Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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The genomic complement and regulation of poplar highlighted in this study supports a role of HMA4 and PCS1 in Zn regulation dictating its phenotype. These genes can be altered in poplar to change its interaction with Zn. However, other poplar genes in the surrounding pathway may maintain the phenotype by inhibiting drastic changes in heavy metal accumulation with a single gene transformation.
MESH HEADINGS: Adenosine Triphosphatases/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Aminoacyltransferases/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Genotype
MESH HEADINGS: Homeostasis
MESH HEADINGS: Plant Leaves/growth &
MESH HEADINGS: development/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Plant Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Populus/enzymology/*genetics/growth &
MESH HEADINGS: development/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Zinc/*metabolism eng

10. Adigun, A. A.; Ryde, I. T.; Seidler, F. J., and Slotkin, T. A. Organophosphate exposure during a critical developmental stage reprograms adenylyl cyclase signaling in PC12 cells. 2010; 1329, 36-44.


Rec #: 55189
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Early-life organophosphate (OP) exposures elicit neurobehavioral deficits through mechanisms other than inhibiting cholinesterase. Cell signaling cascades are postulated as critical noncholinesterase targets that mediate both the initial alterations in neurodevelopment as well as subsequent abnormalities of synaptic function. We exposed PC12 cells to chlorpyrifos, diazinon or parathion in the undifferentiated state and during neurodifferentiation; we then assessed the function of the adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling cascade, measuring basal AC activity as well as responses to stimulants acting at G-proteins or on the AC molecule itself. In undifferentiated cells, a 2 day exposure to the OPs had no significant effect on AC signaling but the same treatment in differentiating cells produced deficits in all AC measures when exposure commenced at the initiation of differentiation. However, when exposure of the differentiating cells was continued for 6 days, AC activities then became supranormal. The same increase was obtained if cells were exposed only for the first two days of differentiation, followed by four subsequent days without the OPs. Furthermore, the OP effects on cell signaling were entirely distinct from those on indices of cell number and neurite outgrowth. These results indicate that OP exposure reprograms the AC pathway during a discrete developmental stage at the commencement of neurodifferentiation, with effects that continue to emerge after OP exposure is discontinued. Importantly, the same sequence is seen with OP exposures in neonatal rats, indicating that direct effects of these agents to reprogram cell signaling provide a major mechanism for functional effects unrelated to cholinesterase inhibition. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Adenylyl cyclase, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Organophosphate insecticide,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 598QR

11. Adigun, A. A.; Seidler, F. J., and Slotkin, T. A. Disparate Developmental Neurotoxicants Converge on the Cyclic AMP Signaling Cascade, Revealed by Transcriptional Profiles In Vitro and In Vivo. Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, Box 3813 DUMC, Duke Univ. Med. Ctr., Durham, NC 27710, USA.//: 2010; 1316, 1-16.


Rec #: 2120
Keywords: IN VITRO
Call Number: NO IN VITRO (CPY,DZ)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DLD,DZ

12. Aghajanian, G. K. Modeling &Quot;Psychosis&Quot; in Vitro by Inducing Disordered Neuronal Network Activity in Cortical Brain Slices.


Rec #: 50739
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Dysregulation of neuronal networks has been suggested to underlie the cognitive and perceptual abnormalities observed schizophrenia. DISCUSSIONS: An in vitro model of psychosis is proposed based on the two different approaches to cause aberrant network activity in layer V pyramidal cells of prefrontal brain slices: (1) psychedelic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide and (2) minimal GABA(A) receptor antagonism, modeling the GABA interneuron deficit in schizophrenia. A test of this model would be to determine if drugs that normalize aberrant networks in brain slices have efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia. Selective agonists of glutamate mGlu2/3 metabotropic receptors, which are highly effective in suppressing aberrant network activity in slices, are the most advanced toward reaching that clinical endpoint. In accord with the model, a recent phase II clinical trial shows that an mGlu2/3 receptor agonist is equivalent in efficacy to a standard antipsychotic drug for both negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients, but without the usual side effects. D1/5 dopamine receptor agonists are also effective in normalizing aberrant network activity induced by both hallucinogens and minimal GABA(A) antagonism; clinical efficacy remains to be determined. A general model of network regulation is presented, involving astrocytes, GABA interneurons, and glutamatergic pyramidal cells, revealing a wide range of potential sites hitherto not considered as therapeutic targets.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
MESH HEADINGS: Drug Delivery Systems
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Biological
MESH HEADINGS: Nerve Net/physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Prefrontal Cortex/*physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Psychotic Disorders/etiology/*physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Schizophrenia/etiology/*physiopathology eng

