Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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affected by in vitro exposure to mixtures of marine contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), even if no concentration-dependent pattern of response was observed and no effect was elicited by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present results do not demonstrate ChEs in A. colbecki as sensitive tools to measure exposure to the above chemicals, but they may be worthy of further study considering the importance of the scallop in Antarctic marine ecosystems and its suitability as a sentinel species. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Cholinesterases, Antarctic scallop, Adamussium colbecki,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 455KU

134. Bonansea, Roc+ o In+ s; Am+_, Mar+ a Valeria, and Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto. Determination of priority pesticides in water samples combining SPE and SPME coupled to GCÇôMS. A case study: Suqu+ˇa River basin (Argentina). 2013 Feb; 90, (6): 1860-1869.


Rec #: 4450
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: This study reports a combined method using solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) to concentrate different pesticides, including chlorinated, organophosphorus, triazines, pyretroids and chloroacetamides, present at trace levels in water samples. Identification and quantification was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GCÇôMS). The optimized methodology showed LOQs at ng LęĆ1 levels (ranging 0.2Çô3.5 ng LęĆ1) in addition to acceptable precision and robustness (recoveries ranged 63Çô104%, RSD from 4% to 23%), presenting a novel method to reach trace levels, similar to that obtainable using EC detector, with structural confirmation by MS during the analysis of a wide range of environmental pollutants. Pesticides/ Freshwater/ SPE/ SPME/ GCÇôMS/ Priority pollutants

135. Bonnechă¨Re, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Jolie, Ruben; Hendrickx, Marc; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas, and Van Loco, Joris. Processing Factors of Several Pesticides and Degradation Products in Carrots by Household and Industrial Processing. 2012 Aug; 1, (3): 68-83.


