Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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This research takes this challenge to simulate and potentially improve the performances of BMPs in reducing organophosphates (OPs) runoff at field and watershed scales. A literature review with meta-analysis quantifies BMP effectiveness at field scale. Then, the SWAT model is calibrated and validated following a sensitivity analysis combining Latin Hypercube sampling and One-factor-At-a-Time simulation. Finally, the calibrated model is applied in the San Joaquin River Watershed and its sub-watershed Orestimba Creek Watershed to simulate BMPs including buffer strips, sediment ponds, vegetated ditches, use reduction, and their combinations. The meta-analysis revealed that buffer width, slope and vegetation were important factors in determining buffer's effectiveness. The model Y = K · (1- e -b·w ) successfully captured the relationship between buffer width (w) and effectiveness (Y), where the estimated removal capacity (K) were 90.9 and 93.2 for sediment and pesticides. A 20 m buffer under favorable slope conditions ([approximate] 9%) would remove over 92% pesticides. The SWAT model was successfully calibrated with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients over 0.92 and 0.82 for monthly simulation of diazinon and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Pesticide transport and fate is greatly impacted by surface runoff and their physico-chemical properties. BMP simulation suggested that combining vegetated ditches and buffer strips in addition to use reduction would decrease by over 94% the dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos. Buffer strips and vegetated ditches removed over 89% and 30% dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos, respectively, while sediment ponds removed 3-10%. Simulation of almond pest management practices found that OP concentrations in surface water were reduced by applying reduced-risk pesticides during summer and no spray during winter. This study has demonstrated that the SWAT model reasonably predict BMP effectiveness at watershed scale. However, the model can be further improved by enhancing the irrigation algorithm and by including more adjustable parameters to represent BMP mitigation processes. The findings can be widely applied to facilitate BMP implementation and evaluation through: (1) simulating BMP performance under various environmental conditions; (2) estimating annual pollutant removal, and (3) evaluating BMP design options.
Start Page: 174
ISSN/ISBN: 9781109368383
Keywords: Applied sciences
Keywords: 0329:Ecology
Keywords: 0749:Agricultural chemicals
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Best management practices
Keywords: Water quality
Keywords: Watershed
Keywords: Biological sciences
Keywords: Pure sciences
Keywords: 0775:Environmental engineering
Applied sciences
Zhang, Xuyang
Best management practices
Water quality
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2009
0775: Environmental engineering
0329: Ecology
0749: Agricultural chemicals
Pure sciences
Biological sciences English

1595. Zhang, Xuyang; Zhang, Minghua, and Zhang, Xuyang. Modeling Effectiveness of Agricultural Bmps to Reduce Sediment Load and Organophosphate Pesticides in Surface Runoff. 2011 Apr 15; 409, (10): 1949-1958.

Rec #: 43429
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Quantifying effectiveness of agricultural BMPs at the watershed scale is a challenging issue, requiring robust algorithms to simulate not only the agricultural production system but also pollutant transport and fate. This research addresses the challenge to simulate performances of BMPs in reducing organophosphates (OPs) runoff at the watershed scale. The SWAT model is calibrated and validated following a sensitivity analysis combining Latin Hypercube sampling and One-factor-At-a-Time simulation. The calibrated model is then applied in the Orestimba Creek Watershed to simulate BMPs including buffer strips, sediment ponds, vegetated ditches, use reduction, and their combinations. BMP simulation suggested that sediment ponds trap 54-85% of sediment from field runoff, but less than 10% of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos. Use reduction can reduce pesticide load in a close-to-linear fashion. Effectiveness of vegetated ditches and buffers depends on their physical dimension and vegetation cover. Combining individual BMPs provides enhanced mitigation effects. The combination of vegetated ditches, buffer strips and use reduction decreases diazinon and chlorpyrifos load by over 94%. This study has suggested that the SWAT model reasonably predicts BMP effectiveness at the watershed scale. Results will assist decision making in implementing BMPs to reduce pesticide loads in surface runoff.
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Agricultural pollution
Keywords: Agricultural production
Keywords: buffers
Keywords: Pollution dispersion
Keywords: Algorithms
Keywords: Q5 01502:Methods and instruments
Keywords: Watersheds
Keywords: Ponds
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Oil
Keywords: mitigation
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Surface runoff
Keywords: R2 23050:Environment
Keywords: Agricultural runoff
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: SW 3050:Ultimate disposal of wastes
Keywords: Simulation
Keywords: M2 556.16:Runoff (556.16)
Keywords: Creek
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: Model Studies
Keywords: ENA 06:Food & Drugs
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Numerical simulations
Keywords: Sensitivity analysis
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Rainfall-runoff modeling
Keywords: Sediment load
Keywords: Ditches
Keywords: Environment management
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: Runoff
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1949-1958
ProQuest ID - 886651909
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Agricultural pollution; Pollution dispersion; Pesticides; Sediment load; Creek; Watersheds; Environment management; Agricultural runoff; Ponds; Sensitivity analysis; Numerical simulations; Algorithms; Rainfall-runoff modeling; Surface runoff; Chlorpyrifos; mitigation; Organophosphates; Agricultural production; buffers; Simulation; Diazinon; Oil; Agricultural Chemicals; Ditches; Runoff; Sediments; Model Studies
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Zhang, Xuyang; Zhang, Minghua
DOI - OB-4c889505-f2dd-4e41-ac18csamfg201; 14564214; CS1147216; 0048-9697 English

1596. Zhang, Y.; An, J.; Ye, W.; Yang, G. Y.; Qian, Z. G.; Chen, H. F.; Cui, L., and Feng, Y. Enhancing the Promiscuous Phosphotriesterase Activity of a Thermostable Lactonase (GkaP) for the Efficient Degradation of Organophosphate Pesticides. 2012; 78, (18): 6647-6655.

