Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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Trichlorfon, an organophosphorus pesticide, can disrupt metabolism, reproduction and immune functions of some aquatic animals. In the present study, the effect of trichlorfon on apoptosis and the underlying apoptotic mechanism were investigated in primary cultures of Carassius auratus gibelio hepatocytes. Analyses of cultures exposed to 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg L(-1) trichlorfon concentrations for 24 h indicated that trichlorfon induced apoptosis and caused nuclear shrinkage, cell membrane rupture, cytoskeletal collapse, loss of cytoplasm, mitochondria vacuolization, and apoptotic body formation, as well as lipid droplet accumulation. Trichlorfon increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde concentrations and caused cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm, leading to caspase-3 activation. These findings contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying trichlorfon-induced apoptosis via activation of mitochondrial pathways while clearly indicating that trichlorfon-induced cell death was via apoptosis accompanied by mitochondrial cytochrome c release and consequent caspase-3 activation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Carassius auratus gibelio hepatocytes, Primary culture,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 522IX

1540. Xu, X. M.; Yu, S.; Li, R.; Fan, J.; Chen, S. H.; Shen, H. T. ; Han, J. L.; Huang, B. F., and Ren, Y. P. Distribution and migration study of pesticides between peel and pulp in grape by online gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 2012; 135, (1): 161-169.


Rec #: 72389
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A multi-residue method for the analysis of 175 pesticides was developed by online gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GPC-GC/MS) to study pesticide distribution and migration between peel and pulp in grape. The separated peel and pulp samples were extracted by ace-tonitrile after fortified with chlorpyrifos-d(10) isotope internal standard. The extract was first purified by solid phase distribution sorbent of primary secondary amine (PSA) and then detected by online GPC-GC/MS. At the spiking levels of 10, 50 and 200 mu g kg(-1), 73.7%, 94.3% and 98.9% of the pesticides, respectively, presented recoveries between 70% and 120%. The ratios were 91.4%, 94.9% and 92.0%, respectively, for the relative standard deviations (RSDs) bellow 15%. Limits of detection (LODs) for the pesticides in pulp were below 10 mu g kg(-1). Pesticides were separated to four groups according to the distribution ratios (peel/whole grape) of 100%, 80-99.9%, 50-80% and 0-50% in peel. Relationship between the pesticide distribution and corresponding regulation of EU maximum residue level (MRL) was discussed. Six factors influencing the pesticides distribution and migration between peel and pulp were discussed. Weak linear correlation between the pesticide solubility in water (20 degrees C) and the distribution ratios (lowest and average) in peel was found for most of the detected pesticides with solubility less than 200 mg L(-1). (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Grape, Peel and pulp, Pesticides, Distribution and migration mechanism,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 971LO

1541. Xu, Y.; Bian, W. J.; Li, S. N., and Zhu, G. N. Acute Toxicity of Five Insecticides to Daphnia magna in Water-Sediment System. Institute of Pesticides and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China,//: 2011; 30, (5): 855-859(CHI) (ENG ABS).


Rec #: 2320
Keywords: NON-ENGLISH
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (BFT,CPY,CYF,FNV,FPN)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: BFT,CPY,CYF,FNV,FPN

1542. Yadav, J L ; Saini, R K, and Yadav, J L. Status of Adoption of Seed Treatment Practice in Wheat Among Farmers of Mahendergarh District of Haryana. 2010 Jun; 28, (2B): 1250-1253.