Rec #: 46579
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: To quantify the effect of household and industrial processing on the pesticide residues, carrots (Daucus carota) were sprayed during cultivation with three fungicides (boscalid, difenoconazole and tebuconazole), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and dimethoate) and one herbicide (linuron). The most concentrated formulations were applied pursuant to Good Agricultural Practices, to ensure sufficiently high levels of residues. The subsequent processing conditions were established to correspond as close as possible to the actual conditions that are normally used in industrial practice. The effects of household and industrial processing on the levels of the six pesticide residues and eight associated degradation products were quantified. The washing step allowed decreasing the concentration of residues for all pesticides up to -- 90%. It was the most effective step to remove pesticide residues from carrots. The second process, peeling, results in a reduction comparable to washing. The blanching step, combining heat with a large quantity of water, enhanced the elimination of residues (maximum 50%).
Keywords: 9130:Experiment/theoretical treatment
Keywords: 8640:Chemical industry
Keywords: 9180:International
Keywords: FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES
Keywords: 8610:Food processing industry
Copyright - Copyright Canadian Center of Science and Education Aug 2012
Language of summary - English
Pages - 68-83
ProQuest ID - 1056122979
Document feature - Tables; Graphs; Diagrams; References
Last updated - 2012-09-22
Place of publication - Toronto
Corporate institution author - Bonnechère, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Jolie, Ruben; Hendrickx, Marc; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas; Van Loco, Joris
DOI - 2768170661; 72069952; 174144; FDRR; INNNFDRR0001060440
References
AFSCA. (2007). Controls of pesticide residues in food Belgium 2006. Retrieved from http://www.favv.be/publicationsthematiques/_documents/2006_Belgium-summary.pdf
AFSCA. (2008). Controls of pesticide residues in food Belgium 2007. Retrieved from http://www.favv.be/publications-en/_documents/2007_Belgium-summary.pdf
Al-Sayeda, H. (2007). Transfert d'un insecticide systémique, l'imidaclopride, chez la tomate: implication duu transport phloémien. Retrieved from http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00000579/01/al_sayeda.pdf
Balinova, A. M., Mladenova, R. I., & Shtereva, D. D. (2006). Effects of processing on pesticide residues in peaches intended for baby food. Food Additives and Contaminants, 23, 895-901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.10.031
Berrada, H., Fernandez, M., Ruiz, M. J., Molto, J. C., & Font, G. (2010). Surveillance of pesticide residues in fruits from Valencia during twenty months (2004/05). Food Control, 21, 36-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.03.011
Boulaid, M., Aguilera, A., Camacho, F., Soussi, M., & Valverde, A. (2005). Effect of household processing and unit-to-unit variability of pyrifenox, pyridaben, and tralomethrin residues in tomatoes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 4054-4058.
Burchat, C. S., Ripley, B. D., Leishman, P. D., Ritcey, G. M., Kakuda, Y., & Stephenson, G. R. (1998). The distribution of nine pesticides between the juice and pulp of carrots and tomatoes after home processing. Food Additives and Contaminants, 15, 61-71.
Chavarri, M. J., Herrera, A., & Arino, A. (2005). The decrease in pesticides in fruit and vegetables during commercial processing. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 40, 205-211. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.00932.x
Chen, C., Qian, Y., Chen, Q., Tao, C., Li, C., & Li, Y. (2011). Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Xiamen, China. Food Control, 22, 1114-1120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.01.007
Claeys, W. L., Schmit, J. F., Bragard, C., Maghuin-Rogister, G., Pussemier, L., & Schiffers, B. (2011). Exposure of several Belgian consumer groups to pesticide residues through fresh fruit and vegetable consumption. Food Control, 22, 508-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.09.037
Farrar, J. J., Pryor, B. M., & Davis, R. M. (2004). Alternaria diseases of carrot. Plant Disease, 88, 776-784.
Fernandez-Cruz, M. L., Barreda, M., Villarroya, M., Peruga, A., Llanos, S., & Garcia-Baudin, J. M. (2006). Captan and fenitrothion dissipation in field-treated cauliflowers and effect of household processing. Pest Management Science, 62, 637-645.
Food and Agriculture organization. (2011). FAOSTAT. Retrieved from http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567
Granby, K., Andersen, J. H., & Christensen, H. B. (2004). Analysis of pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals using methanolic extraction and detection by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 520, 165-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.05.088
Holland, P. T., Hamilton, D., Ohlin, B., & Skidmore, M. W. (1994). Effects of storage and processing on pesticide residues in plant products. Pure & Applied Chemistry, 66, 335-356.
Kaushik, G., Satya, S., & Naik, S. N. (2009). Food processing a tool to pesticide residue dissipation - A review. Food Research International, 42, 26-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2008.09.009
Keikotlhaile, B. M., Spanoghe, P., & Steurbaut, W. (2010). Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: A meta-analysis approach. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.10.031
Krol, W. J., Arsenault, T. L., Harry, M., & Incorvia Mattina, M. J. (2000). Reduction of Pesticide Residues on Produce by Rinsing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 4666-4670.
Lee, M. G.., & Jung, D. (2009). Processing factors and removal ratios of select pesticides in hot pepper leaves by a successive process of washing, blanching, and drying. Food Science and Biotechnology, 18, 1078-1082.
Lentza-Rizos, C., & Balokas, A. (2001). Residue levels of chlorpropham in individual tubers and composite samples of postharvest-treated potatoes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 710-714.
Ling, Y., Wang, H., Yong, W., Zhang, F., Sun, L., Yang, M. L., Wu, Y. N. & Chu, X. G. (2011). The effects of washing and cooking on chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolites in vegetables. Food Control, 22, 54-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.06.009
Luke, M. A., Froberg, J. E., & Masumoto, H. T. (1975). Extraction and cleanup of organochlorine, organophosphate, organonitrogen, and hydrocarbon pesticides in produce for determination by gas-liquid chromatography. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 58, 1020-1026.
Ministery of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (2011). Identification and Management of Carrot Root Diseases. Retrieved from http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/98-001.htm
OECD. (2008). Guideline for testing of chemicals - Magnitude of the pesticide residues in processed commodities. Retrieved from http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/book/9789264067622-en
Randhawa, M. A., Anjum, F. M., Asi, M. R., Butt, M. S., Ahmed, A., & Randhawa, M. S. (2007). Removal of endosulfan residues from vegetables by household processing. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 66, 849-852.
Rasmusssen, R. R., Poulsen, M. E., & Hansen, H. C. (2003). Distribution of multiple pesticide residues in apple segments after home processing. Food Additives and Contaminants, 20, 1044-1063.
Sakaliene, O., Koskinen, W. C., Blazauskiene, G., & Petroviene, I. (2009). Level and fate of chlorpropham in potatoes during storage and processing. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B-Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes, 44, 1-6. http://ddr.nal.usda.gov/handle/10113/27492
SANCO. (2009). Method validation and quality control procedures for pesticide residues analysis in food and feed. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/protection/resources/qualcontrol_en.pdf
Slade, L., & Levine, H. (1991). Beyond water activity: recent advances based on an alternative approach to the assessment of food quality and safety. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 30, 115-360.
Timme, G.., & Walz-Tylla, B. (2004). Effects of food preparation and processing on pesticide residues in commodities of plant origin. In Denis Hamilton & Stephen Crossley (Ed.), Pesticides residues in food and drinking water: human exposure and risks, pp. 121-148.
Umesh, K. C., Davis, R. M., & Gilbertson, R. L. (1998). Seed contamination thresholds for development of carrot bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae. Plant Disease, 82, 1271-1275.
Zhang, Z. Y., Liu, X. J., & Hong, X. Y. (2006). Effects of home preparation on pesticide residues in cabbage. Food Control, 18, 1484-1487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.11.002 English

136. Bootharaju, M. S. and Pradeep, T. Understanding the Degradation Pathway of the Pesticide, Chlorpyrifos by Noble Metal Nanoparticles.