Rec #: 72979
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) enzymes in the amidohydrolase superfamily hydrolyze various lactones and exhibit latent phosphotriesterase activities. These enzymes serve as attractive templates for in vitro evolution of neurotoxic organophosphates (OPs) with hydrolytic capabilities that can be used as bioremediation tools. Here, a thermostable PLL from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) was targeted for joint laboratory evolution with the aim of enhancing its catalytic efficiency against OP pesticides. By a combination of site saturation mutagenesis and whole-gene error-prone PCR approaches, several improved variants were isolated. The most active variant, 26A8C, accumulated eight amino acid substitutions and demonstrated a 232-fold improvement over the wild-type enzyme in reactivity (k(cat)/K(m)) for the OP pesticide ethyl-paraoxon. Concomitantly, this variant showed a 767-fold decrease in lactonase activity with delta-decanolactone, imparting a specificity switch of 1.8 x 10(5)-fold. 26A8C also exhibited high hydrolytic activities (19- to 497-fold) for several OP pesticides, including parathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos. Analysis of the mutagenesis sites on the GkaP structure revealed that most mutations are located in loop 8, which determines substrate specificity in the amidohydrolase superfamily. Molecular dynamics simulation shed light on why 26A8C lost its native lactonase activity and improved the promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity. These results permit us to obtain further insights into the divergent evolution of promiscuous enzymes and suggest that laboratory evolution of GkaP may lead to potential biological solutions for the efficient decontamination of neurotoxic OP compounds.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 999SX

1597. Zhang, Y.; Liu, C. Z.; Li, X. J.; Wang, Z. L.; Zhang, H. T., and Miao, Z. G. Structures and energies of the radicals and anions generated from chlorpyrifos. 2010; 16, (8): 1369-1376.

Rec #: 72989
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The radicals and anions generated from chlorpyrifos by removing a hydrogen atom have been investigated using the hybrid density functional B3PW91 method. The results show that all the radicals have been classified as three groups and their stability order is methylene (radical 1, 3, 5, and 7) > methyl (radical 9, 11 and 13) > ring (15); the anions have the relative energetic order: methyl > methylene > ring. Moreover, some decomposition reactions are also reported. The large HOMO-LUMO gaps indicate that both radicals and anions are predicted to be high-kinetic stable molecules. We also find that radicals 9, 11 and 13 have the highest AEAs and anions 2, 4 and 6 have higher VDEs. Additionally, natural population analysis charges show that there is the lowest Delta q (0.14) for the C7 and C9 atoms. We hope that our theoretical results may provide a reference for further experiment and practical application.
Keywords: Adiabatic electron affinity, Chlorpyrifos, Density functional theory,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 631KM

1598. Zhang, Y.; Xiao, Z.; Chen, F.; Ge, Y.; Wu, J., and Hu, X. Degradation Behavior and Products of Malathion and Chlorpyrifos Spiked in Apple Juice by Ultrasonic Treatment.

Rec #: 77699
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Apple juice (13 degrees Brix) spiked with malathion and chlorpyrifos (2-3 mg l(-1) of each compound) was treated under different ultrasonic irradiations. Results showed that ultrasonic treatment was effective for the degradation of malathion and chlorpyrifos in apple juice, and the output power and treatment time significantly influenced the degradation of both pesticides (p < 0.05). The maximum degradations were achieved for malathion (41.7%) and chlorpyrifos (82.0%) after the ultrasonic treatment at 500 W for 120 min. The degradation kinetics of both pesticides were fitted to the first-order kinetics model well (R(2)>or=0.90). The kinetics parameters indicated that chlorpyrifos was much more labile to ultrasonic treatment than malathion. Furthermore, malaoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon were identified as the degradation products of malathion and chlorpyrifos by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The oxidation pathway through the hydroxyl radical attack on the P=S bond of pesticide molecules was proposed.
MESH HEADINGS: Beverages/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/*chemistry/*radiation effects
MESH HEADINGS: Food Contamination/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Malathion/*chemistry/*radiation effects
MESH HEADINGS: Malus/*chemistry/*radiation effects eng

1599. Zhang, Y. D.; Cai, Y. N.; Li, L.; Qian, Y. X., and Lu, L. High-throughput biosensing of neurotoxic insecticides using polystyrene microplate-immobilized acetylcholinesterase. 2012; 4, (11): 3830-3835.

Rec #: 72999
Keywords: METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition-based biosensors can be used as a screening test for neurotoxic insecticides. A high-throughput AChE inhibition assay was developed via AChE immobilized on a microplate using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reader. The presence of insecticide was confirmed by reactivation of the inhibited AChE immobilized on the microplate. The polystyrene (PS) surface of the microplates was first modified with amine groups. The aminated 96-well microplate was modified further with chitosan to generate more amine groups. Thus, AChE could be covalently immobilized onto the aminated microplate via cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The activity of the immobilized AChE upon surface modification with chitosan was 12-fold higher than without spacer molecules. The activity of the immobilized AChE was measured before and after incubation with test samples to calculate the inhibition rate. The calibration curves showed a linear response ranging between 1.0 and 20.0 mu g L(-1) for paraoxon with detection limits (3 sigma) of 0.5 mu g L(-1) in buffer or organic milk. This assay format was applied directly to determine the insecticide in real milk samples with recovery rate 89-108%. The developed microplate assay format could be used as a convenient tool for high-throughput prescreening of insecticides in samples to increase the number of tested samples and ensure consumer safety.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 026MA

1600. Zhang, Yuanyuan; Hou, Yaxi; Chen, Fang; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jianing; Hu, Xiaosong, and Zhang, Yuanyuan. The Degradation of Chlorpyrifos and Diazinon in Aqueous Solution by Ultrasonic Irradiation: Effect of Parameters and Degradation Pathway. 2011 Feb; 82, (8): 1109-1115.