Rec #: 44089
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Farmers' responses on adoption of seed treatment practice for wheat in different blocks of Mahendergarh district of Haryana were recorded with the help of questionnaire through personal interviews. Farmers in different blocks, namely, Ateli, Mahendergarh, Nangal Chaudhary, Narnaul and Kanina, were questioned on various aspects such as whether they adopted seed treatment with insecticides/fungicides or mixed Azotobactor (for enhancing nitrogen fixation) with seed or not, utility of seed treatment, its economy and effectiveness, source of guidance for it. The results showed that about 85% of the farmers of the district adopted seed treatment practice in wheat Per cent farmers opting for seed treatment with insecticides alone, insecticide + fungicides, and Azotobactor were 92.9, 6.0 and 1.1, respectively. Most of the farmers used the recommended pesticides i.e. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, bavistin and rexil, for treating the seed but at doses higher than recommended. About 99% of the farmers termed seed treatment practice as beneficial, 62.8% as cheap, 31.4% as costly and 93.7% as simple. About 99% of the farmers obtained effective control of the targeted pests/diseases through seed treatment Apart from using their own experience, the farmers sought guidance for seed treatment from three major sources: government agencies associated with agriculture, electronic media and pesticide dealers from where 55.0, 56.6 and 68.8% farmers, sought help. Among different blocks, farmers of Kanina, Narnaul and Ateli had greater awareness about seed treatment over, those of Nangal Chaudhary and Mahendergarh.
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: wheat
Keywords: Inventories
Keywords: Seeds
Keywords: India, Haryana
Keywords: Adoption
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: ENA 06:Food & Drugs
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Seed treatments
Keywords: Triticum aestivum
Keywords: pests
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Nitrogen fixation
Keywords: D 04040:Ecosystem and Ecology Studies
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Fungicides
Keywords: Economics
Keywords: seed treatments
Keywords: Pests
Keywords: Ecology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: A 01400:Soil Microbes
Date revised - 2010-09-01
Language of summary - English
Location - India, Haryana
Pages - 1250-1253
ProQuest ID - 755143212
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Agriculture; Chlorpyrifos; Inventories; Seed treatments; Seeds; Insecticides; Nitrogen fixation; Pesticides; Fungicides; Adoption; Pests; Endosulfan; wheat; pests; Economics; seed treatments; Triticum aestivum; India, Haryana
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Environment and Ecology [Environ. Ecol.]. Vol. 28, no. 2B, pp. 1250-1253. Jun 2010.
Corporate institution author - Yadav, J L; Saini, R K
DOI - MD-0014638454; 13682020; 0970-0420 English

1543. Yan, X.; Shi, H. Y., and Wang, M. H. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the simultaneous determination of parathion and imidacloprid. 2012; 4, (12): 4053-4057.


Rec #: 72459
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A multi-determinant immunogen was prepared by haptens of parathion and imidacloprid conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The broad-specificity polyclonal antibody (BsPAb) was generated by male New Zealand white rabbits immunized with the multi-determinant immunogen. The antibody was screened against six different coating antigens. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) was developed and used for the analysis of parathion and imidacloprid simultaneously. Under the optimized conditions, the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value for parathion and imidacloprid was 0.052 and 1.70 mg L(-1), with a limit of detection (LOD, IC(10)) of 0.0005 and 0.0045 mg L(-1), respectively. There was no obvious cross-reactivity (CR) with most of the neonicotinoids and organophosphorus insecticides, except for imidaclothiz (23.9%) and acetamiprid (6.17%). The recoveries of parathion and imidacloprid in environmental and agricultural samples, including tap water, river water, soil and cabbage, ranged from 87.2% to 117% and 84.4% to 107%, respectively. These results showed that the ic-ELISA can be used as a sensitive tool for detecting parathion and imidacloprid simultaneously in environmental and agricultural samples.
Keywords: MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY, CHLORPYRIFOS-METHYL, SAMPLES, ELISA, FENITROTHION,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 049FH

1544. Yan, X. Y.; Lashley, S.; Smulian, J. C.; Ananth, C. V.; Barr, D. B.; Ledoux, T. A.; Hore, P., and Robson, M. G. Pesticide Concentrations in Matrices Collected in the Perinatal Period in a Population of Pregnant Women and Newborns in New Jersey, USA. 2009; 15, (5): 948-967.