Rec #: 74569
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Application of nanoparticles (NPs) in environmental remediation such as water purification requires a detailed understanding of the mechanistic aspects of the interaction between the species involved. Here, an attempt was made to understand the chemistry of noble metal nanoparticle-pesticide interaction, as these nanosystems are being used extensively for water purification. Our model pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CP), belonging to the organophosphorothioate group, is shown to decompose to 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethyl thiophosphate at room temperature over Ag and Au NPs, in supported and unsupported forms. The degradation products were characterized by absorption spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS). These were further confirmed by ESI tandem mass spectrometry. The interaction of CP with NP surfaces was investigated using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS reveals no change in the oxidation state of silver after the degradation of CP. It is proposed that the degradation of CP proceeds through the formation of AgNP-S surface complex, which is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. In this complex, the P-O bond cleaves to yield a stable aromatic species, TCP. The rate of degradation of CP increases with increase of temperature and pH. Complete degradation of 10 mL of 2 ppm CP solution is achieved in 3 h using 100 mg of supported Ag@citrate NPs on neutral alumina at room temperature at a loading of ∼0.5 wt %. The effect of alumina and monolayer protection of NPs on the degradation of CP is also investigated. The rate of degradation of CP by Ag NPs is greater than that of Au NPs. The results have implications to the application of noble metal NPs for drinking water purification, as pesticide contamination is prevalent in many parts of the world. Study shows that supported Ag and Au NPs may be employed in sustainable environmental remediation, as they can be used at room temperature in aqueous solutions without the use of additional stimulus such as UV light.
MESH HEADINGS: Aluminum Oxide/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Gold/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Metal Nanoparticles/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Structure
MESH HEADINGS: Particle Size
MESH HEADINGS: Silver/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Solutions
MESH HEADINGS: Surface Properties
MESH HEADINGS: Water/chemistry eng

137. Borr+ís, E.; S+ínchez, P.; Mu+_oz, A., and Tortajada-Genaro, L. A. Development of a gas chromatographyÇômass spectrometry method for the determination of pesticides in gaseous and particulate phases in the atmosphere. 2011 Aug 5-; 699, (1): 57-65.


Rec #: 4800
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: A reliable multi-residue method for determining gaseous and particulate phase pesticides in atmospheric samples has been developed. This method, based on full scan gas chromatographyÇômass spectrometry (GCÇôMS), allowed the proper determination of sixteen relevant pesticides, in a wide range of concentrations and without the influence of interferences. The pesticides were benfluralin, bitertanol, buprofezin, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, ethalfluralin, fenthion, lindane, malathion, methidathion, propachlor, propanil, pyriproxifen, tebuconazol and trifluralin. Comparisons of two types of sampling filters (quartz and glass fibre) and four types of solid-phase cartridges (XAD-2, XAD-4, Florisil and Orbo-49P) showed that the most suitable supports were glass fibre filter for particulate pesticides and XAD-2 and XAD-4 cartridges for gaseous pesticides (>95% recovery). Evaluations of elution solvents for ultrasonic-assisted extraction demonstrated that isooctane is better than ethylacetate, dichloromethane, methanol or a mixture of acetone:hexane (1:1). Pesticides/ Atmospheric samples/ Gas chromatographyÇômass spectrometry

138. Borras, E; Sanchez, P; Munoz, a; Tortajada-Genaro, La, and Borras, E. Development of a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Pesticides in Gaseous and Particulate Phases in the Atmosphere. 2011 Aug 5; 699, (1): 57-65.


Rec #: 43219
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A reliable multi-residue method for determining gaseous and particulate phase pesticides in atmospheric samples has been developed. This method, based on full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), allowed the proper determination of sixteen relevant pesticides, in a wide range of concentrations and without the influence of interferences. The pesticides were benfluralin, bitertanol, buprofezin, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, ethalfluralin, fenthion, lindane, malathion, methidathion, propachlor, propanil, pyriproxifen, tebuconazol and trifluralin. Comparisons of two types of sampling filters (quartz and glass fibre) and four types of solid-phase cartridges (XAD-2, XAD-4, Florisil and Orbo-49P) showed that the most suitable supports were glass fibre filter for particulate pesticides and XAD-2 and XAD-4 cartridges for gaseous pesticides (95% recovery). Evaluations of elution solvents for ultrasonic-assisted extraction demonstrated that isooctane is better than ethylacetate, dichloromethane, methanol or a mixture of acetone:hexane (1:1). Recovery assays and the standard addition method were performed to validate the proposed methodology. Moreover, large simulator chamber experiments allowed the best study of the gas-particle partitioning of pesticides for testing the sampling efficiency for the validation of an analytical multiresidue method for pesticides in air. Satisfactory analytical parameters were obtained, with a repeatability of 5 +/- 1%, a reproducibility of 13 +/- 3% and detection limits of 0.05-0.18 pg m super(-3 for the particulate phase and 26-88 pg m) super(-)3 for the gaseous phase. Finally, the methodology was successfully applied to rural and agricultural samples in the Mediterranean area.
Keywords: Solvents
Keywords: Lindane
Keywords: Particulates
Keywords: M2 551.508:Instruments (551.508)
Keywords: Spectrometry
Keywords: Filters
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts
Keywords: MED
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Air sampling
Keywords: Trifluralin
Keywords: ENA 01:Air Pollution
Date revised - 2011-08-01
Language of summary - English
Location - MED
Pages - 57-65
ProQuest ID - 883046341
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Spectrometry; Chlorpyrifos; Filters; Pesticides; Solvents; Air sampling; Trifluralin; Lindane; Particulates; MED
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Analytica Chimica Acta [Anal. Chim. Acta]. Vol. 699, no. 1, pp. 57-65. 5 Aug 2011.
Corporate institution author - Borras, E; Sanchez, P; Munoz, A; Tortajada-Genaro, LA
DOI - 9f67d2c5-439c-4dfd-bc05csaobj201; 15309616; 0003-2670 English