Rec #: 39989
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Results showed that chlorpyrifos and diazinon could be effectively and rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, and the degradation of both pesticides was strongly influenced by ultrasonic power, temperature and pH value. Furthermore, two and seven products for the degradation of chlorpyrifos and diazinon formed during ultrasonic irradiation have been identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. The hydrolysis, oxidation, hydroxylation, dehydration and decarboxylation were deduced to contribute to the degradation reaction and the degradation pathway for each pesticide under ultrasonic irradiation was proposed. Finally, the toxicity evaluation indicated that the toxicity decreased for diazinon solution after ultrasonic irradiation, but it increased for chlorpyrifos solution. The detoxification of OPPs by ultrasonic irradiation was discriminative.
Keywords: Detoxification
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Hydrolysis
Keywords: Light effects
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Ultrasonics
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; ASFA 2: Ocean Technology Policy & Non-Living Resources; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Irradiation
Keywords: Q2 02405:Oil and gas
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: pH
Keywords: Decarboxylation
Keywords: Dehydration
Keywords: Abiotic factors
Date revised - 2011-04-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1109-1115
ProQuest ID - 860380869
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Detoxification; Ultrasonics; Pesticides; Toxicity; Hydrolysis; Decarboxylation; Light effects; Abiotic factors; Dehydration; Chlorpyrifos; Degradation; Irradiation; Diazinon; pH
Last updated - 2012-09-10
British nursing index edition - Chemosphere [Chemosphere]. Vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 1109-1115. Feb 2011.
Corporate institution author - Zhang, Yuanyuan; Hou, Yaxi; Chen, Fang; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jianing; Hu, Xiaosong
DOI - 0530ff95-8420-4cf6-958fcsamfg201; 14363641; CS1130056; 0045-6535 English

1601. Zhang, Yueliang; Wang, Lihua; Guo, Huifang; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Zhichun; Xie, Lin, and Fang, Jichao. A transcriptome-based screen of carboxylesterase-like genes that are involved in chlorpyrifos resistance in Laodelphax striatellus (Fall+_n). 2012 Nov; 104, (3): 224-228.

Rec #: 1010
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Carboxylesterase (CarE)-mediated detoxification is one of the most important mediators of resistance to organophosphate insecticides (OPs). However, the molecular mechanisms by which CarEs mediate OP resistance are largely unknown. Our previous studies indicated that increased CarE activity was critical for chlorpyrifos (an OP) resistance in Laodelphax striatellus. In this study, 28 CarE and CarE-like genes (CarEs) were identified in the transcriptome of L. striatellus. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to assess the relative expression of these 28 CarEs. Compared with the susceptible (YN) strain, Ls.CarE1 and Ls.CarE2 were significantly overexpressed in the chlorpyrifos-resistant (YN-CPF) strain by 32.06- and 8.52-fold, respectively. The expression levels of Ls.CarE1 and Ls.CarE2 were analyzed by qPCR to verify the correlation between overexpressed CarEs in the YN-CPF strain and chlorpyrifos resistance. Chlorpyrifos bioassays and CarE activity assays were subsequently performed on the chlorpyrifos relaxed selection (YN-RSF) strain. The results demonstrated that CarE activity was significantly higher in the YN-CPF and YN-RSF strains (4.15- and 1.92-fold, respectively) than in the YN strain, which was consistent with their respective degrees of chlorpyrifos resistance (214.0-fold for YN-CPF and 83.3-fold for YN-RSF). Ls.CarE1 was significantly overexpressed in both the YN-CPF and the YN-RSF strains (32.06-fold for YN-CPF and 8.6-fold for YN-RSF) compared with the YN strain, and a high degree of proportionality was observed between the expression level of Ls.CarE1 and the degree of resistance to chlorpyrifos across the three strains. However, the expression level of Ls.CarE2 in the YN-RSF and the YN strains was not significantly different. These data suggest that overexpressed Ls.CarE1 might be involved in chlorpyrifos resistance in the YN-CPF strain of L. striatellus. Laodelphax striatellus/ Carboxylesterase/ Chlorpyrifos/ Metabolic resistance

1602. Zhang, Z. Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Wang, D. L.; Zhang, C. Z., and Liu, X. J. Uptake and Translocation of Chlorpyrifos in Two Leafy Vegetables. Institute of Food Safety, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China, Journal of Agro-Environment Science//: SOIL; 2010; 29, (3): 426-430(CHI) (ENG ABS).

Rec #: 2670
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1603. Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, C. Z.; Liu, X. J., and Hong, X. Y. Dynamics of Pesticide Residues in the Autumn Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) Grown in Open Fields. SOIL; 2006; 62, (4): 350-355.

Rec #: 1610
Keywords: MIXTURE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,CTN,CYH,CYP,DM,DMT,FNV

1604. Zhao, L.; Teng, S. S., and Liu, Y. P. Characterization of a versatile rhizospheric organism from cucumber identified as Ochrobactrum haematophilum. 2012; 52, (2): 232-244.

