Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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MESH HEADINGS: Cricetinae
MESH HEADINGS: Glycoproteins/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Glycosylation
MESH HEADINGS: Membrane Proteins/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Mutagenesis
MESH HEADINGS: Mutation
MESH HEADINGS: Plasmids/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Polyproteins/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Structure, Tertiary
MESH HEADINGS: RNA Viruses/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Serine Endopeptidases/*chemistry eng

123. Bishnu, A.; Saha, T.; Mazumdar, D.; Chakrabarti, K., and Chakraborty, A. Assessment of the impact of pesticide residues on microbiological and biochemical parameters of tea garden soils in India. 2008; 43, (8): 723-731.


Rec #: 56739
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of pesticidal residues on soil microbial and biochemical parameters of the tea garden soils. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC), basal (BSR) and substrate induced respirations (SIR), beta-glucosidase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing activity (FDHA) of six tea garden soils, along with two adjacent forest soils (control) in West Bengal, India were measured. The biomass and its activities and biochemical parameters were generally lower in the tea garden soils than the control soils. The MBC of the soils ranged from 295.5 to 767.5 mu g g(-1). The BSR and SIR ranged from 1.65 to 3.08 mu g CO(2)-C g(-1) soil h(-1) and 3.08 to 10.76 mu g CO(2)-C g(-1)h(-1) respectively. The beta-glucosidase and FDHA of the soils varied from 33.3 and 76.3 mu g para-nitrophenol g-1 soil h-1 and 60.5 to 173.5 mu g fluorescein g(-1)h(-1) respectively. The tea garden soils contained variable residues of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, which negatively affected the MBC, BSR, SIR, FDHA and beta-glucosidase activity. Ethion and chlorpyriphos pesticide residues in all the tea garden soils varied from 5.00 to 527.8 ppb and 17.6 to 478.1 ppb respectively. The alpha endosulfan, beta endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate pesticide residues in the tea garden soils ranged from 7.40 to 81.40 ppb, 8.50 to 256.1 ppb and 55 to 95.9 ppb respectively. Canonical correlation analysis shows that 93% of the total variation was associated with the negative impact of chlorpyriphos, beta and alpha endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate on MBC, BSR and FDHA. At the same time ethion had negative impact on SIR and beta-glucosidase. Data demonstrated that the pesticide residues had a strong impact on the microbial and biochemical components of soil quality.
Keywords: Tea, pesticide residues, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 362XF

124. Bishnu, Avhik; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Chakraborty, Ashis; Saha, Tapan, and Bishnu, Avhik. Pesticide Residue Level in Tea Ecosystems of Hill and Dooars Regions of West Bengal, India. 2009 Feb; 149, (1-4): 457-464.


Rec #: 45059
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In the present study we quantified the residues of organophosphorus (e.g. ethion and chlorpyrifos), organochlorine (e.g. heptachlor, dicofol, alpha -endosulfan, beta -endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate) and synthetic pyrethroid (e.g. cypermethrin and deltamethrin) pesticides in made tea, fresh tea leaves, soils and water bodies from selected tea gardens in the Dooars and Hill regions of West Bengal, India during April and November, 2006. The organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues were detected in 100% substrate samples of made tea, fresh tea leaves and soil in the Dooars region. In the Hill region, 20% to 40% of the substrate samples contained residues of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. The organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues were detected in 33% to 100% of the substrate samples, excluding the water bodies in the Dooars region and 0% to 40% in the Hill region. The estimated mean totals of studied pesticides were higher in fresh tea leaves than in made tea and soils. The synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticide residues could not be detected in the soils of both the regions and in the water bodies of the Dooars. Sixteen percent and 20% of the made tea samples exceeded the MRL level of chlorpyrifos in Dooars and Hill regions respectively. The residues of heptachlor exceeded the MRL in 33% (April) and 100% (November) in the Dooars and 40% (April) and 20% (November) in the Hill region. Based on the study it was revealed that the residues of banned items like heptachlor and chlorpyrifos in made tea may pose health hazards to the consumers.
Keywords: Sulfates
Keywords: hills
Keywords: Organochlorine compounds
Keywords: Ecosystems
Keywords: water bodies
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: tea
Keywords: India, West Bengal
Keywords: Deltamethrin
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: cypermethrin
Keywords: Heptachlor
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Pyrethroids
Date revised - 2010-01-01
Language of summary - English
Location - India, West Bengal
Pages - 457-464
ProQuest ID - 21290231
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sulfates; hills; Organochlorine compounds; water bodies; Ecosystems; Pesticide residues; tea; Deltamethrin; Endosulfan; Soil; Chlorpyrifos; cypermethrin; Heptachlor; Pesticides; Pyrethroids; India, West Bengal
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment [Environ. Monit. Assess.]. Vol. 149, no. 1-4, pp. 457-464. Feb 2009.
Corporate institution author - Bishnu, Avhik; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Chakraborty, Ashis; Saha, Tapan
DOI - MD-0010934143; 11715389; 0167-6369; 1573-2959 English