139. Bosgra, S.; van der Voet, H.; Boon, P. E., and Slob, W. An integrated probabilistic framework for cumulative risk assessment of common mechanism chemicals in food: An example with organophosphorus pesticides. 2009; 54, (2): 124-133.


Rec #: 56909
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This paper presents a framework for integrated probabilistic risk assessment of chemicals in the diet which accounts for the possibility of cumulative exposure to chemicals with a common mechanism of action. Variability between individuals in the population with respect to food consumption, concentrations of chemicals in the consumed foods, food processing habits and sensitivity towards the chemicals is addressed by Monte Carlo simulations. A large number of individuals are simulated, for which the individual exposure (iEXP), the individual critical effect dose (iCED) and the ratio between these values (the individual margin of exposure, iMoE) are calculated by drawing random values for all variable parameters from databases or specified distributions. This results in a population distribution of the iMoE, and the fraction of this distribution below 1 indicates the fraction of the population that may be at risk. Uncertainty in the assessment is treated as a separate dimension by repeating the Monte Carlo simulations many times, each time drawing random values for all uncertain parameters. In this framework, the cumulative exposure to common mechanism chemicals is addressed by incorporation of the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. The framework is demonstrated by the cumulative risk assessment of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). By going through this example, the various choices and assumptions underlying the cumulative risk assessment are made explicit. The problems faced and the solutions chosen may be more generic than the present example with OPs. This demonstration may help to familiarize risk assessors and risk managers with the somewhat more complex output of probabilistic risk assessment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Cumulative, Relative potency factor, Probabilistic, Risk assessment,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 457NW

140. Bosgra, S.; van Eijkeren, J. C. H., and Slob, W. Dose addition and the isobole method as approaches for predicting the cumulative effect of non-interacting chemicals: A critical evaluation. 2009; 39, (5): 418-426.


Rec #: 56919
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The prediction of the effect of cumulative exposure to similarly acting chemicals is commonly done by dose addition, such as in the relative potency factor approach. This can only be done under the assumption of zero interaction between the chemicals. The related, but not equivalent, isobole method is the most common criterion to judge whether interactions between similarly acting chemicals have taken place in a mixture experiment. Many who apply this latter method assume that it is applicable to any combination of substances, regardless of the shape of the dose-response curves of the individual substances or their underlying mechanism of action. Proponents commonly refer to the work of Berenbaum, who claimed to have proven the general applicability of the isobole method based on zero interaction. In this article, we argue that his argumentation is not generally valid. We further demonstrate that the isobole method, just like dose addition, has limited applicability. Using a physiologically based mathematical model, we provide a theoretical example of a combination of chemicals with zero interaction where the isobole method would result in the decision that they do interact. We discuss the implications for research focusing on detecting or defining interactions, and for the prediction of effects from combined exposures assuming zero interaction.
Keywords: Antagonism, cumulative risk, mechanistic model, mixture, relative
ISI Document Delivery No.: 541BH

141. Bosgra, S.; van Eijkeren, J. C. H.; van der Schans, M. J.; Langenberg, J. P., and Slob, W. Toxicodynamic analysis of the combined cholinesterase inhibition by paraoxon and methamidophos in human whole blood. 2009; 236, (1): 9-15.


