Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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chlorpyriphos-methyl, pendimethalin and metalaxyl. Obtained from solid urban waste, this compost has been shown to be able to adsorb high levels of chlorpyriphos-methyl and pendimethalin (85 %, 100 %) whereas metalaxyl was only adsorbed at a level of 37 %. However, adding smectite to the compost increased the adsorption of metalaxyl by 117 %. Chlorpyriphos-methyl and pendimethalin degraded quickly with half-lives of 1.7 and 14.5 days, respectively, whereas metalaxyl proved more persistent (a half-life of 84 days). Adding ammonium nitrate to the compost accelerated metalaxyl degradation to a half-life of 15 days.
Keywords: Chlorpyriphos-methyl, pendimethalin, metalaxyl, degradation, adsorption
ISI Document Delivery No.: 879QK

81. Bahrami, F.; Yousefpour, M.; Mehrani, H.; Golmanesh, L.; Sadraee, S. H.; Khoshbaten, A., and Asgari, A. TYPE OF CELL DEATH AND THE ROLE OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN NEUROTOXICITY INDUCED BY PARAOXON IN CULTURED RAT HIPPOCAMPAL NEURONS. 2009; 60, (1): 1-13.

Rec #: 56179
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphate (Ops) neurotoxicity is attributed both to its well-known cholinergic and non-cholinergic effects. In the present study we compared enzymatic and morphologic changes in neurons exposed to paraoxon during one day and one week. The effect of exposure time is important in neurotoxicity of Ops. The longer the exposure time is the more damage is observed in neurons, although there are few investigations about the effect in the post-exposure period. Hippocampal cells were obtained from rat neonates and cultured in Neurobasal/B27. Paraoxon at 50 and 100 mu M were added. Inverted microscope and electron microscope were used to study cell morphology and Neutral Red staining was used to measure viability. We also assayed caspase-3 and (acetylcholinesterase) AChE activity. Hoechst staining was utilized to determine the type of cell death. Culture medium was replaced after 24 h in one-day group, however, tests were all carried out at the end of the first week in both group. The results indicate that paraoxon reduced the viability in a dose-dependent manner. Our results do not confirm apoptosis in either group; it seems that the cell death in one-day exposure group was not AChE dependent. In conclusion, present data imply that the toxicity of paraoxon is both dose and duration dependent, which may even remain after the cessation of exposure.
Keywords: Paraoxon, hippocampus, cell culture, apoptosis, cholinesterase activity
ISI Document Delivery No.: 427BU

82. Bai, Y. H.; Chen, J. R.; Yang, Y.; Guo, L. M., and Zhang, C. H. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide induced by oxygen plasma: Effects of operating parameters and reaction mechanisms. 2010; 81, (3): 408-414.

Rec #: 56189
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The degradation effectiveness and degradation mechanism of representative organophosphorus (OP) pesticide during oxygen plasma treatment have been studied. The identification and quantitative determination of OP pesticide, the degradation mechanisms for OP pesticide destruction, its destruction intermediates, and by-products were performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) Plausible mechanisms of the degradation are discussed. Experimental results indicate that oxygen plasma treatment has noticeable effects on OP pesticide with satisfactory degradation efficiency, which mainly depends on related operating parameters including plasma treatment time, discharge power, distance from the center of the induction coil, and concentrations of OP pesticide It was found that OP pesticide was degraded into less-toxic compounds, and free radical reaction and addition reaction were to be the dominated the degradation mechanisms for OP pesticides treated by oxygen plasma. Therefore, our results suggest that oxygen plasma is suitable for degradation of OP pesticide (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved
Keywords: Degradation, Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, Oxygen plasma, Reaction
ISI Document Delivery No.: 661IZ

83. Balayiannis, George; Balayiannis, Panos, and Balayiannis, George. Bee Honey as an Environmental Bioindicator of Pesticides' Occurrence in Six Agricultural Areas of Greece. 2008 Oct; 55, (3): 462-470.