125. Bishop, C. A.; Ashpole, S. L.; Edwards, A. M.; Van Aggelen, G., and Elliott, J. E. Hatching Success and Pesticide Exposures in Amphibians Living in Agricultural Habitats of the South Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada (2004-2006). 2010; 29, (7): 1593-1603.


Rec #: 2110
Keywords: MIXTURE
Call Number: NO MIXTURE (24D,24DXY,ATZ,AZ,CPY,CYP,DEATZ,DMB,DZ,ES1,ES2,ESS,HXZ,LNR,MCPP1,MTM,PDM,PMR,SZ)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: 24D,24DXY,ATZ,AZ,CPY,CYP,DEATZ,DMB,DZ,ES1,ES2,ESS,HXZ,LNR,MCPA,MCPP1,MTM,PDM,PMR,SZ

126. Blair, A.; Thomas, K.; Coble, J.; Sandler, D. P.; Hines, C. J.; Lynch, C. F.; Knott, C.; Purdue, M. P.; Zahm, S. H.; Alavanja, M. C. R.; Dosemeci, M.; Kamel, F.; Hoppin, J. A.; Freeman, L. B., and Lubin, J. H. Impact of pesticide exposure misclassification on estimates of relative risks in the Agricultural Health Study. 2011; 68, (7): 537-541.


Rec #: 56759
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from the cohort and the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study (AHS/PES). Methods We assessed the impact of exposure misclassification on relative risks using the range of correlation coefficients observed between measured post-application urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and a chlorpyrifos metabolite and exposure estimates based on an algorithm from 83 AHS pesticide applications. Results Correlations between urinary levels of 2,4-D and a chlorpyrifos metabolite and algorithm estimated intensity scores were about 0.4 for 2,4-D (n=64), 0.8 for liquid chlorpyrifos (n=4) and 0.6 for granular chlorpyrifos (n=12). Correlations of urinary levels with kilograms of active ingredient used, duration of application, or number of acres treated were lower and ranged from -0.36 to 0.19. These findings indicate that a priori expert-derived algorithm scores were more closely related to measured urinary levels than individual exposure determinants evaluated here. Estimates of potential bias in relative risks based on the correlations from the AHS/PES indicate that non-differential misclassification of exposure using the algorithm would bias estimates towards the null, but less than that from individual exposure determinants. Conclusions Although correlations between algorithm scores and urinary levels were quite good (ie, correlations between 0.4 and 0.8), exposure misclassification would still bias relative risk estimates in the AHS towards the null and diminish study power.
Keywords: FARM APPLICATORS, CANCER INCIDENCE, RELIABILITY, DISEASE, CHLORPYRIFOS,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 773KY

127. Blanco-Munoz, J.; Morales, M. M.; Lacasana, M.; Aguilar-Garduno, C.; Bassol, S., and Cebrian, M. E. Exposure to organophosphate pesticides and male hormone profile in floriculturist of the state of Morelos, Mexico. 2010; 25, (7): 1787-1795.


