Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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This study addressed the effects of mowing height, warm-season turf species and plot size on runoff of water, bromide, dimethylamine salts of the herbicides 2, 4-D, MCPP and dicamba, flutolanil fungicide, and chlorpyrifos insecticide from a Brooksville silty clay soil. The runoff plots were sloped at 3% and arranged as split-plot in a randomized complete block design. The pesticides were applied as a tank mix: 2, 4-D at 1.12 kg ai/ha, MCPP at 1.80 kg ai/ha, dicamba at 0.50 kg ai/ha, flutolanil at 2.24 kg ai/ha and chlorpyrifos at 2.24 kg ai/ha. Bromide was applied separately at 15 kg ai/ha. The pesticides and bromide were applied 24 h and 0.5 h respectively, prior to each rainfall simulation event. Rainfall simulated at 38 mm/h was applied to treated plots for 1.5 h to generate runoff which was collected at 5 minute intervals. Pesticide runoff concentrations were determined by reverse-phase HPLC using UV-Vis detection. The limit of quantification for each compound was approximately 5 μg/L. Bromide was analyzed for by an ion selective electrode following EPA method 9211 with the limit of detection at 200 μg/L. Plot size, mowing height and/or grass species significantly affected different runoff aspects of the pesticides investigated at p < 0.05. Averaged across treatments, percentages of applied pesticide lost in runoff were 43.3 ± 12.7 for 2, 4-D, 29.5 ± 8.3 for MCPP, 24.6 ± 8.3 for dicamba, 6.8 ± 1.0 for flutolanil and 0.22 ± 0.04 for chlorpyrifos. Similarly, average peak pesticide concentrations were 3.7 ± 0.9 mg/L for 2, 4-D, 4.2 ± 1.1 mg/L for MCPP, 1.2 ± 0.3 mg/L for dicamba, 0.8 ± 0.3 mg/L for flutolanil and 0.04 ± 0.02 mg/L for chlorpyrifos. Results obtained for water and bromide runoff suggest that the treatment effects observed for the pesticides were due to differences in retention mechanism rather than turf hydrology. Linear relationships were obtained between plot area and chemical mass and total runoff indicating that runoff from bermudagrass turf is 'scalable'.
Start Page: 164
ISSN/ISBN: 9780549644897
Keywords: Bromide
Keywords: Simulated rainfall
Keywords: Mowing height
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: 0471:Horticulture
Keywords: Plot size
Keywords: Pesticide runoff
Keywords: 0768:Environmental science
Keywords: Turfgrasses
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: 0285:Agronomy
Keywords: Fungicides
Keywords: Turf species
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Keywords: Dimethylamine salts
Keywords: Biological sciences
Keywords: Runoff
Keywords: Modeling
2008
Bromide
Simulated rainfall
Pesticide runoff
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2008
Turfgrasses
Insecticides
0768: Environmental science
1574149811
230781305
Turf species
Health and environmental sciences
Dimethylamine salts
0285: Agronomy
0471: Horticulture
Mowing height
3315171
Herbicides
66569
Plot size
n/a
English
9780549644897
Ampim, Peter Agbeehia Yao
2010-08-07
Fungicides
38858881
Biological sciences
Runoff
Modeling English

38. Amvrazi, E. G.; Martini, M. A., and Tsiropoulos, N. G. Headspace single-drop microextraction of common pesticide contaminants in honey-method development and comparison with other extraction methods. 2012; 92, (4): 450-465.


Rec #: 55699
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In the present study the main factors that may influence the headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) of common pesticide contaminants (diazinon, lindane, chlorpyrifos ethyl, p,p'-DDE, and endosulfan) that may occur in honey were determined and an analytical protocol was further developed by the use of a multivariate optimization. The HS-SDME analytical method developed and two more analytical protocols for the determination of pesticides in honey: (i) by direct SDME (D-SDME), and (ii) by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), were further validated for the determination of target analytes. The three methods were also applied in the same real honey samples and results were further discussed. By D-SDME, LODs ranged from 0.04 mu g kg(-1) for beta-endosulfan to 2.40 mg mu g kg(-1) for diazinon and repeatability expressed as %RSD from 3 for lindane to 15 for diazinon and chlorpyrifos methyl; by HS-SDME, LODs ranged from 0.07 mu g kg(-1) for p,p'-DDE to 12.54 mu g kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos methyl and repeatability expressed as % RSD from 11 for chlorpyrifos methyl to 19 for p,p'-DDE; by LLE, LODs ranged from 0.09 mu g kg(-1) for beta-endosulfan to 19.31 mu g kg(-1) for diazinon and repeatability expressed as % RSD from 6 for p,p'-DDE to 11 for lindane. For all target pesticides but p,p'-DDE that could not be recovered by D-SDME method tested. The proposed HS-SDME optimized in this study was shown to be the method of choice for the determination of diazinon in honey whereas the most favourable analytical characteristics from the comparative study performed were achieved by D-SDME.
Keywords: head space single-drop microextraction, multivariate optimization,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 908RA

