Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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The purpose of this review is to provide data presenting the utility of forskolin - as a cAMP activator - for studying the function of cAMP from different biological viewpoints as follows: 1) Investigation on the role of cAMP in various cellular processes in different organs such as gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, reproductive organs, endocrine system, urinary system, olfactory system, nervous system, platelet aggregating system, skin, bones, eyes, and smooth muscles. 2) Studies on the role of cAMP activation and inhibition to understand the pathogenesis (e.g. thyroid autoimmune disorders, leukocyte signal transduction defect in depression, acute malaria infection, secretory dysfunction in inflammatory diseases) as well as its possibly beneficial role for curing diseases such as the regulation of coronary microvascular NO production after heart failure, the attenuation of the development or progression of fibrosis in the heart and lungs, the augmentation of myo-protective effects of ischemic preconditioning especially in the failing hearts after myocardial infarction, the stimulation of the regeneration of injured retinal ganglion cells, the curing of glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, the reducing of cyst formation early in the polycystic kidney disease, and the management of autoimmune disorders by enhancing Fas-mediated apoptosis. 3) Studies on the role of cAMP in the mechanism of actions of a number of drugs and substances such as the effect of the protoberberine alkaloid palmatine on the active ion transport across rat colonic epithelium, the inhibitory effect of retinoic acid on HIV-1-induced podocyte proliferation, the whitening activity of luteolin, the effect of cilostazol on nitric oxide production, an effect that is involved in capillary-like tube formation in human aortic endothelial cells, the apoptotic effect of bullatacin, the effects of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon on nervous system. Moreover, cAMP was found to play a role in acute and chronic exposure to ethanol, in morphine dependence and withdrawal and in behavioral sensitization to cocaine as well as in the protection against cisplatin-induced oxidative injuries.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 888CB

25. Albers, James W; Garabrant, David H; Berent, Stanley; Richardson, Rudy J, and Albers, James W. Paraoxonase Status and Plasma Butyrylcholinesterase Activity in Chlorpyrifos Manufacturing Workers. 2010 Jan; 20, (1): 79-89.

Rec #: 40829
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase insecticide. Paraoxonase (PON1) is an enzyme found in liver and plasma that hydrolyzes a number of OP compounds. PON1 polymorphisms include a glutamine (Q)/arginine (R) substitution at position 192 (PON1 sub(Q192R)) that affects hydrolysis of OP substrates, with the PON1 sub(192Q) allotype hydrolyzing chlorpyrifos oxon less efficiently than the PON1 sub(192R) allotype, a variation potentially important in determining susceptibility to chlorpyrifos. We studied 53 chlorpyrifos workers and 60 referents during 1 year and estimated chlorpyrifos exposure using industrial hygiene and employment records and excretion of the chlorpyrifos metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity, which may by inhibited by chlorpyrifos exposure, was measured monthly. In addition, plasma samples were assayed for paraoxonase (PONase), diazoxonase (DZOase), and chlorpyrifosoxonase (CPOase) activity to determine PON1 status (inferred genotypes and their functional activity). Linear regression analyses modeled BuChE activity as a function of chlorpyrifos exposure and covariates. We postulated that the level of CPOase activity and the inferred PON1 sub(192) genotype (together reflecting PON1 status) would differ between groups and that PON1 status would modify the models of chlorpyrifos exposure on BuChE activity. Chlorpyrifos workers and referents had a 100-fold difference in cumulative chlorpyrifos exposure. Contrary to our hypotheses, mean CPOase activity was similar in both groups (P=0.58) and PON1 sub(192Q) showed a slight overrepresentation, not an underrepresentation, in the chlorpyrifos group compared with referents (PON1 sub(192QQ), 51% chlorpyrifos, 40% referent; PON sub(192QR), 43% chlorpyrifos, 40% referent; PON sub(192RR), 6% chlorpyrifos, 20% referent, P=0.08). In our models, BuChE activity was significantly inversely associated with measures of interim chlorpyrifos exposure, but the biological effects of chlorpyrifos exposure on BuChE activity were not modified by PON1 inferred genotype or CPOase activity.
Keywords: Glutamine
Keywords: employment
Keywords: biological effects
Keywords: Gene polymorphism
Keywords: Aryldialkylphosphatase
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Genotypes
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Workers
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Regression analysis
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Keywords: Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Arginine
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Allotypes
Keywords: H 1000:Occupational Safety and Health
Keywords: Hydrolysis
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Liver
Keywords: Excretion
Keywords: Hygiene
Date revised - 2010-03-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 79-89
ProQuest ID - 21315843
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Glutamine; Arginine; Gene polymorphism; Enzymes; Aryldialkylphosphatase; Allotypes; Metabolites; Hydrolysis; Models; Chlorpyrifos; Workers; Insecticides; Regression analysis; Liver; Excretion; Hygiene; Occupational exposure; employment; biological effects; Genotypes; Pesticides
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 79-89. Jan 2010.
Corporate institution author - Albers, James W; Garabrant, David H; Berent, Stanley; Richardson, Rudy J
DOI - MD-0012539899; 11936603; 1559-0631 English

26. Aldridge, W. N. An Assessment of the Toxicological Properties of Pyrethroids and Their Neurotoxicity. 1990; 21, (2): 89-104.