Rec #: 56769
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: Studies on experimental animals have found that organophosphate (OP) pesticides may act as endocrine disruptors; however, their effects on the human hormonal profile have not yet been adequately characterized. We evaluate the association between exposure to OP pesticides, measured through dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites urinary levels, and the male hormone profile. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 104 floriculturists of Morelos, Mexico. A structured questionnaire was applied to get information on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and work history. DAP metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethyldithiophosphate] were determined using gas-liquid chromatography. Serum levels of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone, inhibin B and estradiol were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression was used to study the association between DAP metabolite levels and male hormonal profile. Data were adjusted by p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene serum levels and other potential confounders. RESULTS: There was a negative association between inhibin B and urinary levels of DMP, DEP, DETP and total DAP metabolites. DEP levels were negatively associated with serum FSH concentrations, but marginally and positively associated with those of testosterone. DETP was marginally associated with lower LH serum levels. There were no other significant associations among OP metabolites and serum hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibin B and FSH vary according to levels of DAP metabolites in men occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. These results suggest that OP pesticides could act as endocrine disruptors in humans; however, most hormonal values fell within the wide normal range and associations were small. There is, therefore, a need for further investigation to elucidate their biological and clinical relevance.
Keywords: flowergrowers, male hormonal profile, pesticides, organophosphates,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 628SU

128. Blankschien, M. D.; Potrykus, K.; Grace, E.; Choudhary, A.; Vinella, D.; Cashel, M., and Herman, C. Trar, a Homolog of a Rnap Secondary Channel Interactor, Modulates Transcription.


Rec #: 50979
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Recent structural and biochemical studies have identified a novel control mechanism of gene expression mediated through the secondary channel of RNA Polymerase (RNAP) during transcription initiation. Specifically, the small nucleotide ppGpp, along with DksA, a RNAP secondary channel interacting factor, modifies the kinetics of transcription initiation, resulting in, among other events, down-regulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis and up-regulation of several amino acid biosynthetic and transport genes during nutritional stress. Until now, this mode of regulation of RNAP was primarily associated with ppGpp. Here, we identify TraR, a DksA homolog that mimics ppGpp/DksA effects on RNAP. First, expression of TraR compensates for dksA transcriptional repression and activation activities in vivo. Second, mutagenesis of a conserved amino acid of TraR known to be critical for DksA function abolishes its activity, implying both structural and functional similarity to DksA. Third, unlike DksA, TraR does not require ppGpp for repression of the rrnB P1 promoter in vivo and in vitro or activation of amino acid biosynthesis/transport genes in vivo. Implications for DksA/ppGpp mechanism and roles of TraR in horizontal gene transfer and virulence are discussed.
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acid Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acids
MESH HEADINGS: DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Escherichia coli/*genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Conformation
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Structure, Secondary
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Bacterial/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Transcription Factors/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *Transcription, Genetic eng

129. Bolbrinker, J.; Beige, J.; Huber, M.; Sharma, A. M.; Thomas, A.; Deter, H. C., and Kreutz, R. Role of Cyp2c9 Genetic Variants for Salt Sensitivity and the Regulation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Normotensive Men.


Rec #: 50369
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Comment in: J Hypertens. 2011 Jan;29(1):29-31 (medline /21160360)
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 gene polymorphisms have been implicated in regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and salt sensitivity in hypertensive patients. We tested the relevance of CYP2C9 genotypes for regulation of plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentrations and blood pressure (BP) in response to changes in salt intake in normotensive individuals.
ABSTRACT: METHODS: Three hundred and ten normotensive men (mean age 24.9 ± 0.1) were studied after a standardized low = 20 mmol/day or high = 220 mmol/day sodium intake for 7 days. Individuals were classified as salt sensitive when the mean arterial BP was more than 3 mmHg higher after high compared with low-salt exposure.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles were not associated with salt-sensitivity status or BP phenotypes; CYP2C9*2 had no effect on PRA or plasma aldosterone. CYP2C9*3 carriers showed a significantly lower PRA compared with CYP2C9*1/*1 individuals in the overall study cohort (high salt: 0.39 ± 0.05 vs. 0.62 ± 0.04 ng/ml per h, P = 0.009; low salt: 2.19 ± 0.27 vs. 2.87 ± 0.13 ng/ml per h, P = 0.013). Salt-sensitive CYP2C9*3 carriers exhibited the lowest PRA values and significantly lower 24 h sodium excretion rates during high-salt intake (P = 0.005 vs. CYP2C9*1/*1). Lower plasma aldosterone concentrations were only observed in salt-resistant CYP2C9*3 carriers under low salt (P = 0.039).
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: The present study confirms an association between CYP2C9 polymorphism and activity of the RAAS. Specifically, we detected an overall effect of CYP2C9*3 on lower PRA, but not on salt-sensitive BP regulation in normotensive men. Further studies are needed to analyze the long-term effects of CYP2C9*3 for salt sensitivity and hypertensive diseases.
MESH HEADINGS: Alleles
MESH HEADINGS: Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: *Blood Pressure
MESH HEADINGS: Cohort Studies
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: *Renin-Angiotensin System
MESH HEADINGS: Sodium Chloride, Dietary/*adverse effects eng