39. Amvrazi, E. G. and Tsiropoulos, N. G. Chemometric study and optimization of extraction parameters in single-drop microextraction for the determination of multiclass pesticide residues in grapes and apples by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. 2009; 1216, (45): 7630-7638.


Rec #: 55709
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A simple and rapid single-drop microextraction method coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (SDME-GC/MS) for the determination of 20 pesticides with different physicochemical properties in grapes and apples was optimized by the use of a multivariate strategy. Emphasis on the optimization study was given to the role of ionic strength, sugar concentration and pH of the donor sample solution prepared from the fruit samples. Since all three variables were found to affect negatively SDME (a lower extraction efficiency was observed as the values of variables were increased for most of the pesticides studied), donor sample solution was optimized using a central composite design to evaluate the optimum pH value and the optimum dilution of the sample extract. With some exceptions (chlorpyrifos ethyl, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, pyriproxyfen, gamma-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin), the optimum method included the dilution of the analytical sample by 12.5-fold with a buffered acetone/water solution at pH = 4 and exhibited good analytical characteristics for the majority of target analytes (pyrimethanil, pirimicarb, metribuzin, vinclozolin, fosthiazate, procymidone, fludioxonil, kresoxim methyl, endosulfan sulfate, fenhexamid, iprodione, phosalone, indoxacarb and azoxystrobin) by providing high enrichment factors (14-328), low limits of detection (0.0003-0.007 mu g/g), and good precision (relative standard deviations below 15%). (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Single-drop microextraction, Experimental design, Liquid phase
ISI Document Delivery No.: 514PT

40. Amvrazi, Elpiniki G and Albanis, Triantafyllos a. Multiclass Pesticide Determination in Olives and Their Processing Factors in Olive Oil: Comparison of Different Olive Oil Extraction Systems. 2008 Jul 23; 56, (14): 5700-5709.


Rec #: 49339
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The processing factors (pesticide concentration found in olive oil/pesticide concentration found in olives) of azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, dimethoate, endosulfan, and fenthion were determined in olive oil production process in various laboratory-scale olive oil extractions based on three- or two-phase centrifugation systems in comparison with samples collected during olive oil extractions in conventional olive mills located at different olive oil production areas in Greece. Pesticide analyses were performed using a multiresidue method developed in our laboratory for the determination of different insecticides and herbicides in olive oil by solid-phase extraction techniques coupled to gas chromatography detection (electron capture detection and nitrogen phosphorus detection), optimized, and validated for olive fruits sample preparation. Processing factors were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. Water addition in the oil extraction procedure (as in a three-phase centrifugation system) was found to decrease the processing factors of dimethoate, alpha-endosulfan, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, whereas those of fenthion, azinphos methyl, beta-endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin residues were not affected. The water content of olives processed was found to proportionally affect pesticide processing factors. Fenthion sulfoxide and endosulfan sulfate were the major metabolites of fenthion and endosulfan, respectively, that were detected in laboratory-produced olive oils, but only the concentration of fenthion sulfoxide was found to increase with the increase of water addition in the olive oil extraction process.
Keywords: Pesticides -- analysis
Keywords: Water -- analysis
Keywords: Chromatography, Gas
Keywords: 8001-25-0
Keywords: Herbicides -- analysis
Keywords: Plant Oils -- chemistry
Keywords: Food Handling -- methods
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Insecticides -- analysis
Keywords: Water
Keywords: Plant Oils
Keywords: 7732-18-5
Keywords: olive oil
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Olea -- chemistry
Keywords: Plant Oils -- isolation & purification
Keywords: Fruit -- chemistry
Date completed - 2008-09-02
Date created - 2008-07-16
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 5700-5709
ProQuest ID - 69311417
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, July 23, 2008, 56(14):5700-5709
Corporate institution author - Amvrazi, Elpiniki G; Albanis, Triantafyllos A
DOI - MEDL-18558709; 18558709; 1520-5118 eng

41. Analytical Development Corp. Project No. 577; Report No. GH-C 1408R: Determination of 14C-Residues Following Oral Administration of 14C-Chlorpyrifos to Lactating Goats. 1980.