13. Agudelo, C. R. M.; Jaramillo, M. L., and Penuela, G. Comparison of the Removal of Chlorpyrifos and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Horizontal Sub-Surface and Surface Flow Wetlands. Health and Environment Group, National Faculty of Public Health, University of Antioquia, Medellin, 51922, Colombia, Elsevier Science//: 2012; 431, 271-277.


Rec #: 2620
Keywords: FATE
Call Number: NO FATE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

14. Agudelo, Ruth Marina; Machado, Carolina; Aguirre, Nestor Jaime; Morato, Jordi; Penuela, Gustavo, and Agudelo, Ruth Marina. Optimal Conditions for Chlorpyrifos and Dissolved Organic Carbon Removal in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands. 2011 Jun; 91, (7-8): 668-679.


Rec #: 39709
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This work used subsurface flow constructed wetlands, planted with Phragmites australis, using 2 water depths and 2 sizes of granular material, in order to find the optimal conditions for the removal of chlorpyrifos and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from synthetic wastewater. In addition, some bacterial groups were identified which formed the biofilm present in subsurface flow constructed wetlands used in the removal of chlorpyrifos. In samples taken from influents and effluents of the wetlands, chlorpyrifos was quantified by gas chromatography (GC mu -ECD), DOC by an organic carbon analyser and bacterial groups using conventional microbiology, according to Standard Methods. The highest values of chlorpyrifos (97.9%) and DOC (80.1%) removal were found with granular material having diameters within 3.18-6.35 mm and according to water column depth (0.4 m) were 97.8% and 79.7%, respectively. The bacterial groups quantified in the biofilm were total heterotrophic, revivable heterotrophic, total coliforms, facultative sporulated, Pseudomonads, denitrifying bacteria and sulphate-reducing bacteria. Some bacteria showed little development, probably due to the pesticide and/or the anaerobic conditions of the systems (negative redox potential and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations approaching zero). It was proven that subsurface flow constructed wetlands, in adequate conditions, are able to eliminate organic matter and chlorpyrifos.
Keywords: Sulfates
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Artificial wetlands
Keywords: Aquatic plants
Keywords: redox potential
Keywords: Marshes
Keywords: influents
Keywords: Effluents
Keywords: Dissolved oxygen
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Q2 02405:Oil and gas
Keywords: Microbiology
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Phragmites australis
Keywords: ASFA 2: Ocean Technology Policy & Non-Living Resources; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Wetlands
Keywords: Dissolved organic carbon
Keywords: Biofilms
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 668-679
ProQuest ID - 899134968
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Microbiology; Pesticides; Aquatic plants; Wetlands; Marshes; Biofilms; Dissolved organic carbon; Effluents; Dissolved oxygen; Sulfates; Chlorpyrifos; Artificial wetlands; redox potential; influents; Phragmites australis
Last updated - 2012-05-07
British nursing index edition - International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry [Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem.]. Vol. 91, no. 7-8, pp. 668-679. Jun 2011.
Corporate institution author - Agudelo, Ruth Marina; Machado, Carolina; Aguirre, Nestor Jaime; Morato, Jordi; Penuela, Gustavo
DOI - 9205d2d9-8d51-4f91-bf5bmfgefd101; 14942869; CS1156154; 0306-7319; 1029-0397 English

15. Agudelo, Ruth Marina; Penuela, Gustavo; Aguirre, Nestor Jaime; Morato, Jordi; Jaramillo, Monica Lucia, and Agudelo, Ruth Marina. Simultaneous Removal of Chlorpyrifos and Dissolved Organic Carbon Using Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Pilot Wetlands. 2010 Oct; 36, (10): 1401-1408.