130. Bollmohr, S.; van den Brink, P. J.; Wade, P. W.; Day, J. A., and Schulz, R. Environmental variables, pesticide pollution and meiofaunal community structure in two contrasting temporarily open/closed False Bay estuaries. 2011; 37, (3): 391-400.


Rec #: 56849
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Environmental variables (including natural and anthropogenic stressors) and meiobenthic communities were sampled in a 'natural' (Rooiels) and a 'disturbed' (Lourens) estuary in the Western Cape, South Africa, bimonthly for 20 months. A primary aim of the study was to assess if the meiobenthic community structure is driven by different variables when comparing 'natural' versus 'disturbed' system. Due to the much smaller catchment of the Rooiels Estuary, many environmental variables were significantly different (p<0.001) from the variables in the Lourens Estuary, e. g. salinity, temperature, pH, total suspended solids, nitrate and depth. No pesticide concentrations were expected in the Rooiels Estuary due to the absence of agricultural development in the catchment. However, chlorpyrifos (8.9 mu g/kg), prothiofos (22.0 mu g/kg) and cypermethrin concentrations (0.42 mu g/kg) were detected frequently, with the highest concentrations recorded during the summer months. Principal response curve analysis showed that temporal variability between sampling dates explained 42% of the variance in environmental variables and pesticide concentrations and spatial variability between the 2 estuaries explained 58%. Variables contributing most to the differences were higher concentrations of endosulfan, p,p-DDE and nitrate concentrations in the Lourens Estuary and larger grain size and higher salinity at the bottom in the Rooiels Estuary. In general the meiofaunal community in the Rooiels Estuary showed a significantly higher number of taxa (p<0.001), a significantly higher Shannon Wiener Diversity Index (p<0.001) and a generally lower meiofaunal abundance with less variability than in the Lourens Estuary. The differences were mostly explained by a higher abundance of Cypretta and Darcythompsonia in the Rooiels Estuary and a higher abundance of Thermocyclops and Canthocamptus in the Lourens Estuary. The variables explaining a significant part (14%) of the variance in meiofaunal abundance in the Rooiels Estuary were salinity and temperature, with the Redundancy Analysis indicating that the abundance of most of the taxa increased with higher salinity and temperature, e. g. Upogebia, Nereis, Uroma and nematodes were clearly positively correlated to salinity and temperature. The variables explaining a significant part of the variance in the dataset (43%) within the Lourens Estuary were also salinity and temperature but included chlorpyrifos, nitrate and flow (including river and tidal flow).
Keywords: particle-associated insecticides, meiofauna, estuaries, South Africa
ISI Document Delivery No.: 800EB

131. Bollmohr, S.; Van den Brink, P. J.; Wade, P. W.; Day, J. A., and Schulz, R. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Particle-Bound Pesticide Exposure and Their Effects on Benthic Community Structure in a Temporarily Open Estuary. 2009; 82, 50-60.


Rec #: 60
Keywords: MIXTURE
Call Number: NO MIXTURE (CPY,CYP,ES,FNV)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,CYP,ES,FNV

132. Bollmohr, Silke; Schulz, Ralf, and Bollmohr, Silke. Seasonal Changes of Macroinvertebrate Communities in a Western Cape River, South Africa, Receiving Nonpoint-Source Insecticide Pollution. 2009 Apr; 28, (4): 809-817.