Rec #: 56929
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Theoretical work has shown that the isobole method is not generally valid as a method for testing the absence or presence of interaction (in the biochemical sense) between chemicals. The present study illustrates how interaction can be tested by fitting a toxicodynamic model to the results of a mixture experiment. The inhibition of cholinesterases (ChE) in human whole blood by various dose combinations of paraoxon and methamidophos was measured in vitro. A toxicodynamic model describing the processes related to both OPs in inhibiting AChE activity was developed, and fit to the observed activities. This model, not containing any interaction between the two OPs, described the results from the mixture experiment well, and it was concluded that the Of's did not interact in the whole blood samples. While this approach of toxicodynamic modeling is the most appropriate method for predicting combined effects, it is not rapidly applicable. Therefore, we illustrate how toxicodynamic modeling can be used to explore under which conditions dose addition would give an acceptable approximation of the combined effects from various chemicals. In the specific case of paraoxon and methamidophos in whole blood samples, it was found that dose addition gave a reasonably accurate prediction of the combined effects, despite considerable difference in some of their rate constants, and mildly non-parallel dose-response curves. Other possibilities of validating dose-addition using toxicodynamic modeling are briefly discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Organophosphorus pesticides, Mixtures, Interactions, Toxicodynamic, Dose
ISI Document Delivery No.: 424ZO

142. ---. Toxicodynamic analysis of the inhibition of isolated human acetylcholinesterase by combinations of methamidophos and methomyl in vitro. 2009; 236, (1): 1-8.


Rec #: 56939
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The applicability of dose addition to combinations of OP-esters and carbamates has been questioned based on theoretical considerations, but these have not been well supported by experimental findings. In the present Study, the inhibition of AChE by combinations of methamidophos (an OP-ester) and methomyl (a carbamate) was examined in vitro. AChE inhibition was measured by the Ellman assay. We addressed the question of interaction between the OP-ester and carbamate by a toxicodynamic (TD) model reflecting the mechanism of action of the individual chemicals, Without incorporating any interactions between them. The model was extended by including the experimental actions in the Ellman assay to correct for the difference in reactivation rates between phosphorylated and carbamylated AChE, Which Caused a bias in the observations from the assay. This zero-interactive TD model described the observations well, indicating that the OP-ester and carbamate did not interact. The applicability of dose addition was further explored by applying dose addition to the predicted inhibition by the TD model. Despite the differences in dynamics between methamidophos and methomyl, their dose-response curves were close to parallel, and dose addition gave a reasonably accurate prediction of the combined effects. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Organophosphorus pesticides, N-methyl carbamates, Cholinesterase
ISI Document Delivery No.: 424ZO

143. Bossard, R. L.; Hinkle, N. C., and Rust, M. K. Review of Insecticide Resistance in Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). 1998; 35, (4): 415-422.


Rec #: 1960
Keywords: REVIEW
Call Number: NO REVIEW (CBL,CPY,CYF,CYP,DZ,FNT,FNV,FVL,MLN,PFF,PMR,PPX,PTP,RSM,SMT,TBF,TLM)
Notes: EcoReference No.: 117710
Chemical of Concern: BDC,CBL,CPY,CYF,CYP,DZ,FNT,FNTH,FNV,FVL,IFP,MLN,PFF,PMR,PPX,PTP,RSM,SMT,TBF,TLM

144. Bott+_, E.; Negri, A.; King, S. Codi; Gagliano, M.; Smith-Keune, C., and Jerry, D. Are Damsels in Distress? Combined effects of chlorpyrifos and temperature stress on the tropical damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia): 27th Congress of the newEuropean Society of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Alessandria, Italy, September 5-9, 2010 Biological effects of climatic changes and pollution: from biomarkers to system biology. 2010 Sep; 157, Supplement 1, (0): S16.


Rec #: 2620
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

145. Bouchard, M.; Carrier, G., and Brunet, R. C. Assessment of absorbed doses of carbaryl and associated health risks in a group of horticultural greenhouse workers. 2008; 81, (3): 355-370.


Rec #: 56959
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Objective This study was undertaken to estimate the absorbed doses of carbaryl and the associated health risks in a group of horticultural greenhouse workers in the Province of Quebec, Canada, using a toxicokinetic modeling approach. Methods A mathematical model was developed to relate the absorbed dose of carbaryl, the evolution of its body burden and that of its metabolites and the urinary excretion rate of biomarkers. The free parameters of this model were determined using published time course data in volunteers exposed to carbaryl under controlled conditions. The model was used to determine cumulative urinary amounts of 1-naphthol that would be excreted by a typical worker exposed to a pre-established no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose; this biomarker amount was then taken as a biological reference value below which the risks of health effects were considered negligible. As a measure of the applicability of this approach to practical situations, the model was used to estimate the dose of carbaryl absorbed by each greenhouse worker, starting from his/her cumulative urinary excretion time courses of 1-naphthol over a 24-h period following the onset of a work exposure. Their cumulative 1-naphthol levels were then compared to the biological reference value obtained from the model and the NOAEL dose. Results Following the onset of a work exposure to carbaryl, a clear increase in the urinary excretion rate of 1-naphthol was observed in most workers. The reconstructed absorbed doses were found to vary between 3.3 and 143 nmol/kg of body weight (bw) depending on the working conditions. Simulations of the observed cumulative urinary excretion time course of each worker also showed that exposure appeared to occur mainly (a) through inhalation for the applicators and individuals without direct contact with treated plants and (b) through the dermal route for individuals manipulating treated plants. Although the workers under study clearly appeared to have been exposed to carbaryl in the greenhouses, 24-h cumulative 1-naphthol levels ranged from 4.8 to 65.1% of the proposed biological reference value of 32 nmol/kg bw in 24-h urine collections following the onset of a work exposure. Conclusion This suggests that the workers under study probably did not incur a serious health risk under the normal exposure conditions prevailing during the study period.
Keywords: carbaryl, 1-naphthol, urinary biomarker, risk assessment, toxicokinetic
ISI Document Delivery No.: 234HQ

146. Bousova, I. and Skalova, L. Inhibition and induction of glutathione S-transferases by flavonoids: possible pharmacological and toxicological consequences. 2012; 44, (4): 267-286.