Rec #: 72469
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Gestational exposure to pesticides may adversely affect fetal development and birth outcomes. However, data on fetal exposure and associated health effects in newborns remain sparse. We measured a variety of pesticides and metabolites in maternal urine, maternal serum, cord serum, amniotic fluid, and meconium samples collected at the time of cesarean delivery from 150 women in central New Jersey, USA. Women who used pesticides at home had higher concentrations of pesticides or metabolites in cord serum [e.g., dacthal (p = .007), diethyltoluamide (p = .043), and phthalimide (p = .030)] than those who did not use pesticides, suggesting that residential use of pesticides may contribute to overall exposure as assessed by biomonitoring. Except for orthophenylphenol, the concentrations of most pesticides in biological matrices of this study population were either comparable to or lower than the levels reported in previous studies and in the U.S. general population. The daily exposure estimates of two representative organophosphorus insecticides ( chlorpyrifos and diazinon) were lower than most regulatory protection limits (USEPA oral benchmark dose(10)/100, USEPA reference oral dose, or ATSDR minimal risk levels); however, they were near or at the USEPA's population-adjusted doses for children and women. No abnormal birth outcomes or other clinical endpoints were noted in those newborns who had higher concentrations of orthophenylphenol during the perinatal period.
Keywords: pesticides, urine, blood, amniotic fluid, exposure assessment, pregnant
ISI Document Delivery No.: 512FM

1545. Yan, Xiaoyong and Robson, Mark Gregory. Biomarker Identification and Exposure Assessment of Environmentally Toxic Substances in a Population of Pregnant Women and Newborns. 2009: (UMI# 3379089 ).


Rec #: 51779
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Widespread exposure to environmentally toxic chemicals may adversely affect fetal development and birth outcomes. However, data on prenatal exposure and associated health effects in newborns are very limited. A variety of pesticides, phthalates, and their metabolites were measured in maternal urine, maternal serum, cord serum, amniotic fluid, and meconium samples collected at the time of cesarean delivery from 150 women in central New Jersey. Significantly higher concentrations of dacthal (p=0.007), diethyltoluamide (p=0.043), and phthalimide (p=0.030) in cord serum of pesticide users than non-users suggests that residential use of pesticides may contribute to overall exposure. The concentrations of most pesticides in biological matrices of this study population were either comparable to or lower than the levels reported in previous studies and in the US general population, except for orthophenylphenol. The daily intakes of two representative organophosphorus insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) were lower than most regulatory protection limits (EPA oral benchmark dose 10 /100, EPA reference oral dose, or ATSDR minimal risk levels). The urinary concentrations of most phthalate metabolites were comparable to or lower than the U.S. general population, except for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The median urinary concentrations of mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (109 ÎĽg/L) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (95.1 ÎĽg/L) were more than 5 times their population-based concentrations, while the median urinary concentration of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was over 20 times higher. Calculation of daily phthalate intakes using the urinary biomarker data revealed that none of the pregnant women tested had integrated exposures to DEHP higher than the ATSDR MRLs. High concentrations of DEHP metabolites may indicate a recent exposure to the plastic medical devices containing DEHP in the hospital. However, no abnormal birth outcomes or other adverse clinical reproductive endpoints were noted in those newborns who had higher concentrations of orthophenylphenol and DEHP during the perinatal period. Significantly higher concentrations and detection frequencies in maternal urine than in maternal serum and cord serum suggest that urinary concentrations of the metabolites may be more reliable biomarkers of exposure to the environmental toxicants than the concentrations in other biological specimens.
Start Page: 103
ISSN/ISBN: 9781109456202
Keywords: 0383:Surgery
Keywords: 0380:Medicine
Keywords: 0470:Environmental Health
Keywords: Phthalates
Keywords: Newborns
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: 0383:Toxicology
Keywords: Biomarkers
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Keywords: Environmental toxins
Keywords: Pregnancy
2009
9781109456202
Biomarkers
0383: Toxicology
66569
0383: Surgery
n/a
English
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2009
Pregnancy
0380: Medicine
42791421
1917781031
2010-08-07
Phthalates
Newborns
0470: Environmental Health
Pesticides
304989200
Health and environmental sciences
3379089
Environmental toxins
Yan, Xiaoyong English

1546. Yanai, J.; Brick-Turin, Y.; Dotan, S.; Langford, R.; Pinkas, A., and Slotkin, T. A. A Mechanism-Based Complementary Screening Approach for the Amelioration and Reversal of Neurobehavioral Teratogenicity. 2010; 32, (1): 109-113.


