoring program for OP pesticide residues and strict implementation of the national safety standard for milled rice is necessary.
Keywords: Internet resource
Includes references 1022826152

206. Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Liu, Xianjin; Tao, Chuanjiang; Liang, Ying, and Li, Yun. Risk Assessment of Chlorpyrifos on Rice and Cabbage in China. 2012 Feb; 62, (1): 125-130.

Rec #: 39069
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide in agricultural pest control. To understand the residue behavior of chlorpyrifos and to evaluate the dietary risk of chlorpyrifos residue in food in China, a number of residue studies were conducted on rice and cabbage. The supervised trial median residues (STMRs) for rice and cabbage were less than 0.010 and 0.227 mg kg−1, respectively. Only 7.4% and 13.3% of acceptable daily intake (ADI) (0-0.01 mg kg−1 bw) of chlorpyrifos is occupied by dietary daily intake to the Chinese adult and children, respectively, due to the consumption of rice and cabbage. These results on risk assessment were consistent with that of JMPR. Incorporation of market survey residue data gave a 5-fold reduction in the estimated exposures to chlorpyrifos. Concerning the acute exposure, the national estimated short-term intake (NESTI) represents 0.077% and 10.6% for rice and cabbage, respectively, of the acute reference dose (ARfD) (0-0.1 mg kg−1 bw). The application of chlorpyrifos at the recommended dose on rice and cabbage is unlikely to pose any public health issues if it is applied according to the good agricultural practices (GAPs) established by each country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Environmental Exposure -- analysis
Keywords: Child
Keywords: Pesticide Residues -- toxicity
Keywords: Risk Assessment
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- analysis
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Cholinesterase Inhibitors -- toxicity
Keywords: Cholinesterase Inhibitors -- analysis
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Environmental Exposure -- adverse effects
Keywords: China
Keywords: Insecticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Food Contamination -- analysis
Keywords: Pesticide Residues
Keywords: Oryza sativa
Keywords: Insecticides -- analysis
Keywords: Brassica
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Pesticide Residues -- analysis
Date completed - 2012-05-08
Date created - 2012-01-27
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 125-130
ProQuest ID - 918575960
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP, February 2012, 62(1):125-130
Corporate institution author - Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Liu, Xianjin; Tao, Chuanjiang; Liang, Ying; Li, Yun
DOI - MEDL-22210174; 22210174; 1096-0295 eng

207. Chen, Fang; Zeng, Lingqin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liao, Xiaojun ; Ge, Yiqiang; Hu, Xiaosong, and Jiang, Lianzhou. Degradation behaviour of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos in apple juice treated with pulsed electric fields. 2009 Feb 15-; 112, (4): 956-961.

Rec #: 210
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Apple juice (13 -_Brix) spiked with methamidophos and chlorpyrifos (2Çô3 mg/l of each compound) was treated by pulsed electric fields (PEF), and pesticide residues were quantified by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). Results showed that electric field strength (8Çô20 kV/cm) and pulse number (6Çô26 pulses) have significant effects on the degradation of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos. PEF treatment is effective for the degradation of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos residues in apple juice, and chlorpyrifos is much more labile to PEF than methamidophos. An increase in either pulse number or electric field strength could speed the degradation of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos, and the kinetics equations and related parameters quantitatively characterized the degradation behavior of the pesticides. The exponential model better fits the experimental data for all treatments than the linear model. Pulsed electric field (PEF)/ Methamidophos/ Chlorpyrifos/ Degradation/ Apple juice

208. Chen, H. H.; Song, I. S.; Hossain, A.; Choi, M. K.; Yamane, Y.; Liang, Z. D.; Lu, J.; Wu, L. Y.; Siddik, Z. H.; Klomp, L. W.; Savaraj, N., and Kuo, M. T. Elevated Glutathione Levels Confer Cellular Sensitization to Cisplatin Toxicity by up-Regulation of Copper Transporter Hctr1.