Rec #: 56979
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Many studies reviewed herein demonstrated the potency of some flavonoids to modulate the activity and/or expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Because GSTs play a crucial role in the detoxification of xenobiotics, their inhibition or induction may significantly affect metabolism and biological effects of many drugs, industrials, and environmental contaminants. The effect of flavonoids on GSTs strongly depends on flavonoid structure, concentration, period of administration, as well as on GST isoform and origin. Moreover, the results obtained in vitro are often contrary to the vivo results. Based on these facts, the revelation of important flavonoid-drug or flavonoid-pollutant interaction has been complicated. However, it should be borne in mind that ingestion of certain flavonoids in combination with drugs or pollutants (e.g., acetaminophen, simvastatin, cyclophosphamide, cisplatine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorpyrifos, acrylamide, and isocyanates), which are GST substrates, could have significant pharmacological and toxicological consequences. Although reasonable consumptions of a flavonoids-rich diet (that may lead to GST induction) are mostly beneficial, the uncontrolled intake of high concentrations of certain flavonoids (e.g., quercetin and catechins) in dietary supplements (that may cause GST inhibition) may threaten human health.
Keywords: GST, drug-flavonoid interaction, dietary supplement, cytostatics,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 052SL

147. Bowman, J. S. and Barry, D. W. Control of Lepidopterous Larvae on Late Season Sweet Corn with Foliar Sprays, 1987. SOIL; 1988; 13, 113-114 (37E).


Rec #: 460
Keywords: NO DURATION
Call Number: NO DURATION (CPY,FNV)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,FNV

148. Bozlaker, a ; Muezzinoglu, a; Odabasi, M, and Bozlaker, A. Processes Affecting the Movement of Organochlorine Pesticides (Ocps) Between Soil and Air in an Industrial Site in Turkey . 2009 Nov; 77, (9): 1168-1176.


Rec #: 44519
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Soil and atmospheric concentrations, dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated at an industrial site in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey. Current-use pesticides, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, had the highest atmospheric levels in summer and winter. Summertime total (gas+particle) OCP concentrations in air were higher, probably due to increased volatilization at higher temperatures and seasonal local/regional applications of current-use pesticides. Particle deposition fluxes were generally higher in summer than in winter. Overall average dry particle deposition velocity for all the OCPs was 4.9+/-4.1cm s super(-) super(1) (average+/-SD). DDXs (sum of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE) were the most abundant OCPs in Aliaga soils (n=48), probably due to their heavy historical use and persistence. Calculated fugacity ratios and average net gas fluxes across the soil-air interface indicated volatilization for a-CHL, g-CHL, heptachlorepoxide, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and p,p'-DDT in summer, and for a-CHL, g-CHL, trans-nonachlor, endosulfan sulfate, and p,p'-DDT in winter. For the remaining OCPs, soil acted as a sink during both seasons. Comparison of the determined fluxes showed that dry particle, gas-phase, and wet deposition are significant OCP input mechanisms to the soil in the study area.
Keywords: Gas exchange
Keywords: Organochlorine pesticides
Keywords: Particulates
Keywords: Air temperature
Keywords: Industrial sites
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Sulfur dioxide
Keywords: M2 551.5:General (551.5)
Keywords: Seasonal variability
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Seasonal variations
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Temperature
Keywords: Velocity
Keywords: Turkey
Keywords: Pesticides (organochlorine)
Keywords: Volatilization
Keywords: Wet deposition
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: winter
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Turkey, Anatolia, Izmir
Keywords: summer
Keywords: Particle deposition
Keywords: Dry deposition
Keywords: ENA 01:Air Pollution
Keywords: gas exchange
Date revised - 2009-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Turkey, Anatolia, Izmir; Turkey
Pages - 1168-1176
ProQuest ID - 21093763
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Gas exchange; Soil; Volatilization; Pesticides (organochlorine); Air temperature; Industrial sites; Endosulfan; Seasonal variability; Particle deposition; Wet deposition; Dry deposition; Organochlorine pesticides; Temperature; Velocity; Particulates; winter; Sulfur dioxide; Pesticides; summer; Seasonal variations; gas exchange; Turkey, Anatolia, Izmir; Turkey
Last updated - 2012-09-10
British nursing index edition - Chemosphere [Chemosphere]. Vol. 77, no. 9, pp. 1168-1176. Nov 2009.
Corporate institution author - Bozlaker, A; Muezzinoglu, A; Odabasi, M
DOI - MD-0010937391; 11186317; 0045-6535 English

149. Bradman, A.; Castorina, R.; Barr, D. B.; Chevrier, J.; Harnly, M. E.; Eisen, E. A.; McKone, T. E.; Harley, K.; Holland, N., and Eskenazi, B. Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community. 2011; 8, (4): 1061-1083.