Rec #: 40269
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Rural areas of developing countries require low-cost treatment systems to purify wastewater which is contaminated with pesticides and organic matter. This work evaluated for six months the simultaneous removal of chlorpyrifos and dissolved organic matter in water using four horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands (SSFCW) at a pilot scale, that were planted with Phragmites australis at 20 plus or minus 2 degree C water temperature. In each wetland, three concentrations of chlorpyrifos and three of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were tested by liquid chromatography and an organic carbon analyzer respectively. The pesticide and DOC were added to the wetlands in synthetic wastewater. For the experiments, four wetlands of equal dimensions were used, with granular material of igneous rocks, 3.9-6.4mm in diameter and at a depth of 0.3m with a layer of water 0.2m deep. For each treatment, regular sampling was carried out for the influent and effluents. As a supporting feature NH super(+) sub(4), NO super(-) sub(3) and PO super(3)- sub(4) were quantified and in situ measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature and redox potential were taken. The overall removal of the chlorpyrifos (92.6%) and DOC (93.2%) was high, as was DOC removal as a function of pesticide concentration in the influent. The minimum magnitude (92.0%) was reached with 425.6 mu gL super(-1) of chlorpyrifos and, with the highest pesticide removal (96.8%). At lower concentrations of the agrochemical, DOC removal increased. The removals were possibly due to mineralization processes, biological decomposition and sorption in plants. These findings demonstrate that SSFCW are capable of simultaneously removing dissolved organic matter and organophosphate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos, which indicate that chlorpyrifos did not interfere with the removal of organic material.
Keywords: Artificial wetlands
Keywords: Dissolved oxygen
Keywords: Engineering
Keywords: Q5 01523:Conservation, wildlife management and recreation
Keywords: Carbon
Keywords: Wetlands
Keywords: Dissolved organic carbon
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Ecology Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; ASFA 1: Biological Sciences & Living Resources
Keywords: D 04060:Management and Conservation
Keywords: Sorption
Keywords: dissolved organic matter
Keywords: Water temperature
Keywords: Influents
Keywords: influents
Keywords: Q1 01485:Species interactions: pests and control
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Phosphates
Keywords: Liquid chromatography
Keywords: Dissolved organic matter
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Phragmites australis
Keywords: Waste water
Keywords: water temperature
Keywords: Developing countries
Keywords: Rural areas
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1401-1408
ProQuest ID - 811121176
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sorption; Phosphates; Dissolved organic matter; Pesticides; Wetlands; Dissolved organic carbon; Influents; Developing countries; Dissolved oxygen; Chlorpyrifos; Carbon; Liquid chromatography; dissolved organic matter; Water temperature; Waste water; Artificial wetlands; influents; water temperature; Rural areas; Phragmites australis
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Agudelo, Ruth Marina; Penuela, Gustavo; Aguirre, Nestor Jaime; Morato, Jordi; Jaramillo, Monica Lucia
DOI - OB-68a426d2-282e-4fa2-b1d6csamfg201; 13513049; CS1110185; 0925-8574 English

16. Ahmed, Nadia ; Mohamed, Aneesa, and Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad. The protective role of vitamins C and E against chloropyrifos-induced oxidative stress in rats: With special reference to the histology of kidneys and retinas. 2009 Sep 13-; 189, Supplement, (0): S218.


Rec #: 2300
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

17. Ahouangninou, Claude; Martin, Thibaud; Edorh, Patrick; Bio-Bangana, Sahabi; Samuel, Onil; St-Laurent, Louis; Dion, Sylvain; Fayomi, Benjamin, and Ahouangninou, Claude. Characterization of Health and Environmental Risks of Pesticide Use in Market-Gardening in the Rural City of Tori-Bossito in Benin, West Africa. 2012 Mar; 3, (3): 241.