Rec #: 73049
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Several rhizobacteria play a vital role in promoting plant growth and protecting plants against fungal diseases and degrading pesticides in the environment. In this study, a bacterial strain, designated H10, was isolated from the rhizosphere at Laixi in Shandong Province, China, and was identified as Ochrobactrum haematophilum based on API 20 NE tests and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The plant growth-promoting characteristics of the strain were further characterized, and the results showed that strain H10 produces siderophore, indol-3-acetic (IAA) and solubilized phosphate but lacks 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Inoculation with the strain was found to significantly increase (p < 0.05) the growth of cucumber in pot experiments. Strain H10 was assessed in vitro for antagonism against several pathogenic fungi and showed high antifungal activity. The cell-free culture filtrates, which had high extracellular chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase and protease activities, could inhibit the growth of all pathogenic fungi tested, indicating that growth suppression was partly due to extracellular antifungal metabolites present in the culture filtrates. Changes in hyphal morphology were observed in phytopathogenic fungi after treatment with the culture filtrates. Additionally, strain H10 was able to degrade 80%, 85% and 58% of the pesticides chlorpyrifos, beta-cypermethrin and imidacloprid, respectively, within 60 h in liquid culture. The inoculation of strain H10 into soil treated with 100 mg kg(-1) of the three pesticides accordingly resulted in a higher degradation rate than in noninoculated soils. These results highlight the potential of this bacterium for use as a biofertilizer and biopesticide and suggest that it may provide an alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture. Additionally, it may represent a bioremediation agent that can remove contaminating chemical pesticide residues from the environment.
Keywords: Ochrobactrum haematophilum, Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR),
ISI Document Delivery No.: 915ZI

1605. ZHAO, Ren-bang; BAO, Hua-ying, and LIU, Yuan-xia. Isolation and Characterization of Penicillium oxalicum ZHJ6 for Biodegradation of Methamidophos. 2010 May; 9, (5): 695-703.

Rec #: 4890
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: One methamidophos-degrading fungus strain, named as ZHJ6, was isolated from the soils contaminated with methamidophos. It was identified as Penicillium oxalicum based on its morphological characteristics and ITS rDNA gene sequence analysis. The effects of carbon source, nitrogen source and the concentration of methamidophos, temperature and pH on the degradation were investigated. The results showed that the strain could use glucose as carbon source and the methamidophos as sole nitrogen source. The degradation ratio of methamidophos, when the initial concentration was 1.0 +ů 10ęĆ3 mg mLęĆ1, could reach above 99.9% in 12 incubation days. The strain could use ethanol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, starch, and dextrin as its carbon and energy source to degrade the methamidophos. The favorable degrading condition of the strain ZHJ6 was in a mineral salt medium at pH 5.0 and 25-_C with 1% glucose, and further studies showed that the strain could degrade folimat, phoxim and glyphosate with glucose as carbon source, but could not degrade chlorpyrifos, phosdrin, trichlorphon, and dichlorvos. fungus/ biodegradation/ methamidophos/ Penicillium oxalicum/ pesticide/ remediation

1606. Zhao, W-T; Yang, Z-H; Wei, Z-J; Zhao, J-Z, and Zhao, W-T. Dispersed Liquid Phase Microextraction Determination of Phosphorus, Sulfur Destroyed Line Malachy Phosphorus and Chlorpyrifos Residue. 2010 Sep 20; 29, (9): 1840-1844.

Rec #: 40349
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A rapid and sensitive method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) has been successfully applied to the determination of organphosphorus pesticides residues (OPPs) in apples. The factors that influenced the extraction were optimized in the experiment. The optimum conditions: 5.0 mL apple sample was placed in 10.0 mL centrifuge tube, then the mixture of 1.5 mL acetone (disperser) and 30 mu L l, 2-dichlorobenzene (extracter) was injected into the sample solution rapidly. Vibrate for 1 minute then centrifuge at the rate of 3 500 r times min super(-1) for 5 minutes, the extract phase was sedimented at the bottom of the centrifuge tube, transfer 1 mu L to GC system for analysis. Under the optimum condition, based on signal-to-noise ratio(S/N)of 3, limits of detection ranged form 1.32 to 3.58 mu g times mL super(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD, n=3) were between 11.06% and 15.39%. Correlation coefficients varied from 0.977 3 to 0.997 6. The developed method was successfully applied in the analysis of apple samples. In order to evaluate the matrix effects of the samples, organophosphorus pesticide was added to the apples by using three different concentrations. The recoveries were ranged from 64.0% to 89.0%, and no matrix effect was observed. The results showed that the method was comparatively simple, fast and effective.
Keywords: Sulfur
Keywords: Correlation Coefficient
Keywords: acetone
Keywords: Apples
Keywords: Residues
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Phosphorus
Keywords: Water Resources Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Pesticide Residues
Keywords: Tubes
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Organophosphorus Pesticides
Keywords: Standard Deviation
Keywords: Pesticides
Date revised - 2011-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1840-1844
ProQuest ID - 839698169
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Sulfur; acetone; Residues; Pesticide residues; Pesticides; Phosphorus; Correlation Coefficient; Organophosphorus Pesticides; Standard Deviation; Apples; Pesticide Residues; Tubes
Last updated - 2012-09-24
British nursing index edition - Journal of Agro-Environment Science [J. Agro-Environ. Sci.]. Vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1840-1844. 20 Sep 2010.
Corporate institution author - Zhao, W-T; Yang, Z-H; Wei, Z-J; Zhao, J-Z
DOI - MD-0015179011; 14091941; 1672-2043 English

1607. Zhao, Wei-jun; Sun, Xiao-ke; Deng, Xiao-ni; Huang, Lin ; Yang, Ming-min, and Zhou, Zhi-ming. Cloud point extraction coupled with ultrasonic-assisted back-extraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in concentrated fruit juice by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. 2011 Jul 15-; 127, (2): 683-688.