Rec #: 370
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,CYF,DM,FPP,FVL,PMR

27. Ali, D. and Kumar, S. Chlorpyrifos-Mediated Biochemical Changes in the Freshwater Fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). 2008; 150, (Suppl.1,3): S111(ABS) (doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.04.241).

Rec #: 380
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Call Number: NO ABSTRACT (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

28. Allen, R. M. ; Marquart, T. J.; Albert, C. J.; Suchy, F. J. ; Wang, D. Q.; Ananthanarayanan, M.; Ford, D. A., and Bald, N. A. Mir-33 Controls the Expression of Biliary Transporters, and Mediates Statin- and Diet-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

Rec #: 49949
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Bile secretion is essential for whole body sterol homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in specific canalicular transporters in the hepatocyte disrupt bile flow and result in cholestasis. We show that two of these transporters, ABCB11 and ATP8B1, are functional targets of miR-33, a micro-RNA that is expressed from within an intron of SREBP-2. Consequently, manipulation of miR-33 levels in vivo with adenovirus or with antisense oligonucleotides results in changes in bile secretion and bile recovery from the gallbladder. Using radiolabelled cholesterol, we show that systemic silencing of miR-33 leads to increased sterols in bile and enhanced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Finally, we report that simvastatin causes, in a dose-dependent manner, profound hepatotoxicity and lethality in mice fed a lithogenic diet. These latter results are reminiscent of the recurrent cholestasis found in some patients prescribed statins. Importantly, pretreatment of mice with anti-miR-33 oligonucleotides rescues the hepatotoxic phenotype. Therefore, we conclude that miR-33 mediates some of the undesired, hepatotoxic effects of statins.
MESH HEADINGS: ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/*biosynthesis
MESH HEADINGS: Adenosine Triphosphatases/*biosynthesis
MESH HEADINGS: Bile/secretion
MESH HEADINGS: Cells, Cultured
MESH HEADINGS: Diet/methods
MESH HEADINGS: *Gene Expression Regulation
MESH HEADINGS: Hepatocytes/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Liver/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: MicroRNAs/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Biological
MESH HEADINGS: Simvastatin/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/adverse effects eng

29. Allender, W. J. Column Extraction of Chlorpyrifos from Contaminated Fish. 1991; 15, (3): 141-143.

Rec #: 2920
Keywords: METHODS
Call Number: NO METHODS (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

30. Alonso, G. A.; Dominguez, R. B.; Marty, J. L., and Mu¤Oz, R. An Approach to an Inhibition Electronic Tongue to Detect on-Line Organophosphorus Insecticides Using a Computer Controlled Multi-Commuted Flow System.

Rec #: 74789
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: An approach to an inhibition bioelectronic tongue is presented. The work is focused on development of an automated flow system to carry out experimental assays, a custom potentiostat to measure the response from an enzymatic biosensor, and an inhibition protocol which allows on-line detections. A Multi-commuted Flow Analysis system (MCFA) was selected and developed to carry out assays with an improved inhibition method to detect the insecticides chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), chlorfenvinfos (CFV) and azinphos methyl-oxon (AZMO). The system manifold comprised a peristaltic pump, a set of seven electronic valves controlled by a personal computer electronic interface and software based on LabView® to control the sample dilutions into the cell. The inhibition method consists in the injection of the insecticide when the enzyme activity has reached the plateau of the current; with this method the incubation time is avoided. A potentiostat was developed to measure the response from the enzymatic biosensor. Low limits of detection of 10 nM for CPO, CFV, and AZMO were achieved.
MESH HEADINGS: Acetylcholinesterase/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Azinphosmethyl/analogs &
MESH HEADINGS: derivatives/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Benzenesulfonates/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Biosensing Techniques/*instrumentation
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/analogs &
MESH HEADINGS: derivatives/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Drosophila/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: *Enzyme Inhibitors
MESH HEADINGS: Insecticides/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Potentiometry/methods
MESH HEADINGS: Software eng

31. Alonso, Gustavo A.; Istamboulie, Georges; Ram+ˇrez-Garc+ˇa, Alfredo; Noguer, Thierry; Marty, Jean-Louis, and Mu+_oz, Roberto. Artificial neural network implementation in single low-cost chip for the detection of insecticides by modeling of screen-printed enzymatic sensors response. 2010 Nov; 74, (2): 223-229.