Rec #: 51139
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that treating cultured cells with cisplatin (CDDP) up-regulated the expression of glutathione (GSH) and its de novo rate-limiting enzyme glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. It has also been shown that many CDDP-resistant cell lines exhibit high levels of GCLC/GCLM and GSH. Because the GSH system is the major intracellular regulator of redox conditions that serve as an important detoxification cytoprotector, these results have been taken into consideration that elevated levels of GCL/GSH are responsible for the CDDP resistance. In contrast to this context, we demonstrated here that overexpression of GSH by transfection with an expression plasmid containing the GCLC cDNA conferred sensitization to CDDP through up-regulation of human copper transporter (hCtr) 1, which is also a transporter for CDDP. Depleting GSH levels in these transfected cells reversed CDDP sensitivity with concomitant reduction of hCtr1 expression. Although rates of copper transport were also up-regulated in the transfected cells, these cells exhibited biochemical signature of copper deficiency, suggesting that GSH functions as an intracellular copper-chelator and that overexpression of GSH can alter copper metabolism. More importantly, our results reveal a new role of GSH in the regulation of CDDP sensitivity. Overproduction of GSH depletes the bioavailable copper pool, leading to up-regulation of hCtr1 and sensitization of CDDP transport and cell killing. These findings also have important implications in that modulation of the intracellular copper pool may be a novel strategy for improving chemotherapeutic efficacy of platinum-based antitumor agents.
MESH HEADINGS: Biological Transport/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Buthionine Sulfoximine/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Catalytic Domain
MESH HEADINGS: Cation Transport Proteins/*genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Line, Tumor
MESH HEADINGS: Cisplatin/metabolism/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Copper/metabolism/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Down-Regulation/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
MESH HEADINGS: Fluorescent Antibody Technique
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Glutathione/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Biological
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Transfection
MESH HEADINGS: Up-Regulation/*drug effects eng

209. Chen, Huilun; Yao, Jun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Ke; Zhuang, Rensheng; Zaray, Gyula, and Yao, Jun. Investigation of the Acute Toxic Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Pseudomonas Putida in a Sterilized Soil Environment Monitored by Microcalorimetry. 2010 Apr; 58, (3): 587-593.

Rec #: 40619
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is moderately persistent in soils. In our study, microcalorimetry was introduced for the first time to explore the acute toxic effect of CPF on a Pseudomonas strain in sterilized soil. Firstly, it was determined by microcalorimetry that P. putida failed to degrade CPF. Then the acute toxicity of increasing concentrations of CPF to P. putida was determined by its temporal effects on metabolism and counts of colony forming units. Results revealed that the increase of CPF concentration could induce a decrease of the growth rate constant (k) and the total thermal effect (Q sub(T)), representing an inhibiting action on P. putida. In addition, the colony forming units (CFU) for P. putida were counted. Results showed that the number of P. putida decreased with increasing CPF dose after 18h of incubation in sterilized soil. Interestingly, the trend of the number of CFU was similar to the growth rate constant k, whereas the trend became irregular after 36h of incubation. This indicated that P. putida resisted and also expresses high metabolic activity during the exponential growth phase of 18h; thereafter the microorganisms showed a certain adaptation, even declining in number and activity.
Keywords: acute toxicity
Keywords: Incubation
Keywords: J 02320:Cell Biology
Keywords: Pseudomonas
Keywords: Acute toxicity
Keywords: Strain
Keywords: adaptability
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Colonies
Keywords: Soil Environment
Keywords: Pseudomonas putida
Keywords: A 01400:Soil Microbes
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Growth rate
Keywords: Adaptations
Keywords: Microbiology Abstracts B: Bacteriology; Microbiology Abstracts A: Industrial & Applied Microbiology; Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: Growth Rates
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Acute Toxicity
Keywords: Colony-forming cells
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Microorganisms
Keywords: Metabolism
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 587-593
ProQuest ID - 810388493
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Growth rate; Chlorpyrifos; Soil; Colonies; Adaptations; Colony-forming cells; Microorganisms; Acute toxicity; Metabolism; acute toxicity; Pesticides; adaptability; Acute Toxicity; Soil Environment; Incubation; Pseudomonas; Toxicity; Growth Rates; Strain; Pseudomonas putida
Last updated - 2011-10-25
Corporate institution author - Chen, Huilun; Yao, Jun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Ke; Zhuang, Rensheng; Zaray, Gyula
DOI - OB-f9cadeff-8338-4773-8edemfgefd107; 12667444; 0090-4341; 1432-0703 English