Rec #: 390
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

42. Anderson, B. S.; De Vlaming, V.; Larsen, K.; Deanovic, L. S.; Birosik, S.; Smith, D. J.; Hunt, J. W.; Phillips, B. M., and Tjeerdema, R. S. Causes of Ambient Toxicity in the Calleguas Creek Watershed of Southern California. 2002; 78, (2): 131-151.


Rec #: 400
Keywords: MIXTURE
Call Number: NO MIXTURE (CBL,CPY,DZ,PPB)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CBL,CPY,DZ,PPB

43. Anderson, B. S.; Hunt, J. W.; Phillips, B. M.; Nicely, P. A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N., and Tjeerdema, R. S. Integrated Assessment of the Impacts of Agricultural Drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA). 2003; 124, (3): 523-532.


Rec #: 410
Keywords: SURVEY
Call Number: NO SURVEY (CPY,DZ)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DZ

44. Anderson, Jacqueline M.; Petersson, Klas J.; Friberg, Lena E.; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst, and Buckley, Nicholas A. Acute organophosphorus poisoning in humans: A PK model for chlorpyrifos. 2012 Jun 17-; 211, Supplement, (0): S173.


Rec #: 2550
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

45. Anderson, P D; Sargeant, D, and Anderson, P D. Skagit-Samish Watershed Intensive Surface Water Sampling for Pesticides in Salmonid-Bearing Streams. Quality Assurance Project Plan. 2009.


Rec #: 48969
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has conducted a surface water monitoring program for pesticides in salmonid habitat since 2003. This program has included weekly monitoring at 16 sites in five index watersheds statewide: Thornton Creek, Longfellow Creek, Lower Yakima River, Wenatchee River, and Entiat River. In 2008, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries) released a biological opinion for three organophosphate pesticides: chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion.
Start Page: 32
End Page: 32
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: Rivers
Keywords: Marine fisheries
Keywords: Marine
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Anadromous species
Keywords: Quality assurance
Keywords: Surface Water
Keywords: Q1 01485:Species interactions: pests and control
Keywords: Q5 01502:Methods and instruments
Keywords: Creek
Keywords: INE, USA, Washington
Keywords: Watersheds
Keywords: Streams
Keywords: USA, Washington, Yakima R.
Keywords: Ecology
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: SW 3010:Identification of pollutants
Keywords: Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; ASFA 1: Biological Sciences & Living Resources
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Sampling
Keywords: Monitoring
Keywords: Salmonidae
Date revised - 2011-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, Washington, Yakima R.; INE, USA, Washington
Pages - 32
ProQuest ID - 904481890
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Marine fisheries; Surface water; Quality assurance; Anadromous species; Pesticides; Sampling; Watersheds; Creek; Streams; Ecology; Rivers; Agricultural Chemicals; Surface Water; Monitoring; Salmonidae; USA, Washington, Yakima R.; INE, USA, Washington; Marine
Last updated - 2012-12-03
British nursing index edition - Report. Washington State Department of Ecology. no. WSEO0903120, 32 p. 2009.
Corporate institution author - Anderson, P D; Sargeant, D
DOI - cc6033d2-4eb5-4d96-852fcsamfg201; 15947904; NO1100135 English

46. Anishkin, A. ; Kamaraju, K., and Sukharev, S. Mechanosensitive Channel Mscs in the Open State: Modeling of the Transition, Explicit Simulations, and Experimental Measurements of Conductance.