Rec #: 2140
Keywords: MODELING
Call Number: NO MODELING (CPY,NCTN,PCP)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,NCTN,PCP

1547. Yanai, J. and Pinkas, A. Reversal of Chlorpyrifos Neurobehavioral Teratogenicity in Mice by Adult Allographic Subventricular Zone-Derived Neural Stem Cell Transplantation. 2010; 32, (4): 498-(ABS).


Rec #: 2560
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Call Number: NO ABSTRACT (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1548. Yang, C.; Song, C. J.; Mulchandani, A., and Qiao, C. L. Genetic Engineering of Stenotrophomonas Strain YC-1 To Possess a Broader Substrate Range for Organophosphates. 2010; 58, (11 ): 6762-6766.


Rec #: 72499
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In this work, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain YC-1, a native soil bacterium that produces methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH), was genetically engineered to possess a broader substrate range for organophosphates (OPs). A surface anchor system derived from the truncated ice nucleation protein (INPNC) from Pseudomonas syringae was used to target organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) onto the cell surface of strain YC-1, reducing the potential substrate uptake limitation. The surface localization of INPNC OPH was verified by cell fractionation, Western blot, proteinase accessibility, and immunofluorescence microscopy. No growth inhibition was observed for the engineered strain, and suspended cultures retained almost 100% activity over a period of 2 weeks. Concomitant expression of OPH in strain YC-1 resulted in a recombinant strain capable of simultaneously degrading diethyl and dimethyl OPs. A mixture of six OP pesticides (0.2 mM each) could be degraded completely within 5 h. The broader substrate specificity in combination with the rapid degradation rate makes this engineered strain a promising candidate for in situ remediation of OP-contaminated sites.
Keywords: Organophosphate detoxification, organophosphorus hydrolase, methyl
ISI Document Delivery No.: 602OU

1549. Yang, C.; Zhu, Y. R.; Yang, J. J.; Liu, Z.; Qiao, C. L.; Mulchandani, A., and Chen, W. Development of an Autofluorescent Whole-Cell Biocatalyst by Displaying Dual Functional Moieties on Escherichia coli Cell Surfaces and Construction of a Coculture with Organophosphate-Mineralizing Activity. 2008; 74, (24): 7733-7739.


Rec #: 72509
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Surface display of the active proteins on living cells has enormous potential in the degradation of numerous toxic compounds. Here, we report the codisplay of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) on the cell surface of Escherichia coli by use of the truncated ice nucleation protein (INPNC) and Lpp-OmpA fusion systems. The surface localization of both INPNC-OPH and Lpp-OmpA-GFP was demonstrated by Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, and a protease accessibility experiment. Anchorage of GFP and OPH on the outer membrane neither inhibits cell growth nor affects cell viability, as shown by growth kinetics of cells and stability of resting cultures. The engineered E. coli can be applied in the form of a whole-cell biocatalyst and can be tracked by fluorescence during bioremediation. This strategy of codisplay should open a new dimension for the display of multiple functional moieties on the surface of a bacterial cell. Furthermore, a coculture comprised of the engineered E. coli and a natural p-nitrophenol (PNP) degrader, Ochrobactrum sp. strain LL-1, was assembled for complete mineralization of organophosphates (OPs) with a PNP substitution. The coculture degraded OPs as well as PNP rapidly. Therefore, the coculture with autofluorescent and mineralizing activities can potentially be applied for bioremediation of OP-contaminated sites.
Keywords: GREEN-FLUORESCENT PROTEIN, ICE-NUCLEATION PROTEIN, PARATHION HYDROLASE
ISI Document Delivery No.: 381CU

1550. Yang, D; Howard, a; Bruun, D; Ajua-Alemanj, M; Pickart, C; Lein, P J, and Yang, D. Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos-Oxon Inhibit Axonal Growth by Interfering With the Morphogenic Activity of Acetylcholinesterase. 2008 Apr 1; 228, (1): 32-41.