Rec #: 57779
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The traditional methods for determining pesticide concentrations are time-consuming, complicated, and require extensive pretreatment processes. In this study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used to determine trace chemicals. The dry-extract system for infrared (DESIR) technique was used to prepare samples. Filter paper was used as the substrate. Pesticide solutions were prepared by dissolving a commercial pesticide in distilled water at different concentrations (1.25 to 400 mg kg(-1)). Samples were prepared by pipetting the solution onto the filter paper and then evaporating it in a vacuum drying oven. Spectral curves of the samples were acquired in the range of 10000 to 4000 cm(-1) using an NIR spectrometer. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to establish prediction models. The best prediction result was obtained using PLSR with multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and first derivation as the pretreatment procedure. The process was able to predict the concentrations of chlorpyrifos with R = 0.899. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to establish a classification model. The result showed that 89.286% of samples were correctly predicted when the sample set was divided into three classes of chlorpyrifos content (<100, 100 to 300, >300 mg kg(-1)).
Keywords: NIR spectroscopy, Organphosphorus pesticide, Rapid detection
ISI Document Delivery No.: 793DO

211. Chen, Q. L.; Chen, M.; Zheng, S. L.; Yu, X. G., and Yuan, D. X. Individual and Binarily-Combined Toxic Effects of Chlorpyrifos, Acetochlor and Dicofol on Skeletonema costatum. State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China,//: 2010; 29, (6): 874-878(CHI) (ENG ABS).

Rec #: 2520
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACO,CPY,DCF

212. Chen, S.; O'reilly, L. P.; Smithgall, T. E., and Engen, J. R. Tyrosine Phosphorylation in the Sh3 Domain Disrupts Negative Regulatory Interactions Within the C-Abl Kinase Core.

Rec #: 51009
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that trans-phosphorylation of the Abl SH3 domain at Tyr89 by Src-family kinases is required for the full transforming activity of Bcr-Abl. Tyr89 localizes to a binding surface of the SH3 domain that engages the SH2-kinase linker in the crystal structure of the c-Abl core. Displacement of SH3 from the linker is likely to influence efficient downregulation of c-Abl. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HX) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to investigate whether Tyr89 phosphorylation affects the ability of the SH3 domain to interact intramolecularly with the SH2-kinase linker in cis as well as other peptide ligands in trans. HX MS analysis of SH3 binding showed that when various Abl constructs were phosphorylated at Tyr89 by the Src-family kinase Hck, SH3 was unable to engage a high-affinity ligand in trans and that interaction with the linker in cis was reduced dramatically in a construct containing the SH3 and SH2 domains plus the linker. Phosphorylation of the Abl SH3 domain on Tyr89 also interfered with binding to the negative regulatory protein Abi-1 in trans. Site-directed mutagenesis of Tyr89 and Tyr245, another tyrosine phosphorylation site located in the linker that may also influence SH3 binding, implicated Tyr89 as the key residue necessary for disrupting regulation after phosphorylation. These results imply that phosphorylation at Tyr89 by Src-family kinases prevents engagement of the Abl SH3 domain with its intramolecular binding partner leading to enhanced Abl kinase activity and cellular signaling.
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acid Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: Binding Sites
MESH HEADINGS: Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/chemistry/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mass Spectrometry
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Molecular
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Phosphorylation
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Conformation
MESH HEADINGS: Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl/*chemistry/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Signal Transduction
MESH HEADINGS: Tyrosine/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *src Homology Domains/genetics eng

213. Chen, S. H. ; Geng, P.; Xiao, Y., and Hu, M. Y. Bioremediation of beta-cypermethrin and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde contaminated soils using Streptomyces aureus HP-S-01. 2012; 94, (2): 505-515.