Rec #: 45499
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The pollution of six agricultural areas of Greece (north, central, south) by insecticides used in crop protection has been investigated utilizing, as a bioindicator, bee honey produced in those areas. Honey samples collected randomly from apiaries located in those areas were analyzed for pesticide residues with a multianalytical method, able to determine simultaneously up to 10 organophosphorous insecticides from the same honey extract. Findings concerning the acaricide coumaphos were also included, even though it is not used in crop protection. Coumaphos is used to control the mite Varroa destructor, an external parasite of the honeybee. The above areas are cultivated in large extent with citrus trees or cotton or sunflower crops, which are good forages for honeybees. The main pests of those crops are insects; hence, insecticides are used on a large scale for crop protection. The most contaminated samples originated from citrus groves; 16 out of 19 had pesticide residues: 4 samples had chlorfenvinphos (21.05%), 10 had chlorpyrifos (52.63%) and 2 had phorate (10.53%). Out of 17 samples from cotton fields, residues were found in 8, phorate in 6 (35.29%), chlorfenvinphos in 1 (5.88%), and chlorpyrifos in 1 (5.88%). Out of nine samples from fields of sunflower, four had phorate residues (44.44%). In brief, from the 50 analyzed samples, residues of chlorfenvinphos were detected in 5 samples (10%), residues of chlorpyrifos in 11 samples (22%), and residues of phorate in 12 samples (24%). Their levels ranged between 0.70 and 0.89 kg/kg. Coumaphos residues ranged from 0.10 up to 4.80 kg/kg and were derived exclusively from beehives treated with Perizin (the commercial formulation of coumaphos) for Varroa control. This study indicates that in agricultural areas with developed apiculture, useful information about the occurrence and the distribution of pesticide residues due to crop protection treatments can be derived from the analysis of randomly collected honey samples, used as bioindicators. It also shows that, very often, the chemicals used by apiculturists inside the hives in order to control disease are the main pollutants of the produced honey.
Keywords: Citrus
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: Parasites
Keywords: Z 05300:General
Keywords: Cotton
Keywords: Greece
Keywords: Beehives
Keywords: Trees
Keywords: phorate
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Entomology Abstracts
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Apis mellifera
Keywords: Chlorfenvinphos
Keywords: insects
Keywords: acaricides
Keywords: Varroa destructor
Keywords: Crops
Keywords: Forages
Keywords: pests
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Coumaphos
Keywords: Apiculture
Keywords: Pests
Keywords: Acaricides
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pollution
Keywords: Honey
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: SW 3050:Ultimate disposal of wastes
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: Pesticide Residues
Keywords: Protection
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: forage
Keywords: Mites
Keywords: Crop protection
Keywords: Indicator species
Keywords: Helianthus
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Greece
Pages - 462-470
ProQuest ID - 21266956
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Parasites; Cotton; Beehives; Trees; phorate; Pesticide residues; Chlorfenvinphos; Crops; Chlorpyrifos; Insecticides; Pollutants; Pesticides; Crop protection; Coumaphos; Apiculture; Acaricides; Pests; Honey; Pollution; Indicator species; Bioindicators; Chemicals; acaricides; insects; pests; forage; Mites; Agricultural Chemicals; Pesticide Residues; Protection; Forages; Citrus; Apis mellifera; Varroa destructor; Helianthus; Greece
Last updated - 2012-07-27
British nursing index edition - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology [Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.]. Vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 462-470. Oct 2008.
Corporate institution author - Balayiannis, George; Balayiannis, Panos
DOI - MD-0011188778; 11899294; 0090-4341; 1432-0703 English

84. Baldwin, D. H.; Spromberg, J. A.; Collier, T. K., and Scholz, N. L. A Fish of Many Scales: Extrapolating Sublethal Pesticide Exposures to the Productivity of Wild Salmon Populations. 2009; 19, (8): 2004-2015.

Rec #: 30
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: AZ,CPY,DDVP,DZ,FNF,MLN,MP,MTM,PSM

85. Baldwin, William S and Roling, Jonathan a. A Concentration Addition Model for the Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor by Xenobiotic Mixtures. 2009 Jan; 107, (1): 93-105.