Rec #: 57019
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP) and three diethyl alkylphosphates (DEAP)) in urine samples collected from similar to 400 children living in an agricultural community when they were 6, 12, and 24 months old. We examined bivariate associations between DAP metabolite levels and determinants such as age, diet, season, and parent occupation. To evaluate independent impacts, we then used generalized linear mixed multivariable models including interaction terms with age. The final models indicated that DMAP metabolite levels increased with age. DMAP levels were also positively associated with daily servings of produce at 6- and 24-months. Among the 6-month olds, DMAP metabolite levels were higher when samples were collected during the summer/spring versus the winter/fall months. Among the 12-month olds, DMAP and DEAP metabolites were higher when children lived <= 60 meters from an agricultural field. Among the 24-month-olds, DEAP metabolite levels were higher during the summer/spring months. Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of OP pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. The impact of these determinants varied by age and class of DAP metabolite.
Keywords: children, organophosphorus, pesticides, exposure, agriculture,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 755WQ

150. Brain, R. A. and Solomon, K. R. Comparison of the Hazards Posed to Amphibians by the Glyphosate Spray Control Program Versus the Chemical and Physical Activities of Coca Production in Colombia. richard.brain@syngenta.com//: 2009; 72, (15/16): 937-948.


Rec #: 1730
Keywords: REFS CHECKED,REVIEW
Call Number: NO REFS CHECKED (24D,24DXY,ATZ,CBD,CBF,CBL,CPY,CYP,DZ,ES,GYP,LCYT,MLN,MOM,MP,MZB,PQT), NO REVIEW (24D,24DXY,ATZ,CBD,CBF,CBL,CPY,CYP,DZ,ES,GYP,LCYT,MLN,MOM,MP,MZB,PQT)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: 24D,24DXY,ATZ,CBD,CBF,CBL,CPY,CYP,DZ,ES,GYP,LCYT,MLN,MOM,MP,MZB,PQT

151. Branco, R.; Francisco, R.; Chung, A. P., and Morais, P. V. Identification of an Aox System That Requires Cytochrome C in the Highly Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium Ochrobactrum Tritici Scii24.


Rec #: 78239
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Microbial biotransformations have a major impact on environments contaminated with toxic elements, including arsenic, resulting in an increasing interest in strategies responsible for how bacteria cope with arsenic. In the present work, we investigated the metabolism of this metalloid in the bacterium Ochrobactrum tritici SCII24. This heterotrophic organism contains two different ars operons and is able to oxidize arsenite to arsenate. The presence of arsenite oxidase genes in this organism was evaluated, and sequence analysis revealed structural genes for an As(III) oxidase (aoxAB), a c-type cytochrome (cytC), and molybdopterin biosynthesis (moeA). Two other genes coding for a two-component signal transduction pair (aoxRS) were also identified upstream from the previous gene cluster. The involvement of aox genes in As(III) oxidation was confirmed by functionally expressing them into O. tritici 5bvl1, a non-As(III) oxidizer. Experiments showed that the As(III) oxidation process in O. tritici requires not only the enzyme arsenite oxidase but also the cytochrome c encoded in the operon. The fundamental role of this cytochrome c, reduced in the presence of arsenite in strain SCII24 but not in an O. tritici DeltaaoxB mutant, is surprising, since to date this feature has not been found in other organisms. In this strain the presence of an aox system does not seem to confer an additional arsenite resistance capability; however, it might act as part of an As(III)-detoxifying strategy. Such mechanisms may have played a crucial role in the development of early stages of life on Earth and may one day be exploited as part of a potential bioremediation strategy in toxic environments.
MESH HEADINGS: Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Arsenates/metabolism/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Arsenic/metabolism/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Arsenites/metabolism/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Biotransformation
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochromes c/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: *Drug Resistance, Bacterial
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Multigene Family
MESH HEADINGS: Ochrobactrum/*drug effects/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Operon
MESH HEADINGS: Oxidation-Reduction
MESH HEADINGS: Oxidoreductases/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Sequence Analysis, DNA
MESH HEADINGS: Sulfurtransferases/genetics/metabolism eng

152. Brechbuhler, C. and Colmar, I. T. V. Pest Control in Alsatian Vineyards. C.Brechbuhler, Inst. Tech. Vigne Vin, Colmar, Fr//: 1988; 40, (7): 275-276(GER).