Rec #: 4150
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: A new method for the determination of nine organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs): Dichlorvos, methamidophos, acephate, diazinon, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl, malathion and parathion-ethyl in concentrated fruit juice was developed using the cloud point extraction coupled with ultrasonic-assisted back-extraction prior to gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) analysis. The parameters and variables that affect the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions: a solution containing 6% (W/V) polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) and 20% (W/V) Na2SO4 for the extraction of the OPPs. The coacervation phase obtained was back extracted with ethyl acetate. The upper ethyl acetate solution was centrifugated simply for further cleanup for the sake of automatic injection. A preconcentration factor of 50 was obtained for these nine pesticides. Using this method, the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.5Çô3.0 and 1.5Çô9.0 ++g kgęĆ1 in concentrated fruit juice, respectively; the relative standard deviations (RSD) were <9%. Cloud point extraction (CPE)/ Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs)/ Ultrasonic-assisted back-extraction/ Gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD)/ Concentrated fruit juice

1608. Zhong, G. C.; Xie, Z. Y.; Cai, M. H.; Moller, A.; Sturm, R.; Tang, J. H.; Zhang, G.; He, J. F., and Ebinghaus, R. Distribution and Air-Sea Exchange of Current-Use Pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the High Arctic Ocean. 2012; 46, (1): 259-267.

Rec #: 73099
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5 degrees N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1 degrees N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from Keywords: PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES, ATMOSPHERIC
ISI Document Delivery No.: 871UJ

1609. Zhong, G. C.; Xie, Z. Y.; Moller, A.; Halsall, C.; Caba, A.; Sturm, R.; Tang, J. H.; Zhang, G., and Ebinghaus, R. Currently used pesticides, hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexanes in the air and seawater of the German Bight (North Sea). 2012; 9, (4): 405-414.

Rec #: 73109
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Surface seawater and air samples collected from the German Bight (North Sea) in March, May and July 2010 were analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), five currently used pesticides (CUPs) (trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, dacthal and quintozene) and pentachloroanisole (metabolite). Volatilisation from local surfaces was considered to be the main source of these chemicals to the air (excluding trifluralin). Long-range transport from Western Europe partly contributed to the higher air concentrations observed in July whereas riverine input was the main source for HCHs and pentachloroanisole in seawater in March. Air-sea gas exchange of HCB and alpha-HCH in the German Bight was found to be near equilibrium, probably reflecting the past use of these chemicals, their wide dispersal in the environment and lack of contemporary use. Deposition of target compounds from the air to seawater was observed to be much higher in July compared with depositional fluxes for March and May, except for chlorpyrifos (with volatilisation fluxes in all sampling periods: similar to 25 ngm (2) day (1)). Concentrations of trifluralin in seawater appear to have decreased since its restriction of use in European Union member states, with net volatilisation from seawater observed in March (flux: 6.3 +/- 7.2 ng m(-2) day(-1)). With the exception of chlorpyrifos, our results indicate that volatilisation from local sources combined with long-range transport from Western Europe and subsequent deposition are important pathways for these compounds to German Bight seawater during summer periods.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 990ZD

1610. Zhou, J.; Yu, Q., and Zou, T. Alternative Splicing of Exon 10 in the Tau Gene as a Target for Treatment of Tauopathies.

Rec #: 51039
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Tau aggregation is one of the major features in Alzheimer's disease and in several other tauopathies, including frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). More than 35 mutations in the tau gene have been identified from FTDP-17 patients. A group of these mutations alters splicing of exon 10, resulting in an increase in exon 10 inclusion into tau mRNA. Abnormal splicing with inclusion of exon 10 into tau mRNA has also been observed in PSP and AD patients. These results indicate that abnormal splicing of exon 10, leading to the production of tau with exon 10, is probably one of the mechanisms by which tau accumulates and aggregates in tauopathic brains. Therefore, modulation of exon 10 splicing in the tau gene could potentially be targeted to prevent tauopathies. To identify small molecules or compounds that could potentially be developed into drugs to treat tauopathies, we established a cell-based high-throughput screening assay. In this review, we will discuss how realistic, specific biological molecules can be found to regulate exon 10 splicing in the tau gene for potential treatment of tauopathies.
MESH HEADINGS: Alternative Splicing/drug effects/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy/genetics/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Dementia/drug therapy/genetics/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Exons/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Oligoribonucleotides, Antisense/genetics/therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Tauopathies/drug therapy/*genetics/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: tau Proteins/*genetics eng

1611. Zhou, S. P.; Duan, C. Q.; Fu, H.; Chen, Y. H.; Wang, X. H., and Yu, Z. F. Toxicity assessment for chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods (vol 18, pg 854, 2007). 2007; 19, (8): 1019-1019.

Rec #: 73149
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ISI Document Delivery No.: 200AP

1612. Zhou, Y. J.; Xiang, B. R.; Wang, Z. W., and Chen, C. Y. Determination of Chlorpyrifos Residue by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in White Radish Based on Interval Partial Least Square (iPLS) Model. 2009; 42, (10): 1518-1526.

Rec #: 73199
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This article presents a multivariate method of rapidly determining chlopyrifos residue in white radish, based on near-infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) regression. Interval PLS (iPLS) was utilized to select the optimum wave number range. The number of PLS components and the number of intervals were optimized according to root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R) in prediction set. The result showed that the iPLS model was more reliable than the full model and that near-infrared spectroscopy with iPLS algorithm could be used successfully to analyze chlorpyrifos residue in white radish.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos residue, interval partial least square (iPLS),
ISI Document Delivery No.: 460PR

1613. Zhu, H. J. and Markowitz, J. S. Activation of the Antiviral Prodrug Oseltamivir Is Impaired by Two Newly Identified Carboxylesterase 1 Variants. 2009; 37, (2): 264-267.