Rec #: 48979
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The effects of contaminants are typically studied in individual exposures; however, environmental exposures are rarely from a single contaminant. Therefore, the study of chemical mixtures is important in determining the effects of xenobiotics. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) responds to endobiotics and xenobiotics, and in turn induces detoxification enzymes involved in their elimination. First, we compared several androgens as inverse agonists, including androgens allegedly used by Bay Area Laboratory Co-operative to enhance athletic performance. CAR inverse agonists ranked in order of potency were dihydroandrosterone (DHA) > tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) > androstanol > norbolethone. Therefore, we used DHA as an inverse agonist during transactivation assays. Next, we examined the effects of several pesticides, plasticizers, steroids, and bile acids on CAR activation. Our data demonstrates that several pesticides and plasticizers, including diethylhexylphthalate, nonylphenol, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos activate CAR. Both full and partial CAR activators were discovered, and EC(50) values and Hillslopes were determined for use in the concentration addition models. Concentration addition models with and without restraint values to account for partial activators were developed. Measured results from transactivation assays with a mixture of two to five chemicals indicate that the concentration addition model without restraints correctly predicts activity unless all of the chemicals in the mixture are partial activators, and then restraint values be considered. Overall, our data indicates that it is important to consider that we are exposed to a milieu of chemicals, and the efficacy of each individual chemical is not the sole factor in determining CAR's activity in mixture modeling.
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Complex Mixtures -- pharmacology
Keywords: Algorithms
Keywords: Transcriptional Activation -- drug effects
Keywords: Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear -- genetics
Keywords: Xenobiotics
Keywords: Models, Biological
Keywords: 76150-91-9
Keywords: Hazardous Substances
Keywords: constitutive androstane receptor
Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation -- drug effects
Keywords: 1,4-bis(2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy))benzene
Keywords: Androgens -- metabolism
Keywords: Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
Keywords: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Keywords: Xenobiotics -- pharmacology
Keywords: Hazardous Substances -- pharmacology
Keywords: Mice
Keywords: Pyridines
Keywords: Androgens -- agonists
Keywords: Complex Mixtures
Keywords: Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear -- agonists
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear -- metabolism
Keywords: Models, Chemical
Keywords: Pyridines -- pharmacology
Keywords: Cell Line
Keywords: Androgens
Date completed - 2009-08-07
Date created - 2008-12-16
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 93-105
ProQuest ID - 66738531
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Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, January 2009, 107(1):93-105
Corporate institution author - Baldwin, William S; Roling, Jonathan A
DOI - MEDL-18832183; 18832183; PMC2735418; 1096-0929 eng

86. Barr, D. B.; Wong, L. Y.; Bravo, R.; Weerasekera, G.; Odetokun, M.; Restrepo, P.; Kim, D. G.; Fernandez, C.; Whitehead, R. D.; Perez, J.; Gallegos, M.; Williams, B. L., and Needham, L. L. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. 2011; 8, (8): 3063-3098.

Rec #: 56349
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U. S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999-2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003-2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 mu g/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 mu g/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population-children and older adults-have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels.
Keywords: NHANES, urine, organophosphorus, pesticide, dialkylphosphate
ISI Document Delivery No.: 811WP

87. Barr, Dana B ; Ananth, Cande V; Yan, Xiaoyong; Lashley, Susan; Smulian, John C; Ledoux, Thomas a; Hore, Paromita; Robson, Mark G, and Barr, Dana B. Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Sera and Their Relation to Birth Outcomes in a Population of Pregnant Women and Newborns in New Jersey. 2010 Jan 15; 408, (4): 790-795.

Rec #: 44249
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We evaluated in utero exposures to pesticides by measuring maternal and cord serum biomarkers in a New Jersey cohort of pregnant women and the birth outcomes of their neonates. The study was based on 150 women that underwent an elective cesarean delivery at term in a hospital in central New Jersey. We evaluated the following pesticide compounds in both maternal and umbilical cord sera: chlorpyrifos, diazinon, carbofuran, chlorothalonil, dacthal, metolachlor, trifluralin and diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Of these compounds, chlorpyrifos, carbofuran, chlorothalonil, trifluralin, metolachlor and DEET were the pesticides most frequently detected in the serum samples. We found high (a[control][yen75th percentile) metolachlor concentrations in cord blood that were related to birth weight (3605g in upper quartile vs 3399g; p=0.05). We also observed an increase in abdominal circumference with increasing cord dichloran concentrations (p=0.031). These observations suggest that in utero exposures to certain pesticides may alter birth outcomes.
Keywords: Environmental Engineering Abstracts (EN); CSA / ASCE Civil Engineering Abstracts (CE)
Date revised - 2013-01-01
Language of summary - English
Number of references - 1
Pages - 790-795
ProQuest ID - 746074109
Last updated - 2013-01-07
British nursing index edition - Science of the Total Environment [Sci. Total Environ.]. Vol. 408, no. 4, pp. 790-795. 15 Jan 2010.
Corporate institution author - Barr, Dana B; Ananth, Cande V; Yan, Xiaoyong; Lashley, Susan; Smulian, John C; Ledoux, Thomas A; Hore, Paromita; Robson, Mark G
DOI - 1a6c86d4-a719-4e94-8c16csaobj202; 12929747; 0048-9697
Tomlin. The pesticide manual. 11 ed. English

88. Barraza, Douglas; Jansen, Kees; Van Wendel De Joode, Berna; Wesseling, Catharina, and Barraza, Douglas. Pesticide Use in Banana and Plantain Production and Risk Perception Among Local Actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica. 2011 Jul; 111, (5): 708-717.