Rec #: 3890
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: This work presents a hardware implementation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) using a dsPIC-« microcontroller to resolve mixtures of pesticides measured by amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensors. The response of three biosensors with different concentrations of Chlorpyrifos Oxon (CPO) and Chlorfenvinfos (CFV) was modeled by two ANNs, which were implemented on the dsPIC-«. The performance of the ANNs was good, the prediction ability was better than 0.986 when the obtained values were compared with those expected for a set of eight external test samples, which were not used for training. This implementation is proposed to develop low-cost analytical chemical specialized tools. Acetylcholinesterase/ Artificial neural networks/ dsPIC-«/ Hardware implementation/ Pesticides

32. Alvarez, David; Cranor, Walter; Perkins, Stephanie; Schroeder, Vickie; Werner, Stephen; Furlong, Edward; Kain, Donald; Brent, Robert, and Alvarez, David. Reconnaissance of Persistent and Emerging Contaminants in the Shenandoah and James River Basins, Virginia, During Spring of 2007. 2008.

Rec #: 49829
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Fish exhibiting external lesions, incidences of intersex, and death have recently been observed in the Shenandoah and James River Basins. These basins are characterized by widespread agriculture (intensive in some areas), several major industrial discharges, numerous sewage treatment plant discharges, and urban, transportation, and residential growth that has increased rapidly in recent years. Nine locations in the Shenandoah River Basin, Virginia, and two in the James River Basin, Virginia, were selected for study in an attempt to identify chemicals that may have contributed to the declining fish health. Two passive sampling devices, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), were deployed during the spring and early summer of 2007 to measure select organic contaminants to which fish may have been exposed. This study determined that concentrations of persistent hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (17,000 picograms per liter), legacy pesticides (510 picograms per liter), and polychlorinated biphenyls (1,600 picograms per liter) were generally low and indicative of a largely agricultural area. Chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and lindane were the most commonly detected chlorinated pesticides. Atrazine, which was detected at concentrations much greater than other pesticides associated with agricultural use, ranged from 0.18 to 430 nanograms per liter during the deployment period. Few chemicals characteristic of wastewater treatment plant effluent or septic tank discharges were detected. The fragrance components, galaxolide, indole, and tonalide, were the predominant waste indicator chemicals detected. Caffeine, the caffeine metabolite 1,7-dimethylxanthine, the nicotine metabolite cotinine, and the prescription pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, venlafaxine, and trimethoprim were detected at several sites. Natural and synthetic hormones were detected at a few sites with 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol concentrations estimated up to 8.1 nanograms per liter. Screening of the POCIS extracts for estrogenic chemicals by using the yeast estrogen screen revealed estrogenicity similar to levels reported for rural areas with minor effect from wastewater effluents.
Start Page: 20
End Page: 20
Keywords: Yeasts
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: River Basins
Keywords: caffeine
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Q5 01502:Methods and instruments
Keywords: Freshwater
Keywords: Sex hormones
Keywords: Sewage disposal
Keywords: Growth
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Pollutant persistence
Keywords: Aromatic hydrocarbons
Keywords: Q1 01604:Stock assessment and management
Keywords: Wastewater Facilities
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: River basins
Keywords: USA, Virginia
Keywords: Effluents
Keywords: Samplers
Keywords: SW 1030:Use of water of impaired quality
Keywords: USA, North Dakota, James R. basin
Keywords: Water Pollution Effects
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; ASFA 1: Biological Sciences & Living Resources
Keywords: Wastewater Disposal
Keywords: Fish
Keywords: Wastewater Treatment
Keywords: Rural areas
Keywords: estrogens
Date revised - 2011-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, North Dakota, James R. basin; USA, Virginia
Pages - 20
ProQuest ID - 904485090
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Yeasts; Sewage disposal; Growth; Pollutant persistence; Pesticides; Aromatic hydrocarbons; River basins; Samplers; Sex hormones; Chemicals; caffeine; Metabolites; Fish; Effluents; Rural areas; estrogens; Wastewater Facilities; River Basins; Agricultural Chemicals; Water Pollution Effects; Wastewater Disposal; Wastewater Treatment; USA, North Dakota, James R. basin; USA, Virginia; Freshwater
Last updated - 2012-12-14
British nursing index edition - Open-File Report. U.S. Geological Survey. no. 2008-1231, 20 p. 2008.
Corporate institution author - Alvarez, David; Cranor, Walter; Perkins, Stephanie; Schroeder, Vickie; Werner, Stephen; Furlong, Edward; Kain, Donald; Brent, Robert
DOI - 06f97649-d055-42f0-803acsamfg201; 15958204; NO1101282 English

33. Amado, L. L. ; Rosa, C. E.; Castro, M. R.; Votto, A. P.; Santos, L. C.; Marins, L. F. F.; Trindade, G. S. ; Fraga, D. S.; Dame, R. C. F.; Barros, D. M.; Geracitano, L. A.; Bianchini, A.; de la Torre, F. R., and Monserrat, J. M. Integrated biological responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to analyze water quality in regions under anthropogenic influence. 2011; 82, (11): 1563-1570.