Rec #: 51209
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Mechanosensitive channels of small conductance (MscS) are ubiquitous turgor pressure regulators found in many walled cells and some intracellular organelles. Escherichia coli MscS acting as a tension-activated osmolyte release valve shows a nonsaturable conductance (1.2 nS in a 39 mS/cm electrolyte) and weak preference for anions. Pursuing the transition pathways in this channel, we applied the extrapolated motion protocol (cycles of displacements, minimizations, and short simulations) to the previously generated compact resting conformation of MscS. We observed tilting and straightening of the kinked pore-forming TM3 helices during the barrel expansion. Extended all-atom simulations confirmed the stability of the open conformation in the bilayer. A 53 degrees spontaneous axial rotation of TM3s observed after equilibration increased the width and polarity of the pore allowing for stable voltage-independent hydration and presence of both cations and anions throughout the pore. The resultant open state, characterized by a pore 1.6 nm wide, satisfied the experimental conductance and in-plane expansion. Applied transmembrane electric field (+/-100 to +/-200 mV) in simulations produced a flow of both K(+) and Cl(-), with Cl(-) current dominating at higher voltages. Electroosmotic water flux strongly correlated with the chloride current (approximately 8 waters per Cl(-)). The selectivity and rectification were in agreement with the experimental measurements performed in the same range of voltages. Among the charged residues surrounding the pore, only K169 was found to contribute noticeably in the rectification. We conclude that (a) the barrel expansion involving tilting, straightening, and rotation of TM3s provides the geometry and electrostatics that accounts for the conductive properties of the open pore; (b) the observed regimen of ion passage through the pore is similar to electrodiffusion, thus macroscopic estimations closely approximate the experimental and molecular dynamics-simulated conductances; (c) increased interaction of the opposing ionic fluxes at higher voltages may result in selectivities stronger than measured near the reversal potential.
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorine/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: *Computer Simulation
MESH HEADINGS: Diffusion
MESH HEADINGS: Electric Conductivity
MESH HEADINGS: Electrophysiology
MESH HEADINGS: Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Ion Channel Gating/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Ion Channels/chemistry/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Ions/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Lipid Bilayers/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Membrane Potentials/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: *Models, Molecular
MESH HEADINGS: Phosphatidylcholines/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Potassium/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Conformation
MESH HEADINGS: Static Electricity
MESH HEADINGS: Water/chemistry eng

47. Anjum, Reshma and Malik, Abdul. Evaluation of mutagenicity of wastewater in the vicinity of pesticide industry. 2013 Mar; 35, (2): 284-291.


Rec #: 5560
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Pesticide industrial wastewater samples were taken from the Chinhat industrial area nearby Lucknow city, India. GCÇôMS analysis revealed the presence of pesticides lindane, +_-endosulfan, +_-endosulfan, chlorpyriphos, monocrotophos, dimethoate and malathion. A pesticide mixture and wastewater extracts were studied to determine the mutagenicity by Ames Salmonella test, survival of DNA repair defective E. coli K-12 mutants and bacteriophage ++ systems. Wastewater samples were concentrated with XAD-resins as an adsorbent and liquidÇôliquid extraction procedure. The XAD concentrated sample exhibited maximum mutagenic activity in comparison to liquidÇôliquid extracted sample. TA98 strain was the most responsive strain for both test samples with (+S9) and without (ęĆS9) metabolic activation, while other strains exhibited weak response. A significant decline of DNA repair defective E. coli K-12 mutants, bacteriophage ++ was observed with test samples in the survival. The intracellular damage was highest when treated with XAD concentrated sample as compared to liquidÇôliquid extract after 6 h treatment. Salmonella mutagenicity test/ Industrial wastewater/ DNA repair defective mutants/ Genotoxicity

48. Anli, E.; Vural, N.; Vural, H., and Gucer, Y. Application of solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) for determining residues of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl in wine with gas chromatography (GC). 2007; 113, (2): 213-218.


Rec #: 55749
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The incorrect use of insecticides in many countries' vineyards may result in some toxicological risks for the consumers by their presence on the grapes. In this research, a rapid gas chromatographic method was used for the determination of the residue levels of two organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl) in wine. Pesticides are described and compared with each other. Ten red wines from two different regions of Turkey were analyzed for their chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl content. The samples were diluted with water and extracted by solid-phase micro extraction. Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detection (NDP) and Electron-Capture Detection (ECD) were used to identify and quantify the pesticides, the findings being confirmed using Mass Spectrometric Detection. Individual detection limits were in the range of (chlorpyrifos) 0.02-(chlorpyrifos-methyl) 0.1 ng. Limits of quantification varied from (chlorpyrifos) 0.01-(chlorpyrifos-methyl) 0.05 mg kg(-1). The maximum residues limits of the two pesticides in the Turkish wines examined were much lower than the Turkish and European Union limits.
Keywords: chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, gas chromatography, residue,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 215NR