Rec #: 44889
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A field study was conducted at three different sites along the Lourens River (South Africa) to assess aquatic macroinvertebrate abundances and community structures in relation to seasonal changes in rainfall and particle-associated organophosphorous (OP) insecticide contamination. Redundancy analysis indicated OP insecticide contamination (azinphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos) as the only significant variable determining the community composition. Principal response curves indicated that the invertebrate community dynamics of the Lourens River at the most-contaminated site, Lourens River 3 (38 c 23.0 kg total OP/kg suspended particles), differed significantly from the less-contaminated site, Lourens River 2 (8.0 c 4.9 kg total OP/kg in suspended particles) during the dry season (October-December; pesticide application period), whereas no difference was found during the wet season (July-September). Ephemeroptera abundances increased significantly (p = 0.0021) at the control site, Lourens River 1, from the wet to dry season, whereas abundances significantly decreased (p = 0.0011) at Lourens River 3. Two-by-three factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant interaction of site and season for the three most abundant mayfly taxa, Baetis sp., Demoreptus sp., and Castanophlebia sp., confirming a possible OP effect. Lourens River 3, however, differed significantly from the other two sites in flow, ortho-phosphate, and algae growth, which may partly explain the lower abundance of sensitive species. Apart from the OP contamination, only flow velocities showed significant differences between the wet and dry season at some sites. In conclusion, the present study suggests that particle-associated OPs affected community structure in the Lourens River at levels greater than 30 kg total OP/kg, whereas levels less then 10 kg total OP/kg yielded no significant effects. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Ecosystems
Keywords: South Africa, Lourens R.
Keywords: ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 1: Biological Sciences & Living Resources; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Macroinvertebrates
Keywords: Particulates
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Sulfur dioxide
Keywords: Demoreptus
Keywords: Ephemeroptera
Keywords: Baetis
Keywords: Aquatic insects
Keywords: Seasonal variations
Keywords: Algae
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: Rivers
Keywords: SW 3050:Ultimate disposal of wastes
Keywords: South Africa, Western Cape
Keywords: Castanophlebia
Keywords: dry season
Keywords: Q5 01504:Effects on organisms
Keywords: Suspended particulate matter
Keywords: Publications
Keywords: Q1 01485:Species interactions: pests and control
Keywords: Insects
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Community composition
Keywords: Community structure
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Zoobenthos
Keywords: Dry season
Date revised - 2010-03-01
Language of summary - English
Location - South Africa, Lourens R.; South Africa, Western Cape
Pages - 809-817
ProQuest ID - 21348806
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Community composition; Insecticides; Contamination; Pesticides; Suspended particulate matter; Zoobenthos; Dry season; Aquatic insects; Seasonal variations; Chlorpyrifos; Sulfur dioxide; Community structure; dry season; Particulates; Rivers; Agricultural Chemicals; Ecosystems; Publications; Macroinvertebrates; Insects; Demoreptus; Ephemeroptera; Castanophlebia; Baetis; Algae; South Africa, Lourens R.; South Africa, Western Cape
Last updated - 2012-11-20
British nursing index edition - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry [Environ. Toxicol. Chem.]. Vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 809-17. Apr 2009.
Corporate institution author - Bollmohr, Silke; Schulz, Ralf
DOI - 8cafb5f3-8b1e-4cf3-a8e6csamfg301; 12119843; CS1207663; 0730-7268 English

133. Bonacci, S. ; Corsi, I., and Focardi, S. Cholinesterases in the Antarctic scallop Adamussium colbecki: Characterization and sensitivity to pollutants. 2009; 72, (5): 1481-1488.


Rec #: 56859
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Antarctica is affected by man-made contamination and development of sensitive ecotoxicological tools for impact assessment is a priority task. The aims of the present study were to characterize cholinesterase (ChE) activities in an Antarctic key species, the scallop Adamussium colbecki, and to investigate their sensitivity as biological markers (biomarkers) of exposure to pollutants and of their effects. Our results show that ChEs in gills share most characteristics with true acetylcholinesterase. The present results show that ChE activities in A. colbecki are significantly inhibited by organophosphates (OPs) and somehow
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