Rec #: 73209
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Oseltamivir phosphate is an ethyl ester prodrug widely used in the treatment and prevention of both Influenzavirus A and B infections. The conversion of oseltamivir to its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate is dependent on ester hydrolysis mediated by carboxylesterase 1 (CES1). We recently identified two functional CES1 variants p. Gly143Glu and p. Asp260fs in a research subject who displayed significant impairment in his ability to metabolize the selective CES1 substrate, methylphenidate. In vitro functional studies demonstrated that the presence of either of the two mutations can result in severe reductions in the catalytic efficiency of CES1 toward methylphenidate, which is required for hydrolysis and pharmacological deactivation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of these mutations on activating (hydrolyzing) oseltamivir to oseltamivir carboxylate using the cell lines expressing wild type (WT) and each mutant CES1. In vitro incubation studies demonstrated that the S9 fractions prepared from the cells transfected with WT CES1 and human liver tissues rapidly convert oseltamivir to oseltamivir carboxylate. However, the catalytic activity of the mutant hydrolases was dramatically hindered. The V(max) value of p. Gly143Glu was approximately 25% of that of WT enzyme, whereas the catalytic activity of p. Asp260fs was negligible. These results suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of oseltamivir could be compromised in treated patients expressing either functional CES1 mutation. Furthermore, the potential for increased adverse effects or toxicity as a result of exposure to high concentrations of the nonhydrolyzed prodrug should be considered.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 396WV

1614. Zhu, J; Zhao, Y; Qiu, J, and Zhu, J. Isolation and Utilization of a Chlorpyrifos-Degrading Bacterium, Pseudomonas Fluorescens Zhu-6. 2011; 20, (4): 962-968.

Rec #: 40109
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: For the purpose of eliminating chlorpyrifos residue in soil or water, a strain ZHU-6 capable of utilizing chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon sources was isolated from soil. ZHU-6 was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens based on Biolog Microbial Identification System and analysis of morphology, physiological and biochemical characters. The degradation rate of chlorpyrifos (100 mg L super(-1)) by ZHU-6 was at 99.9% in nutrient broth medium within 72 h, and this maybe imply that ZHU-6 held enormous capability of degrading chlorpyrifos. The growth of ZHU-6 was not interfered by 400 mg L super(-1) of chlorpyrifos and showed a high tolerance to chlorpyrifos. Bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil by using ZHU-6 was examined, and ZHU-6 addition to soil treated with 100 mg kg super(-1) chlorpyrifos resulted in a higher degradation rate than noninoculated soils. In addition, it was actualized to develop a new microbial preparation for dealing with chlorpyrifos pollution. The microbial preparation (soil amendment) added by strain ZHU-6 has developed a new function for degrading chlorpyrifos residue in soil, and the negative effect were not detected. Therefore, it was considered that ZHU-6 could be applied for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos pollution and development of microbial preparation. This study may provide theoretic basis and reference for prevention and control of pesticides pollution.
Keywords: Bacteria
Keywords: Bioremediation
Keywords: Residues
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: Biochemistry
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: Pseudomonas fluorescens
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: soil amendment
Keywords: prevention
Keywords: Water Resources Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Date revised - 2011-07-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 962-968
ProQuest ID - 886234470
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Soil; Chlorpyrifos; Bioremediation; Biochemistry; Degradation; Residues; Pesticides; prevention; soil amendment; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Bacteria
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Zhu, J; Zhao, Y; Qiu, J
DOI - OB-MD-0016020681; 14806222; 1018-4619 English

1615. Zhu, L. J.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, J. C.; Zai, D. X., and Zhao, R. [Thermodynamics Adsorption and Its Influencing Factors of Chlorpyrifos and Triazophos on the Bentonite and Humus].

Rec #: 76309
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite and humus was investigated by using the equilibrium oscillometry. The adsorption capacity of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on humus was great higher than bentonite at the same concentration. Equilibrium data of Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms showed significant relationship to the adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on humus (chlorpyrifos: R2 0.996 4, 0.996 3; triazophos: R2 0.998 9, 0.992 4). Langmuir isotherm was the best for chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite (chlorpyrifos: R2 = 0.995 7, triazophos: R2 = 0.998 9). The pH value, adsorption equilibrium time and temperature were the main factors affecting adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite and humus. The adsorption equilibrium time on mixed adsorbent was 12h for chlorpyrifos and 6h for triazophos respectively. The mass ratio of humus and bentonite was 12% and 14% respectively, the adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos was the stronglest and tended to saturation. At different temperatures by calculating the thermodynamic parameters deltaG, deltaH and deltaS, confirmed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous exothermic process theoretically. The adsorption was the best when the pH value was 6.0 and the temperature was 15 degrees C.
MESH HEADINGS: Bentonite/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/chemistry/*isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification
MESH HEADINGS: Environmental Pollutants/chemistry/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification
MESH HEADINGS: Humic Substances/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Organothiophosphates/chemistry/*isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification
MESH HEADINGS: *Thermodynamics
MESH HEADINGS: Triazoles/chemistry/*isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification chi

1616. Zhu, Qing; Cao, Wei; Gao, Hui; Chen, Ni; Wang, Bini, and Yu, Shifeng. Effects of the processing steps on chlorpyrifos levels during honey production. 2010 Nov; 21, (11): 1497-1499.

Rec #: 200
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The effects of different steps in honey production on chlorpyrifos levels were investigated. Chlorpyrifos residues were quantified by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) after each stage including preheating, filtration, vacuum concentration and pasteurization. The total loss of chlorpyrifos in honey was about 70% during the processing. Among these four stages, filtration and vacuum concentration had the significant effects on chlorpyrifos level, and the mean losses were 21.3 and 60.9, respectively. Honey/ Chlorpyrifos/ Processing

1617. Zhuang, H. M.; Wang, K. F.; Miyata, T.; Wu, Z. J.; Wu, G., and Xie, L. H. Identification and expression of caspase-1 gene under heat stress in insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). 2011; 38, (4): 2529-2539.