49. Anonymous. Selling in the Corn Market. 1986; 30, (3): 14-15.


Rec #: 10
Keywords: NO SPECIES
Call Number: NO SPECIES (ACR,ATZ,BTY,CBF,CPY,DMB,EP,FNV,MTL,PDM,PMR,PRT,SZ,TBO)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACR,ATZ,BMN,BTY,CBF,CPY,CZE,DMB,EP,FNF,FNV,MTL,NTP,PDM,PMR,PRT,SZ,TBO

50. Ansari, Mohd Ikram and Malik, Abdul. Genotoxicity of Agricultural Soils in the Vicinity of Industrial Area. 2009 Mar 17; 673, (2): 124-132.


Rec #: 48679
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Soil samples from agricultural fields (cultivated) in the vicinity of industrial area of Ghaziabad City (India) were collected. In this city, wastewater coming from both industrial and domestic sources and without any treatment is used to irrigate the food crops. This practice has been polluting the soil and pollutants might reach the food chain. Gas chromatographic analysis show the presence of certain organochlorine (DDE, DDT, dieldrin, aldrin and endosulfan) and organophosphorus (dimethoate, malathion, methylparathion and chlorpyrifos) pesticides in soil samples. Samples were extracted using different solvents, i.e. methanol, chloroform, acetonitrile, hexane and acetone (all were HPLC-grade, SRL, India), and the extracts were assayed for genotoxic potential using Ames Salmonella/microsome test, DNA repair defective mutants and bacteriophage lambda systems. TA98 and TA100 were found to be the most sensitive strains to all the soil extracts tested. Methanol extracts exhibited a maximum mutagenicity with TA98 strain {540 (-S9) and 638 (+S9) revertants/g of soil} and 938 (-S9) and 1008 (+S9) revertants/g of soil with TA100 strain. The damage in the DNA repair defective mutants was found maximum with methanolic extract followed by acetonitrile, chloroform, hexane and acetone at the dose level of 40 microl/ml culture after 6h of treatment. The survival was 25, 30, 32, 33 and 35% in polA strain after 6h of treatment when tested with wastewater irrigated soil extracts of methanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, hexane and acetone, respectively. A significant decrease in the plaque forming units of bacteriophage lambda was also observed when treated with 40 microl of test samples. Present results showed that methanolic extracts of soil were more toxic than other soil extracts. The soil is accumulating a large number of pollutants due to wastewater irrigation and this practice of accumulation has an impact on soil health.
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Industrial Waste -- adverse effects
Keywords: Soil Pollutants -- toxicity
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical -- chemistry
Keywords: Salmonella -- physiology
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical -- toxicity
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Chemical Fractionation
Keywords: Bacteriophage lambda -- physiology
Keywords: Soil Pollutants -- chemistry
Keywords: India
Keywords: Industrial Waste
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Soil Pollutants
Keywords: Salmonella -- drug effects
Keywords: Mutagenicity Tests
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Waste Disposal, Fluid
Keywords: Soil -- analysis
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical
Keywords: Bacteriophage lambda -- drug effects
Keywords: Industry
Date completed - 2009-06-03
Date created - 2009-03-09
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 124-132
ProQuest ID - 67004779
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Mutation research, March 17, 2009, 673(2):124-132
Corporate institution author - Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Malik, Abdul
DOI - MEDL-19167512; 19167512; 0027-5107 eng

51. Ansari, Mohd Ikram and Malik, Abdul. Genotoxicity of Wastewaters Used for Irrigation of Food Crops. 2009 Apr; 24, (2): 103-115.


Rec #: 48639
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In most towns of India, wastewater coming from both industrial and domestic sources and without any treatment is used to irrigate the agricultural crops. This practice has been polluting the soil, and pollutants could possibly reach the food chain. For the above reasons, the wastewaters of Ghaziabad City (India), which is used for irrigation, were sampled (at two different sites) and monitored for the presence of genotoxic agents from January 2005 to June 2007. Gas chromatographic analysis showed the presence of certain OC (DDE, DDT, Dieldrin, Aldrin, and Endosulfan) and OP (Dimethoate, Malathion, Methlyparathion, and Chlorpyrifos) pesticides in both the sampling sites. Wastewater samples were concentrated using XAD resins (XAD-4 and XAD-8) and liquid-liquid extraction procedures, and the
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