Rec #: 47239
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by other economic agents such as middlemen. Risk perceptions were modulated by factors such as people's tasks and positions in the production process, gender, and people's possibilities to define their own social conditions (more fatalistic perceptions among banana workers). The challenge for the future is to combine these insights into improved health risk assessment and management that is culturally adequate for each particular community and agricultural context.
Keywords: Costa Rica
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Children
Keywords: R2 23110:Psychological aspects
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: plantations
Keywords: Musa
Keywords: Perception
Keywords: poverty
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Economics
Keywords: Gender
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Keywords: culture
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Costa Rica
Pages - 708-717
ProQuest ID - 886220194
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - plantations; poverty; Perception; Gender; Economics; Pesticides; Children; culture; Occupational exposure; Musa; Costa Rica
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Barraza, Douglas; Jansen, Kees; Wesseling, Catharina
DOI - OB-0d92573f-a69c-4717-96c4csaobj201; 15092106; 0013-9351 English

89. Barril, J.; L+¦pez-Granero, C.; Cardona, D.; Gim+_nez, E.; S+ínchez-Santed, F.; Pell+ˇn, M. D. L. C.; Esteban, J., and Ca+_adas, F. Chronic dietary and acute exposure to chlorpyrifos in rats: Neurobehavioural and neurochemical correlates: Abstracts of the XII International Congress of Toxicology. 2010 Jul 17-; 196, Supplement, (0 ): S225-S226.

Rec #: 2580
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

90. Barry, R. C.; Lin, Y. H.; Wang, J.; Liu, G. D., and Timchalk, C. A. Nanotechnology-based electrochemical sensors for biomonitoring chemical exposures. 2009; 19, (1): 1-18.

Rec #: 56359
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The coupling of dosimetry measurements and modeling represents a promising strategy for deciphering the relationship between chemical exposure and disease outcome. To support the development and implementation of biological monitoring programs, quantitative technologies for measuring xenobiotic exposure are needed. The development of portable nanotechnology-based electrochemical (EC) sensors has the potential to meet the needs for low cost, rapid, high-throughput, and ultrasensitive detectors for biomonitoring an array of chemical markers. Highly selective EC sensors capable of pM sensitivity, high-throughput and low sample requirements (< 50 mu l) are discussed. These portable analytical systems have many advantages over currently available technologies, thus potentially representing the next generation of biomonitoring analyzers. This paper highlights research focused on the development of field-deployable analytical instruments based on EC detection. Background information and a general overview of EC detection methods and integrated use of nanomaterials in the development of these sensors are provided. New developments in EC sensors using various types of screen-printed electrodes, integrated nanomaterials, and immunoassays are presented. Recent applications of EC sensors for assessing exposure to pesticides or detecting biomarkers of disease are highlighted to demonstrate the ability to monitor chemical metabolites, enzyme activity, or protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, future considerations and opportunities for advancing the use of EC platforms for dosimetric studies are discussed.
Keywords: biomonitoring, dosimetry, electrochemical sensors, exposure assessment
ISI Document Delivery No.: 384YF

91. Barszczewski, M.; Chua, J. J.; Stein, A.; Winter, U.; Heintzmann, R.; Zilly, F. E.; Fasshauer, D.; Lang, T., and Jahn, R. A Novel Site of Action for Alpha-Snap in the Snare Conformational Cycle Controlling Membrane Fusion.

Rec #: 51349
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Regulated exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells requires the formation of a stable soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex consisting of synaptobrevin-2/vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), and syntaxin 1. This complex is subsequently disassembled by the concerted action of alpha-SNAP and the ATPases associated with different cellular activities-ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). We report that NSF inhibition causes accumulation of alpha-SNAP in clusters on plasma membranes. Clustering is mediated by the binding of alpha-SNAP to uncomplexed syntaxin, because cleavage of syntaxin with botulinum neurotoxin C1 or competition by using antibodies against syntaxin SNARE motif abolishes clustering. Binding of alpha-SNAP potently inhibits Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of secretory granules and SNARE-mediated liposome fusion. Membrane clustering and inhibition of both exocytosis and liposome fusion are counteracted by NSF but not when an alpha-SNAP mutant defective in NSF activation is used. We conclude that alpha-SNAP inhibits exocytosis by binding to the syntaxin SNARE motif and in turn prevents SNARE assembly, revealing an unexpected site of action for alpha-SNAP in the SNARE cycle that drives exocytotic membrane fusion.
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acid Motifs
MESH HEADINGS: Binding Sites
MESH HEADINGS: Calcium/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Membrane/drug effects/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cell-Free System
MESH HEADINGS: Exocytosis/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: *Membrane Fusion/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Biological
MESH HEADINGS: N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Proteins/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Conformation/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Transport/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: SNARE Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Secretory Vesicles/drug effects/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Proteins/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Syntaxin 1/chemistry/metabolism eng

92. Bartels, M.; Rick, D.; Lowe, E.; Loizou, G.; Price, P.; Spendiff, M.; Arnold, S.; Cocker, J., and Ball, N. Development of PK- and PBPK-based modeling tools for derivation of biomonitoring guidance values. 2012; 108, (2): 773-788.