Rec #: 73239
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A caspase gene in Plutella xylostella (DBM) was identified firstly and named Px-caspase-1. It had a full-length of 1172 bp and contained 900 bp open reading frame that encoded 300 amino acids with 33.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid of Px-caspase-1 had two domain profile including caspase_p20 (position 61-184) and caspase_p10 (position 203-298) (i.e. the big and small catalytic domains), and the highly conserved pentapeptide QACQG in caspase_p20 domain (the recognized catalytic site of caspases). Being highly homologous to effector caspase genes in other insect and mammalian species, Px-caspase-1 was thought to be an effector caspase gene. Heat stress could result in significant mortality increase on adult DBM. Px-caspase-1 mRNA expression and caspase-3 enzyme activity (a effector caspase) were elevated with age and heat treatment. And, heat stress facilitated the procession of Px-caspase-1 expression. Significantly higher mRNA transcription levels were found in a chlorpyrifos-resistant DBM strain, as compared to those in insecticide-susceptible DBM. The results indicated that high temperature could significantly promote apoptosis process resulting in an the increased DBM mortality rate, and that insecticide-susceptible DBM had a significantly higher physiological fitness at high temperatures than insecticide-resistant DBM.
Keywords: Px-caspase-1, Plutella xylostella, QPCR expression, Caspase-3 activity,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 746OR

1618. Zimmerman, L. R.; Thurman, E. M., and Bastian, K. C. Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using Semipermeable Membrane Devices. 2000; 248, (2-3): 169-179.

Rec #: 1620
Keywords: FATE
Call Number: NO FATE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1619. Zioris, I. V.; Lambropoulou, D. A.; Danis, T. G.; Karagiozoglou, D. T., and Albanis, T. A. Assessment of pesticide residues in fresh peach samples produced under integrated crop management in an agricultural region of northern Greece. 2009; 26, (9): 1256-1264.

Rec #: 73249
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A multi-residue method using selected ion monitoring mode GC/MS has been developed for the quantitative analysis of residue levels of 23 widely used pesticides in fresh peaches produced under integrated crop management process (ICM). The proposed methodology involved a sample extraction procedure using liquid-liquid partition with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up step based on solid-phase extraction (SPE). Fortification studies were performed at different concentration levels for various types of peaches that differ in properties, such as appearance, flavor and pit. The data showed that the different peach matrices had no significant effect on recoveries. Recoveries were greater than 80% for most of the pesticides with a RSD below 18%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range 0.002-0.050 mg kg-1, depending on the compound. To assess method performance with real samples and determine whether pesticide concentrations in peaches exceed their maximum residue levels (MRLs), the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of 104 fruit samples collected under integrated pest management (IPM) production during the 2006 cultivation period. Residues detected were lower than those established by legislation for all pesticides, except diazinon, where one positive sample was detected at a level of 0.03 mg kg-1.
Keywords: chromatography, GC, MS, extraction, risk assessment, pesticide residues,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 485DT

1620. Zioris, Ioannis; Petridis, Nikolaos; Lambropoulou, Dimitra; Raftopoulos, Christos; Albanis, Triantafyllos, and Zioris, Ioannis. Occurrence of Pesticides in Rainwater Samples in the Rivers Axios, Loudias and Alikmonas Estuaries, (N. Greece) by Spe and Liquid Chromatography (Lc-Ms/Ms). 2011 Sep.

Rec #: 47149
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The river basins of Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas estuaries (central Macedonia, northern Greece) is one of the most developed agricultural areas of the country and receives annually a heavy load of numerous pesticides. In this area, the crop rotation schemes usually include high prices crops and very rare crops of low pesticide input. The occurrence of pesticide residues in most surface aquatic systems of the basin triggered the investigation of the presence of pesticides in rainwater of the basin. Thirty five (35) samples were collected, in seven rainwater collectors for four sampling stations of rivers basin during the period May to September of 2009. Isolation of the pesticides from the rainwater samples (100 mL) was performed off-line using a standard six-port SPE and SDB-RPS extractions disks. All river water samples were screened for 86 pesticides and chromatographic analyses were performed in a Thermo TSQ Quantum Access MAX triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Recoveries were greater than 80% for most of the pesticides with RSD below 18%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range 0.002-0.050 mu g L super(-1), depending on the compound. Among 86 target pesticides only three pesticides (Dichlorvos, Chlorpyriphos and Methamidophos) were found in 10 rain water samples during two rain events on July of 2009.
Start Page: 1133
End Page: 1140
Keywords: Rivers
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: River Basins
Keywords: Mathematical models
Keywords: SW 5040:Data acquisition
Keywords: Water Analysis
Keywords: Chromatographic techniques
Keywords: Estuaries
Keywords: Water Sampling
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Keywords: River basins
Keywords: Performance assessment
Keywords: Freshwater
Keywords: Crops
Keywords: MED, Greece, Kentriki Makedonia, Imathia, Loudias Estuary
Keywords: Macedonia
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Greece, Kentriki Makedonia, Thessaloniki, Axios Estuary
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Rain
Keywords: Chemical analysis
Keywords: MED, Greece, Kentriki Makedonia, Pieria, Aliakmonas Estuary
Date revised - 2012-07-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Macedonia; MED, Greece, Kentriki Makedonia, Imathia, Loudias Estuary; Greece, Kentriki Makedonia, Thessaloniki, Axios Estuary; MED, Greece, Kentriki Makedonia, Pieria, Aliakmonas Estuary
Pages - 1133-1140
ProQuest ID - 1024664957
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Mathematical models; Chromatographic techniques; Pesticides; River basins; Performance assessment; Rain; Chemical analysis; Rivers; River Basins; Agricultural Chemicals; Water Analysis; Water Sampling; Estuaries; Crops; Macedonia; MED, Greece, Kentriki Makedonia, Imathia, Loudias Estuary; Greece, Kentriki Makedonia, Thessaloniki, Axios Estuary; MED, Greece, Kentriki Makedonia, Pieria, Aliakmonas Estuary; Freshwater
SuppNotes - Physical medium: Printed matter, CD-ROM
Last updated - 2013-01-25
docISBN - 9789607475497
British nursing index edition - Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Rhodes, Greece, 8-10 September 2011. Vol. 2, pp. 1133-1140. Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology [Proc. Int. Conf. Environ. Sci. Technol.]. 2011.
Corporate institution author - Zioris, Ioannis; Petridis, Nikolaos; Lambropoulou, Dimitra; Raftopoulos, Christos; Albanis, Triantafyllos
DOI - MD-0018921584; 16859994; GR1200101; 1106-5516; 9789607475497 English