Rec #: 46839
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A study on the use of pesticides in market-gardening production was carried out on 108 market-gardeners in the rural city of Tori-Bossito in Southern Benin. The objective of the study was to characterize the potential risks of pesticides usage by farmers and the impacts on their health and on the environment. Two risk indexes were calculated for each pesticide: an environmental risk index (ERI) and a health risk index (HRI). First stage larva of the mosquito Aedes aegypti were used as bio-indicator for detecting insecticide residue in vegetable before their harvesting on the farms. The highest ERI were obtained for carbofuran, chlorpyriphos ethyl and endosulfan. Pesticide residues were found in 42% of the samples of leaves of eggplant, cucumber, amaranth and solanum. Vegetables growers used pesticides that may be highly hazardous and which were not registered in most cases. These situations could have unexpected consequences including the exposure of consumers to health hazards.
Keywords: Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Aedes aegypti
Keywords: Farms
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Solanum
Keywords: carbofuran
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Health risks
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: Benin
Keywords: Africa
Keywords: R2 23050:Environment
Keywords: Rural areas
Keywords: Urban areas
Date revised - 2012-06-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Benin; Africa
Number of references - 28
Pages - 241
ProQuest ID - 1022566717
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Risk assessment; Bioindicators; Health risks; Farms; Pesticide residues; carbofuran; Endosulfan; Urban areas; Rural areas; Aedes aegypti; Solanum; Benin; Africa
Last updated - 2012-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 3, no. 3, 241 p. Mar 2012.
Corporate institution author - Ahouangninou, Claude; Martin, Thibaud; Edorh, Patrick; Bio-Bangana, Sahabi; Samuel, Onil; St-Laurent, Louis; Dion, Sylvain; Fayomi, Benjamin
DOI - bf32371b-a185-48e2-9b92mfgefd107; 16812605; 2152-2197; 2152-2219
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[9] O. Samuel, S. Dion, L. St Laurent and M. H. April, "Indicateur de Risque des Pesticides du Québec-IRPeQ Santé et Environnement Québec," Ministà ̈re de l'Agricul- ture, des PÃacheries et de l'Alimentation/ Ministà ̈re de Développement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs/Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec, 2007
[2] M. Sanborn, D. Cole, K. Kerr, C. Akil, L. H. Sanin and K. Bassil, "Pesticides Literature Review," Ontario College of Family Physicians, Toronto, 2004.
Tomenson, John A.; Matthews, Graham A. Causes and types of health effects during the use of crop protection chemicals: data from a survey of over 6,300 smallholder applicators in 24 different countries. INTERNATIONAL ARCHIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 82. 8 (2009): 935-949. SPRINGER
[17] P. Ton, S. Tovigan and S. D. Vodouhe, "Intoxications et Morts au Bénin par l'Endosulfan," In: Pesticides & Alternatives. Bulletin de Pesticide Action Network Africa, N. 10-Avril, 2000.
[6] S. K. Traoré, K. Mamadou, A. Dembele, P. Lafrance, P. Mazelliert and P. Houenou, "Contamination de l'Eau Souterraine par les Pesticides en Régions Agricoles en Cà ́te-d'Ivoire (Centre, Sud et Sud Ouest)," Journal Africain des Sciences de l'Environnement, Vol.1, 2006, pp. 1-9.
[24] UE, "Journal Officiel de l'Union Européenne," Législa- tion du 28 mai 2011. http://publications.europa.eu/others/agents/index_fr.htm
[11] University of Hertfordshire, "Base de Données FOOTPRINT PPDB sur les Propriétés des Pesticides," FOOTPRINT: Des Outils Innovant Pour l'Evaluation et la Réduction du Risque Pesticides, 2008, http://www.eu-footprint.org/fr/ppdb.html
[16] US EPA, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Endo-sulfan," November 2002.
VAN DER WERF, H. M. G. 1996 "Assessing the impact of pesticides on the environment" Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 60 2-3 81-96
[14] WHO, "The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesti-cides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification," 2005. http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/pesticides_hazard_rev_3.pdf
[10] Wise & Loveys Information Services Ltd., "The e-Pesti-cide Manual 2000-2001 (Twelve Edition)," Version 2.0 Editor: CDS Tomlin; British Crop Protection Council. English

18. Ahrens, M. Literature Review of Organic Chemicals of Emerging Environmental Concern in Use in Auckland. SOIL; 2008: 193 p.


Rec #: 1890
Keywords: REVIEW
Call Number: NO REVIEW (24D,24DXY,ACAC,ACP,AKTMD,BDF,BFT,BML,BUT,CBL,CPC,CPY,CTN,Captan,DM,DMB,DQTBr,DZ,ETHN,GYP,IMC,IZP,LCYT,MLN,MZB,PMR,PPB,PRO,RTN,TFN,TFR,TLM,TMT,Ziram)
Notes: EcoReference No.: 120881
Chemical of Concern: 24D,24DXY,ACAC,ACP,AKTMD,BDF,BFT,BML,BNL,BUT,CBL,CF,CPC,CPY,CTC,CTN,Captan,DEG,DM,DMB,DQTBr,DZ,ETHN,FMA,GYP,IMC,IZP,LCYT,MLN,MXC,MZB,PHTH,PMR,PPB,PRO,RTN,TFN,TFR,TLM,TMT,TOL,TPE,Ziram

19. Ajaz, M.; Jabeen, N.; Ali, T. A., and Rasool, S. A. SPLIT ROLE OF PLASMID GENES IN THE DEGRADATION OF CHLORPYRIFOS BY INDIGENOUSLY ISOLATED PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA MAS-1. 2009; 41, (4): 2055-2060.