Rec #: 56379
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: There are numerous programs ongoing to analyze environmental exposure of humans to xenobiotic chemicals via biomonitoring measurements (e.g.: EU ESBIO, COPHES; US CDC NHANES; Canadian Health Measures Survey). The goal of these projects is to determine relative trends in exposure to chemicals, across time and subpopulations. Due to the lack of data, there is often little information correlating biomarker concentrations with exposure levels and durations. As a result, it can be difficult to utilize biomonitoring data to evaluate if exposures adhere to or exceed hazard/exposure criteria such as the Derived No-Effect Level values under the EU REACH program, or Reference Dose/Concentration values of the US EPA. A tiered approach of simple, arithmetic pharmacokinetic (PK) models, as well as more standardized mean-value, physiologically-based (PBPK) models, have therefore been developed to estimate exposures from biomonitoring results. Both model types utilize a user-friendly Excel spreadsheet interface. QSPR estimations of chemical-specific parameters have been included, as well as accommodation of variations in urine production. Validation of each model's structure by simulations of published datasets and the impact of assumptions of major model parameters will be presented. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pharmacokinetic, PBPK, Excel, Micturition, Model, Biomonitoring, QSAR
ISI Document Delivery No.: 033VC

93. Barton, H. A.; Pastoor, T. P.; Baetcke, K.; Chambers, J. E.; Diliberto, J.; Doerrer, N. G.; Driver, J. H.; Hastings, C. E.; Iyengar, S.; Krieger, R.; Stahl, B., and Timchalk, C. The Acquisition and Application of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessments. 2006; 36, 9-35.

Rec #: 40
Notes: EcoReference No.: 151373

94. Bauer, M; Dondero, F; Olivieri, C; Viarengo, a G; Rudzok, S, and Bauer, M. Comparative Transcriptomic Responses to Acute Nickel and Chlorpyrifos Exposure in Human Hepg2. 2009 Sep 13; 189, 1-S91.

Rec #: 41009
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Abstract not available.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Nickel
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Date revised - 2009-08-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - S91
ProQuest ID - 20760857
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pesticides; Chlorpyrifos; Nickel
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Toxicology Letters [Toxicol. Lett.]. Vol. 189, S91 p. 13 Sep 2009.
Corporate institution author - Bauer, M; Dondero, F; Olivieri, C; Viarengo, A G; Rudzok, S
DOI - MD-0010153981; 10273405; 0378-4274 English

95. Bauer, Mario; Dondero, Francesco; Olivieri, Caterina; Viarengo, Aldo Giuseppe, and Rudzok, Susanne. Comparative transcriptomic responses to acute nickel and chlorpyrifos exposure in human HepG2: Abstracts of the 46th Congress of the European Societies of Toxicology. 2009 Sep 13-; 189, Supplement, (0): S91.

Rec #: 2470
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

96. Bavcon Kralj, M.; Franko, M., and Trebse, P. Photodegradation of Organophosphorus Insecticides-Investigations of Products and Their Toxicity Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and AChE-Thermal Lens Spectrometric Bioassay. 2007; 67, 99-107.

Rec #: 440
Notes: Chemical of Concern: AZ,CPY,MLN,MLO

97. Baydoun, H. H.; Pancewicz, J., and Nicot, C. Human T-Lymphotropic Type 1 Virus P30 Inhibits Homologous Recombination and Favors Unfaithful Dna Repair.

Rec #: 50199
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Whereas oncogenic retroviruses are common in animals, human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is the only transmissible retrovirus associated with cancer in humans and is etiologically linked to adult T-cell leukemia. The leukemogenesis process is still largely unknown, but relies on extended survival and clonal expansion of infected cells, which in turn accumulate genetic defects. A common feature of human tumor viruses is their ability to stimulate proliferation and survival of infected pretumoral cells and then hide by establishing latency in cells that have acquired a transformed phenotype. Whereas disruption of the DNA repair is one of the major processes responsible for the accumulation of genomic abnormalities and carcinogenesis, the absence of DNA repair also poses the threat of cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis of virus-infected cells. This study describes how the HTLV-1 p30 viral protein inhibits conservative homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair by targeting the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex and favors the error-prone nonhomologous-end-joining (NHEJ) DNA-repair pathway instead. As a result, HTLV-1 p30 may facilitate the accumulation of mutations in the host genome and the cumulative risk of transformation. Our results provide new insights into how human tumor viruses may manipulate cellular DNA-damage responses to promote cancer.
MESH HEADINGS: Blotting, Western
MESH HEADINGS: Cells, Cultured
MESH HEADINGS: DNA Damage/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: DNA Repair/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: DNA, Viral/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
MESH HEADINGS: Immunoprecipitation
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Transport
MESH HEADINGS: Recombination, Genetic/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Retroviridae Proteins/genetics/*metabolism eng

98. Bayoumi, R. A.; Mohamed, E.; Louboudy, S., and Hendawy, A. Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide Chloropyrifos by Egyptian Bacterial Isolates.