Rec #: 470
Keywords: NON-ENGLISH
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

153. Brice+_o, G.; Fuentes, M. S.; Palma, G.; Amoroso, M. J., and Diez, M. C. Chlorpyrifos degradation by consortium of actinobacteria isolated from contaminated environment: Abstracts of the 15th European Congress on Biotechnology. 1923; 29, Supplement, (0): S179.


Rec #: 2400
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

154. Briceno, G; Fuentes; Palma, G; Jorquera, Ma; Amoroso, Mj; Diez, M C, and Briceno, G. Chlorpyrifos Biodegradation and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol Production by Actinobacteria Isolated From Soil. 2012 Sep 1; 73, 1-7.


Rec #: 38559
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (CP) is a widely used agricultural insecticide that is hazardous to both the environment and human health. Therefore, it is an essential to develop approaches to remove this compound from contaminated soils, water and sediments. In this study, actinobacteria were isolated from an agricultural soil that had received continuous applications of CP. Four strains were selected as a result of their tolerance to 50 mg La1 of CP in agar plate and they were identified as Streptomyces sp. based on 16S rDNA. According to relationship of CP degradation and microbial growth studies, two isolates were selected and were named Streptomyces sp. strain AC5 and Streptomyces sp. strain AC7. The strains were cultivated in liquid medium with CP at concentrations of 25 mg La1 and 50 mg La1 for 72 h. The results indicated that both strains were able to rapidly degrade CP with about 90% degradation after 24 h of incubation. A different pattern of CP degradation was observed when its main metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was monitored. A maximum concentration of 0.46 mg La1 of TCP was produced by Streptomyces sp. strain AC5 and its concentration decreased as a function of time. In contrast, TCP production by Streptomyces sp. AC7 increased over time from 1.31 mg La1 to 4.32 mg La1. CP degradation was associated to microbial growth of the strains, pH modification, glucose consumption and organic acids excretion in the liquid medium. This work constitutes one of the few reports of Streptomyces as CP-degraders. Given the high CP degradation observed here, the Streptomycetes strains show a good potential as CP-degrading actinobacteria.
Keywords: A 01340:Antibiotics & Antimicrobials
Keywords: Agar
Keywords: Biodeterioration
Keywords: Biodegradation
Keywords: Glucose
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: Soil pollution
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: organic acids
Keywords: W 30950:Waste Treatment & Pollution Clean-up
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Streptomyces
Keywords: Actinobacteria
Keywords: Microbiology Abstracts A: Industrial & Applied Microbiology; Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: Excretion
Keywords: Streptomycetes
Keywords: rRNA 16S
Keywords: pH effects
Keywords: Biology
Date revised - 2012-11-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1-7
ProQuest ID - 1223040228
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Biodeterioration; Agar; Biodegradation; Glucose; Metabolites; Sediments; Chlorpyrifos; Soil; Soil pollution; organic acids; Insecticides; Excretion; rRNA 16S; pH effects; Streptomyces; Actinobacteria; Streptomycetes
Last updated - 2012-12-06
Corporate institution author - Briceno, G; Fuentes; Palma, G; Jorquera, MA; Amoroso, MJ; Diez, M C
DOI - OB-1bfe4db3-e571-4315-a18d-69bc99813c26; 17076306; 0964-8305 English

155. Brock, T. C. M. and Van Wijngaarden, R. P. A. Acute Toxicity Tests with Daphnia magna, Americamysis bahia, Chironomus riparius and Gammarus pulex and Implications of New EU Requirements for the Aquatic Effect Assessment of Insecticides. theo.brock@wur.nl//Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands//: 2012; 19, (8): 3610-3618.


Rec #: 2450
Keywords: REFS CHECKED,REVIEW
Call Number: NO REFS CHECKED (AZ,BFT,CBF,CBL,CPY,CYP,DFZ,DM,EFV,FBD,FNT,FNV,FYC,GCYH,IMC,LCYT,PSM,SPM), NO REVIEW (AZ,BFT,CBF,CBL,CPY,CYP,DFZ,DM,EFV,FBD,FNT,FNV,FYC,GCYH,IMC,LCYT,PSM,SPM)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ABM,AZ,BFT,CBF,CBL,CPY,CTD,CYP,DFZ,DM,EFV,EPRN,FBD,FNT,FNV,FYC,GCYH,HCCH,IMC,LCYT,MXC,NVL,PHSL,PPCP,PRN,PSM,PYX,SPM,TAP,TMX

156. Brownbridge, M; Ferguson, C; Saville, D J; Swaminathan, J; Hurst, Mrh; Jackson, T a, and Brownbridge, M. Potential for Biological Control of Porina (Wiseana Spp.) With a Novel Insecticidal Bacterium, Yersinia N. Sp. (Mh96) En65 Strain. 2008; 61, 229-235.


Rec #: 46349
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Porina (Wiseana spp. larvae) are endemic pests of pasture. If detected early, young larvae can be controlled with
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