Rec #: 55589
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This study analyzed water quality in regions around Patos lagoon (Southern Brazil) that are under anthropogenic pressure. Water samples were collected from five different sites, including one used as a source for human consumption (COR) and others known to be influenced by human activities (IP). Danio rerio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) organisms were exposed for 24 h to these water samples, plus a control group. It was observed that: (1) reactive oxygen species levels were lower in COR and IP than in the control group; (2) glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit) expression was higher in COR than in other sites; (3) exposure to all water samples affected long-term memory (LTM) when compared to control group. Thus, some water samples possess the ability to modulate the antioxidant system and to induce a decline in cognitive functions, as measured by LTM. The obtained results indicate that a combination of variables of different organization level (molecular, biochemical and behavioral) can be employed to analyze water quality in impacted regions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Antioxidant responses, Zebrafish, Long-term memory, Ecotoxicology, Total
ISI Document Delivery No.: 737SG

34. Amaroli, Andrea; Aluigi, Maria Grazia; Falugi, Carla, and Chessa, Maria Giovanna. Effects of the neurotoxic thionophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos on differentiating alternative models. 2013 Feb; 90, (7): 2115-2122.

Rec #: 230
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Studies by researchers worldwide have revealed that, even in industrialised nations, people, infants and the aged in particular, are even more exposed to neurotoxic drugs as a consequence of the increased quantity of pesticide residues in food. This phenomenon, as underlined by The Worldwatch Institute (2006), is linked to the exponential increase in the use of these toxic compounds over the last 40 years, up from 0.49 kg per hectare in 1961 to 2 kg in 2004, with the result that these substances are found in the daily diet. Protozoa/ Sea urchin/ Stem cell/ Cholinesterase/ Neurotoxic drugs/ Chlorpyrifos

35. Amer, S. M. and Farah, O. R. Cytological Effects of Pesticides XII. Effects of the Phosphorothioate Insecticide Dursban on the Mitosis of Vicia faba. SOIL; 1983; 48, 27-33.

Rec #: 1760
Keywords: NO CONC
Call Number: NO CONC (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

36. Ames, B. D.; Korman, T. P.; Zhang, W.; Smith, P.; Vu, T.; Tang, Y., and Tsai, S. C. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Tetracenomycin Aro/Cyc: Implications for Cyclization Specificity of Aromatic Polyketides.

Rec #: 51289
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Polyketides are a class of natural products with highly diverse chemical structures and pharmaceutical activities. Polyketide cyclization, promoted by the aromatase/cyclase (ARO/CYC), helps diversify aromatic polyketides. How the ARO/CYC promotes highly specific cyclization is not well understood because of the lack of a first-ring ARO/CYC structure. The 1.9 A crystal structure of Tcm ARO/CYC reveals that the enzyme belongs to the Bet v1-like superfamily (or STAR domain family) with a helix-grip fold, and contains a highly conserved interior pocket. Docking, mutagenesis, and an in vivo assay show that the size, shape, and composition of the pocket are important to orient and specifically fold the polyketide chain for C9-C14 first-ring and C7-C16 second-ring cyclizations. Two pocket residues, R69 and Y35, were found to be essential for promoting first- and second-ring cyclization specificity. Different pocket residue mutations affected the polyketide product distribution. A mechanism is proposed based on the structure-mutation-docking results. These results strongly suggest that the regiospecific cyclizations of the first two rings and subsequent aromatizations take place in the interior pocket. The chemical insights gleaned from this work pave the foundation toward defining the molecular rules for the ARO/CYC cyclization specificity, whose rational control will be important for future endeavors in the engineered biosynthesis of novel anticancer and antibiotic aromatic polyketides.
MESH HEADINGS: Aromatase/*chemistry/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Bacterial Proteins/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Binding Sites
MESH HEADINGS: Computer Simulation
MESH HEADINGS: Crystallography, X-Ray
MESH HEADINGS: Cyclization
MESH HEADINGS: *Naphthacenes
MESH HEADINGS: Streptomyces
MESH HEADINGS: Substrate Specificity eng

37. Ampim, Peter Agbeehia Yao and Massey, Joseph H Stewart Barry R. Factors Affecting Pesticide Runoff From Warm-Season Turfgrasses. 2008: (UMI# 3315171 ).

Rec #: 51899
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Knowledge of the impacts of management and scale are important for improved understanding and prediction of turf chemical runoff in urban environments.
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