Rec #: 77799
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Sixteen microbial isolates capable of growing on Dursban as a secondary substrate were isolated from three soil and sewage water samples collected from different localities polluted with pesticides. Six developed isolates only were capable of biodegrading Dursban and utilizing it as only sole source of carbon, energy and phosphorus. The six bacterial isolates were managed to grow on enrichment medium containing Dursban up to 40 ml/liter, for seven days at 25 degrees C. Each isolate exhibited growth and degradation of Dursban concentrations that best bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri S7B4 and Flavobacterium balustinum S8B6. These two bacterial isolates were subjected to some environmental and nutritional parameters that affect the biodegradation process of Dursban. The optimum conditions includes :incubation period, 7 days; Dursban concentrations, 10 ml/l; inoculum size, 4 ml/l; incubation temperature, 35 degrees C; optimum pH value, 7; carbon source, fructose and ribose, respectively; nitrogen source, urea and peptone, respectively; amino acid, histidine; and vitamin, yeast extract, under shaking condition (200 rpm). Only the most potent microbial isolate Pseudomonas stutzeri was grown on their own mineral salts medium which contained 40 mlM/l in case of Dursban in the absence and presence of fructose as the best carbon source for two time intervals i.e. 7 and 15 days. Absence of phosphorus and the presence of many oxidized compounds revealed that the ability of P. stutzeri to biodegrade and detoxify Dursban using it as the sole phosphorus, carbon and energy sources. GC-MS analysis of all three treatments of Dursban-bioremediation process showed no detection of any phosphorus compounds especially Dursban in the three treatments, indicated that both bacterial strains i.e. P. stutzeri S7-B4 and F. balustinum S8B6 were able to utilize Dursban pesticide as carbon and phosphorus sources. Thus, it is possible to use both bacterial strains in the bioremediation of pesticides especially Dursban-contaminated sites.
MESH HEADINGS: *Biodegradation, Environmental
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Flavobacterium/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Insecticides/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Pseudomonas stutzeri/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *Soil Microbiology
MESH HEADINGS: Soil Pollutants/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Time Factors eng

99. Beamer, P I; Canales, R a; Bradman, a; Leckie, Jo, and Beamer, P I. Farmworker Children's Residential Non-Dietary Exposure Estimates From Micro-Level Activity Time Series. 2009 Nov; 35, (8): 1202-1209.

Rec #: 44529
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Farmworkers' children may have increased pesticide exposure through dermal absorption and non-dietary ingestion, routes that are difficult to measure and model. The Cumulative Aggregate Simulation of Exposure (CASE) model, integrates the complexity of human behavior and variability of exposure processes by combining micro-level activity time series (MLATS) and mechanistic exposure equations. CASE was used to estimate residential non-dietary organophosphate pesticide exposure (i.e., inhalation, dermal, and non-dietary ingestion) to California farmworker children and evaluate the micro-activity approach. MLATS collected from children and distributions developed from pesticide measurements in farmworkers' residences served as inputs. While estimated diazinon exposure was greater for inhalation, chlorpyrifos exposure was greater for the other routes. Greater variability existed between children (s sub(B) super(2)=0.22-0.39) than within each child's simulations (s sub(W) super(2)=0.01-0.02) for dermal and non-dietary ingestion. Dermal exposure simulations were not significantly different than measured values from dosimeters worn by the children. Non-dietary ingestion exposure estimates were comparable to duplicate diet measurements, indicating this route may contribute substantially to aggregate exposure. The results suggest the importance of the micro-activity approach for estimating non-dietary exposure. Other methods may underestimate exposure via these routes. Model simulations can be used to identify at-risk children and target intervention strategies.
Keywords: Inhalation
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Skin
Keywords: Mathematical models
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: time series analysis
Keywords: agriculture
Keywords: Simulation
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Ingestion
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Absorption
Keywords: USA, California
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Diazinon
Date revised - 2009-10-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, California
Pages - 1202-1209
ProQuest ID - 20947373
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Diets; Chlorpyrifos; Inhalation; Pesticides (organophosphorus); Mathematical models; Skin; Children; Diazinon; Models; Organophosphates; time series analysis; Pesticides; Absorption; agriculture; Simulation; Ingestion; USA, California
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Environment International [Environ. Int.]. Vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1202-1209. Nov 2009.
Corporate institution author - Beamer, P I; Canales, R A; Bradman, A; Leckie, JO
DOI - MD-0010595982; 11035338; 0160-4120 English