Rec #: 55399
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 was isolated from the cotton grown soil of NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Genetic studies based on plasmid curing and electroporation mediated transformation were performed on this bacterium. The bacterium lost the property to grow on the nutrient agar containing 10mg/mL chlorpyrifos after acridine orange mediated curing. The plasmid (bearing chlorpyrifos degrading determinants / genes) was isolated and transferred into E. coli DH5 alpha. The transformants however, could not resist and grow in the chlorpyrifos containing medium. It may be concluded that chlorpyrifos degradation Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is accomplished by the combined action of plasmid and chromosomal genes.
Keywords: ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS, DEGRADING BACTERIUM, ESCHERICHIA-COLI,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 511TQ

20. Akkad, R. and Schwack, W. Determination of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-Multienzyme Inhibition Assay. 2012; 95, (5): 1371-1377.


Rec #: 55449
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: HPTLC-enzyme inhibition assay was applied to different fruit and vegetable samples after individual spiking with organophosphate and carbamate pesticides at their maximum residue limits documented by the European Commission. Samples were extracted according to the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method, including cleanup by primary secondary amine sorbent. Additional cleanup was performed on the HPTLC plate by a prechromatographic step to separate most coextracted matrix compounds from 20 different pesticides under study. With both rabbit liver esterase and cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi as enzyme sources, mean recoveries from apples, cucumbers, grapes, nectarines, plums, tomatoes, and lemons were in the ranges 86-109, 95-129, 96-114, and 90-111% for chlorpyrifos, paraoxon, parathion, and pirimicarb, respectively, with a mean RSD of 8.5% for all samples.
Keywords: SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION, PESTICIDE-RESIDUES, ENZYME-INHIBITION,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 031OS

21. Akkad, R. and Schwack, W. Effect of bromine oxidation on high-performance thin-layer chromatography multi-enzyme inhibition assay detection of organophosphates and carbamate insecticides. 2011; 1218, (19): 2775-2784.


Rec #: 55439
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Following high-performance thin-layer chromatography, thiophosphate pesticides, which inhibit choline esterases, are detectable using a multi-enzyme inhibition assay (HPTLC-EI) based on rabbit liver esterase (RLE), Bacillus subtilis (BS2) esterase, or cutinase (from Fusarium solani pisi). Because choline esterase inhibition is more effective after conversion of thiophosphate thions into their corresponding oxons, a pre-oxidation step was added to the HPTLC-EI assay. Bromine vapour was found to be more effective than iodine or UV irradiation for oxidation. Following oxidation, the inhibitory strength of parathion, parathion-methyl, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and malathion, expressed as HPTLC enzyme inhibition factors (f(i)), increased by approximately 2 orders of magnitude. In contrast, bromine oxidation of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides resulted in a slight reduction in their inhibition factors, due to partial bromination and degradation of the parent compounds, while bromine oxidation increased the inhibition factors for demeton-S-methyl and propoxur. Apple juice and water samples spiked with paraoxon (0.001 mg/L), parathion (0.05 mg/L), and chlorpyrifos (0.5 mg/L) were used to test the HPTLC-EI system, resulting in mean recoveries of 95-106% and 91-102% for RLE and cutinase, respectively. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Bromine oxidation, High-performance thin-layer chromatography, Enzyme
ISI Document Delivery No.: 762SB

22. ---. Multi-enzyme inhibition assay for the detection of insecticidal organophosphates and carbamates by high-performance thin-layer chromatography applied to determine enzyme inhibition factors and residues in juice and water samples. 2010; 878, (17-18): 1337-1345.