1621. Zohair, S. ; Khatoon, S., and Zaidi, S. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON 14 PLANT SPECIES UNDER POLLUTED CONDITIONS. 2012; 44, (6): 1977-1982.

Rec #: 73259
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Thirty four specimens of 14 species belonging to Cyperaceae and Poaceae growing in the vicinity of industries, agricultural fields and a combination of both were collected in and around Karachi. The study aimed to find out how the plants are affected by a long-term exposure to a number of pollutants focusing on the meiotic behavior (precocious chromosomes, chromosomal stickening, split spindles, lagging chromosomes), dyads formation and pollen stertility. The percentage of meiotic abnormalities in the specimens from polluted sites was significantly higher as compared to their respective controls. The specimens from polluted localities showed a greater tendency to produce dyads as compared to controls. Voucher specimens of 9 species produced significant number of sterile pollens under polluted condition.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 065RF

1622. Zou, Z. X. ; Du, D.; Wang, J.; Smith, J. N.; Timchalk, C.; Li, Y. Q., and Lin, Y. H. Quantum Dot-Based Immunochromatographic Fluorescent Biosensor for Biomonitoring Trichloropyridinol, a Biomarker of Exposure to Chlorpyrifos. 2010; 82, (12): 5125-5133.

Rec #: 73269
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A novel and portable fluorescent sensor that integrates an immunochromatographic test strip assay (ITSA) with a quantum dot (QD) label and a test strip reader was described in this study for simple, rapid, and sensitive biomonitoring of an organophosphorus pesticide metabolite. The principle of this sensor is based on a competitive immunoreaction that was performed on an immunochromatographic test strip, where analytes compete with competitors (QD-conjugated analogs) to bind to antibodies on a test zone. Captured QDs serve as signal vehicles for fluorescent readout. In this work, 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP) is used as a model analyte to demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor. QD-TCP conjugates were synthesized and characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Some parameters (e.g., the amount of QD-modified TCP and immunoreaction time) that govern sensitivity and reproducibility of ITSA were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the sensor has a wide dynamic range and is capable of detecting a minimum 1.0 ng/mL TCP standard analyte in 15 min. The sensor has been successfully applied for detection of TCP spiked in rat plasma with average recovery of 102.0%. Results demonstrate that this sensor provides a rapid, clinically accurate, and quantitative tool for TCP detection and shows great promise for in-field and point-of-care (POC) quantitative testing and screening for metabolite biomarkers, e.g., TCP, for humans exposed to pesticides.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 608WG

1623. -îolovi-ç, Mirjana B.; Krsti-ç, Danijela Z. ; U+í-çumli-ç, Gordana S., and Vasi-ç, Vesna M. Single and simultaneous exposure of acetylcholinesterase to diazinon, chlorpyrifos and their photodegradation products. 2011 May; 100, (1): 16-22.

Rec #: 910
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: In vitro inhibition of electric eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by single and simultaneous exposure to organophosphorus insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos, and their transformation products, formed due to photoinduced degradation, was investigated. Increasing concentrations of diazinon, chlorpyrifos and their oxidation products, diazoxon and chlorpyrifos-oxon, inhibited AChE in a concentration-dependent manner. IC50 (20 min) values, obtained from the inhibition curves, were (in mol/l): (5.1 -_ 0.3) +ů 10ęĆ8, (4.3 -_ 0.2) +ů 10ęĆ6 and (3.0 -_ 0.1) +ů 10ęĆ8 for diazoxon, chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon, respectively, while maximal diazinon concentration was lower than its IC50 (20 min). Calculated KI values, in mol/l, of 7.9 +ů 10ęĆ7, 9.6 +ů 10ęĆ6 and 4.3 +ů 10ęĆ7 were obtained for diazoxon, chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon, respectively. However, 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol (IMP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, diazinon and chlorpyrifos hydrolysis products, did not noticeably affect the enzyme activity at all investigated concentrations. Additive inhibition effect was achieved for lower concentrations of the inhibitors (diazinon/diazoxon _+1 +ů 10ęĆ4/1 +ů 10ęĆ8 mol/l i.e., chlorpyrifos/chlorpyrifos-oxon _+2 +ů 10ęĆ6/3 +ů 10ęĆ8 mol/l), while an antagonistic effect was obtained for all higher concentrations of the organophosphates. Inhibitory power of 1 +ů 10ęĆ4 mol/l diazinon irradiated samples can be attributed mostly to the formation of diazoxon, while the presence of non-inhibiting photodegradation product IMP did not affect diazinon and diazoxon inhibitory efficiencies. Diazinon/ Chlorpyrifos/ Photodegradation products/ Acetylcholinesterase/ Simultaneous exposure
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