100. Beamer, P I; Canales, R a; Ferguson, a C; Leckie, Jo; Bradman, a, and Beamer, P I. Relative Pesticide and Exposure Route Contribution to Aggregate and Cumulative Dose in Young Farmworker Children. 2012 Jan; 9, (1): 73-96.

Rec #: 42939
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The Child-Specific Aggregate Cumulative Human Exposure and Dose (CACHED) framework integrates micro-level activity time series with mechanistic exposure equations, environmental concentration distributions, and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic components to estimate exposure for multiple routes and chemicals. CACHED was utilized to quantify cumulative and aggregate exposure and dose estimates for a population of young farmworker children and to evaluate the model for chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Micro-activities of farmworker children collected concurrently with residential measurements of pesticides were used in the CACHED framework to simulate 115,000 exposure scenarios and quantify cumulative and aggregate exposure and dose estimates. Modeled metabolite urine concentrations were not statistically different than concentrations measured in the urine of children, indicating that CACHED can provide realistic biomarker estimates. Analysis of the relative contribution of exposure route and pesticide indicates that in general, chlorpyrifos non-dietary ingestion exposure accounts for the largest dose, confirming the importance of the micro-activity approach. The risk metrics computed from the 115,000 simulations, indicate that greater than 95% of these scenarios might pose a risk to children's health from aggregate chlorpyrifos exposure. The variability observed in the route and pesticide contributions to urine biomarker levels demonstrate the importance of accounting for aggregate and cumulative exposure in establishing pesticide residue tolerances in food.
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: time series analysis
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: agriculture
Keywords: Simulation
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Time series analysis
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: R2 23050:Environment
Date revised - 2012-04-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 73-96
ProQuest ID - 968166835
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Agriculture; Chemicals; Bioindicators; Chlorpyrifos; time series analysis; Urine; Pesticides; agriculture; Simulation; Time series analysis; Children
Last updated - 2012-12-14
British nursing index edition - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health]. Vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 73-96. Jan 2012.
Corporate institution author - Beamer, P I; Canales, R A; Ferguson, A C; Leckie, JO; Bradman, A
DOI - MD-0018314646; 16435296; 1660-4601 English

101. Beamer, Paloma; Canales, Robert a; Leckie, James O, and Beamer, Paloma. Developing Probability Distributions for Transfer Efficiencies for Dermal Exposure. 2009 Mar; 19, (3): 274-283.

Rec #: 44979
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Many dermal exposure models use stochastic techniques to sample parameter distributions derived from experimental data to more accurately represent variability and uncertainty. Transfer efficiencies represent the fraction of a surface contaminant transferred from the surface to the skin during a contact event. Although an important parameter for assessing dermal exposure, examination of the literature confirms that no single study is large enough to provide a basis for a transfer efficiency distribution for use in stochastic dermal exposure models. It is therefore necessary to combine data sets from multiple studies to achieve the largest data set possible for distribution analysis. A literature review was conducted to identify publications reporting transfer efficiencies. Data sets were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test to determine whether they arise from the same distribution. Combined data were evaluated for several theoretical distributions using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and chi super(2)-goodness-of-fit tests. Our literature review identified 35 studies comprising 25 different sampling methods, 25 chemicals, and 10 surface types. Distributions were developed for three different chemicals (chlorpyrifos, pyrethrin I, and piperonyl butoxide) on three different surface types (carpet, vinyl, and foil). Only the lognormal distribution was consistently accepted for each chemical and surface combination. Fitted distributions were significantly different (Kruskal-Wallis test; P<0.001) across chemicals and surface types. In future studies, increased effort should be placed on developing large studies, which more accurately represent transfer to human skin from surfaces, and on developing a normative transfer efficiency measure so that data from different methodologies can be compared.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2009) 19, 274-283; doi:10.1038/jes.2008.16; published online 2 April 2008
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Skin
Keywords: Piperonyl butoxide
Keywords: Stochasticity
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Epidemiology
Keywords: Carpets
Keywords: Reviews
Keywords: Sampling
Keywords: Contaminants
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: pyrethrins
Keywords: Internet
Date revised - 2010-09-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 274-283
ProQuest ID - 754883700
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Skin; Data processing; Piperonyl butoxide; Stochasticity; Models; Chlorpyrifos; Epidemiology; Carpets; Reviews; Sampling; Contaminants; pyrethrins; Internet
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 274-283. Mar 2009.
Corporate institution author - Beamer, Paloma; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O
DOI - f57f43ba-bbb9-47ee-b47emfgefd108; 13443685; 1559-0631 English

102. Beauvais, S. L. Factors Affecting Cholinesterase Activity in Aquatic Animals. BCM,GRO. S.L.Beauvais, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA//: 1997: 117 p. (Publ As 62050)(UMI# 9725392).