Rec #: 55429
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Esterase inhibition assays provide an effect-directed tool of rapid screening for inhibitors in environmental and food samples. According to a multi-enzyme microtiter-plate assay, rabbit liver esterase (RLE). Bacillus subtilis esterase (BS2), and cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi (CUT) were used for the detection of 21 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-enzyme inhibition assays (HPTLC-EI). Staining was performed with Fast Blue Salt B coupling to a-naphthol enzymatically released from the respective acetate used as substrate. Quantitative analysis was achieved by densitometric evaluation at 533 nm. Enzyme inhibition factors derived from HPTLC-EI were calculated from the slopes of the linear calibration curves, which allowed comparisons to published inhibition constants and well correlated to sensitivity parameters. Limits of detection ranged from a few pg/zone for organophosphates as strongest inhibitors to a few ng/zone for most carbamates, when RLE and BS2 were used. Without oxidation, chlorpyrifos and parathion were directly detectable at approximately 60 and 14 ng/zone, respectively. As the enzyme of lowest sensitivity. CUT was able to detect insecticides of high and low inhibitory power from the ng to mu g range per zone. Due to high selectivity of enzyme inhibition, oxon impurities of thionophosphate standards were strongly detected, although only present in low traces. The exemplary application of HPTLC-EI (RLE) to apple juice and drinking water samples spiked with paraoxon (0.001 mg/L), parathion (0.05 mg/L) and chlorpyrifos (0.5 mg/L) resulted in mean recoveries between 71 and 112% with standard deviations of 2.0-18.3%. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: High-performance thin-layer chromatography, Enzyme inhibition,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 601RU

23. Al-Dawood, Asya N.; Al-Ghazal, Ramadan A.; Al-Jaser, May H., and Khalil, Galila M. Effect of chlorpyrifos on healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions after treatment with Pentostam-«. 2009 Jul; 16, (1): 31-36.


Rec #: 1510
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) is widely used in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to control agricultural pests. The present work is a preliminary investigation of the effect of CPF on healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions, caused by Leishmania major in farmers exposed to this insecticide, after treatment with Pentostam-«. Lesion diameters were measured and CPF concentrations in the blood plasma of farmer and non-farmer CL patients in Al-Ahsa were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry before and 6 weeks after treatment with Pentostam-«. CPF concentrations in the blood of farmer patients ranged between 4.570 and 7.096 ng/++l (mean = 6.19 -_ 0.881 ng/++l) before and after treatment with Pentostam-«. The mean lesion diameter in these patients decreased by a factor of 2.21 after treatment with Pentostam-«; they measured 1.85Çô11.75 mm, (mean = 6.165 -_ 3.500 mm) before treatment and 0.22Çô6.10 mm (mean = 2.796 -_ 2.102 mm) after treatment. Lesion diameter increased exponentially with the increase of CPF concentration in the patientsÇÖ blood. CPF was not detected in the non-farmer patients before or after treatment. Their mean lesion diameter decreased by a factor of 6.86 after treatment with Pentostam-«; they measured 1.33Çô7.10 mm (mean = 2.882 -_ 1.764 mm) before treatment and 0.11Çô0.92 mm (mean = 0.425 -_ 0.277 mm) after treatment. The mean lesion diameter in farmer patients was much greater than that of non-farmer patients both before (2.14+ù) and after (6.657+ù) treatment with Pentostam-«. Chronic exposure to low levels of the pesticide aggravates the development and delays the healing of CL lesions due to immunotoxicity and/or peripheral neurotoxicity caused by CPF. Further detailed studies would assess CPF effect on the severity of infection with CL in agricultural workers continuously exposed to this insecticide in different areas of KSA in conformity of their finding. Chlorpyrifos/ Organophosphates/ Leishmania major/ Cutaneous leishmaniasis/ Kingdom of Saudi Arabia/ GC/MS/MS/ Pentostam-«/ Pentavalent antimonials

24. Alasbahi, R. H. and Melzig, M. F. Forskolin and derivatives as tools for studying the role of cAMP. 2012; 67, (1): 5-13.


Rec #: 55459
Keywords: BIOLOGICAL TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Forskolin (7 beta-acetoxy-1 alpha,6 beta,9 alpha-trihydroxy-8,13-epoxy-Iabd-14-en-11-one) is the first main labdane diterpenoid isolated from the roots of the Indian Plectranthus barbatus ANDREWS and one of the most extensively studied constituents of this plant. The unique character of forskolin as a general direct, rapid and reversible activator of adenylyl cyclase not only underlies its wide range of pharmacological effects but also renders it as a valuable tool in the study of the role of cAMP.
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