Rec #: 57799
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Using laboratory and field experiments, the ability of Streptomyces aureus HP-S-01 to eliminate beta-cypermethrin (beta-CP) and its metabolite 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde (3-PBA) in soils was investigated. In the laboratory, 80.5% and 73.1% of the initial dose of beta-CP and 3-PBA (50 mg kg(-1)) was removed in sterilized soils within 10 days, respectively, while in the same period, disappearance rate of beta-CP and 3-PBA in non-sterilized soils was higher and reached 87.8% and 79.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the disappearance process followed the first-order kinetics and the half-life (T (1/2)) for beta-CP and 3-PBA reduced by 20.3-52.9 and 133.7-186.8 days, respectively, as compared to the controls. The addition of sucrose to the soils enhanced the ability of strain HP-S-01 to eliminate beta-CP and 3-PBA. Similar results were observed in the field experiments. The introduced strain HP-S-01 quickly adapted to the environment and rapidly removed beta-CP and 3-PBA without any lag phases in the field experiments. Compared with the controls, 47.9% and 67.0% of applied dose of beta-CP and 3-PBA was removed from the soils without extra carbon sources and 52.5% and 73.3% of beta-CP and 3-PBA was eliminated in soils supplemented with sucrose within 10 days, respectively. Analysis of beta-CP degradation products in soil indicated that the tested strain transform beta-CP to 3-PBA and alpha-hydroxy-3-phenoxy-benzeneacetonitrile. However, both intermediates were transient and they disappeared after 10 days. Therefore, the selected actinomyces strain HP-S-01 is suitable for the efficient and rapid bioremediation of beta-CP contaminated soils.
Keywords: beta-Cypermethrin, 3-Phenoxybenzaldehyde, Bioremediation, Streptomyces
ISI Document Delivery No.: 915NV

214. Chen, S. H. ; Lai, K. P.; Li, Y. A.; Hu, M. Y.; Zhang, Y. B., and Zeng, Y. Biodegradation of deltamethrin and its hydrolysis product 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde by a newly isolated Streptomyces aureus strain HP-S-01. 2011; 90, (4): 1471-1483.

Rec #: 57809
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A newly isolated actinomycete strain HP-S-01 from activated sludge could effectively degrade deltamethrin and its major hydrolysis product 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde. Based on the morphological, cultural, physio-biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain HP-S-01 was identified as Streptomyces aureus. Strain HP-S-01 was also found highly efficient in degrading cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin. Strain HP-S-01 rapidly degraded deltamethrin without a lag phase over a wide range of temperature (18 similar to 38 degrees C) and pH (5 similar to 10), and metabolized to produce alpha-hydroxy-3-phenoxy-benzeneacetonitrile and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde by hydrolysis of the carboxylester linkage. The 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde was further oxidized to form 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone resulting in its detoxification. No persistent accumulative product was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Response surface methodology was used to optimize degradation conditions. Strain HP-S-01 completely removed 50 similar to 300 mg L(-1) deltamethrin within 7 days under the optimal degradation conditions. Furthermore, the biodegradation kinetics corresponded with the first-order model. Therefore, strain HP-S-01 is suitable for the efficient and rapid bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environment.
Keywords: Pyrethroids, Deltamethrin, 3-Phenoxybenzaldehyde, Biodegradation,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 763QL

215. Chen, S. H. ; Luo, J. J.; Hu, M. Y.; Lai, K. P.; Geng, P., and Huang, H. S. Enhancement of cypermethrin degradation by a coculture of Bacillus cereus ZH-3 and Streptomyces aureus HP-S-01. 2012; 110, 97-104.

Rec #: 57819
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Degradation of
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