Rec #: 450
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ATZ,CPY,MTL,Se

103. Bebe, F. N. and Panemangalore, M. Biosafety of Flavonoids in Rats: Effects on Copper and Zinc Homeostasis and Interaction with Low-Level Pesticide Exposure. and Health Program, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, KY 40601//: 2009; 129, (1-3): 200-212.

Rec #: 2310
Keywords: MIXTURE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,ES,THM

104. Becker, Carol J and Becker, Carol J. A Reconnaissance of Selected Organic Compounds in Streams in Tribal Lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009. 2010.

Rec #: 48209
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 49 synthetic organic compounds. Ten pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the upstream site and seven pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the downstream site. Pesticides detected at both sites were atrazine, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and trans-nonachlor. Additionally at the upstream site, heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, and prometon were detected. The pesticide metabolites p,p'-DDE, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane also were detected at both sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds aroclor-1016/1242, aroclor-1254, and aroclor-1260 were detected at both sites. The upstream site had 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon detections and the downstream site had 8 detections. Because of chromatographic interference during analysis, a positive identification of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could not be made. Consequently, there may have been a greater number of these compounds detected at both sites. A total of 36 synthetic organic compounds were detected at the two sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The upstream site had 21 synthetic organic compound detections: three detergent metabolites, two fecal indicators, three flame retardants, seven industrial compounds, five compounds related to personal care products, and beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol. Fifteen synthetic organic compounds were detected at the downstream site and included: one fecal indicator, three flame retardants, six industrial compounds, and five compounds related to personal care products.
Start Page: 15
End Page: 15
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: Rivers
Keywords: Molecular structure
Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Keywords: SW 3050:Ultimate disposal of wastes
Keywords: Aqualine Abstracts; ASFA 2: Ocean Technology Policy & Non-Living Resources; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: USA, New Mexico, Canadian R.
Keywords: Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Samplers
Keywords: Streams
Keywords: Environmental protection
Keywords: USA, Oklahoma, Oklahoma City
Keywords: USA, Oklahoma
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: USA, Oklahoma, Washita R.
Keywords: Aromatic hydrocarbons
Keywords: Downstream
Keywords: Q2 02184:Composition of water
Keywords: Organic compounds
Keywords: Organic Compounds
Keywords: PCB
Date revised - 2011-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, Oklahoma; USA, New Mexico, Canadian R.; USA, Oklahoma, Washita R.; USA, Oklahoma, Oklahoma City
Pages - 15
ProQuest ID - 907193668
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Molecular structure; Pesticides; Aromatic hydrocarbons; Metabolites; Organic compounds; Samplers; Streams; PCB; Environmental protection; Rivers; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Agricultural Chemicals; Polychlorinated Biphenyls; Downstream; Organic Compounds; USA, Oklahoma; USA, New Mexico, Canadian R.; USA, Oklahoma, Washita R.; USA, Oklahoma, Oklahoma City
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Scientific Investigations Report. U.S. Geological Survey. no. 2010-5110, 15 pp. 2010.
Corporate institution author - Becker, Carol J
DOI - 05ec81de-184a-490b-bee4csaobj201; 16042138; NO1103361 English

105. Behera, P. C.; Bisoi, P. C., and Parija, S. C. Effect of chlorpyriphos on isolated chicken hepatocytes. 2007; 84, (10): 1035-1038.

Rec #: 56479
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyriphos, O-O-diethyle-O-(3, 5, 6-trichloro - 2 pyridyle) phosphorothiocate, is widely used in agricultural pest management, control of vector born diseases and ectoparasites in animals and poultry birds. Liver, being the site of metabolism, detoxification and disposition gets affected directly either by spray in poultry farms and / indirectly by consumption of residual chlorpyriphos in feed. The toxic effect of chlorpyriphos was retained in mice indicating hepatocellular injury (Gomos et al., 1999). It exits as such or its metabolites in liver, kidney, and fat of animals (Crosslay, 2000). Poultry meat consumption is increasing day by day due to its low cholesterol content which elevates the probability of chlorpyriphos entry into human food chain.
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