Rec #: 42239
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A primary role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is regulation of cholinergic neurotransmission by hydrolysis of synaptic acetylcholine. In the developing nervous system, however, AChE also functions as a morphogenic factor to promote axonal growth. This raises the question of whether organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) that are known to selectively bind to and inactivate the enzymatic function of AChE also interfere with its morphogenic function to perturb axonogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultures of sensory neurons derived from embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) to chlorpyrifos (CPF) or its oxon metabolite (CPFO). Both OPs significantly decreased axonal length at concentrations that had no effect on cell viability, protein synthesis or the enzymatic activity of AChE. Comparative analyses of the effects of CPF and CPFO on axonal growth in DRG neurons cultured from AChE nullizygous (AChE super(-) super(/) super(-)) versus wild type (AChE super(+) super(/) super(+)) mice indicated that while these OPs inhibited axonal growth in AChE super(+) super( )/ super(+) DRG neurons, they had no effect on axonal growth in AChE super(-) super( )/ super(-) DRG neurons. However, transfection of AChE super(-) super(/) super(-) DRG neurons with cDNA encoding full-length AChE restored the wild type response to the axon inhibitory effects of OPs. These data indicate that inhibition of axonal growth by OPs requires AChE, but the mechanism involves inhibition of the morphogenic rather than enzymatic activity of AChE. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for explaining not only the functional deficits observed in children and animals following developmental exposure to OPs, but also the increased vulnerability of the developing nervous system to OPs.
Keywords: CSA Neurosciences Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Protein biosynthesis
Keywords: Sensory neurons
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: N3 11028:Neuropharmacology & toxicology
Keywords: Dorsal root ganglia
Keywords: Cell culture
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Hydrolysis
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Nervous system
Keywords: Neurotransmission
Keywords: Transfection
Keywords: Axonogenesis
Keywords: Acetylcholine
Keywords: Embryos
Keywords: Enzymatic activity
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Date revised - 2008-07-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 32-41
ProQuest ID - 20718309
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Axonogenesis; Nervous system; Acetylcholinesterase; Chlorpyrifos; Enzymatic activity; Sensory neurons; Transfection; Embryos; Hydrolysis; Metabolites; Cell culture; Acetylcholine; Protein biosynthesis; Children; Dorsal root ganglia; Neurotransmission; Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Last updated - 2011-12-13
British nursing index edition - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.]. Vol. 228, no. 1, pp. 32-41. 1 Apr 2008.
Corporate institution author - Yang, D; Howard, A; Bruun, D; Ajua-Alemanj, M; Pickart, C; Lein, P J
DOI - MD-0008184329; 8254325; 0041-008X English

1551. Yang, G. and Cho, N. H. Development, Validation, and Application of a Portable SPR Biosensor for the Direct Detection of Insecticide Residues. 2008; 17, (5): 1038-1046.


Rec #: 72539
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This Study was carried out to develop a small-sized biosensor based on Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for the rapid identification of insecticide residues for food safety. The SPR biosensor module Consists of a single 770 rim-fight emitting diodes (LED) light source, several optical lenses for transferring light, a hemisphere sensor chip, photo detector, A/D converter, power Source, and software for signal processing using a computer. Except for the computer, the size and weight of the sensor module are 150 (L)x70 (W)x120 (H) mm and 828 g, respectively. Validation and application procedures were designed to assess refractive index analysis, affinity properties, sensitivity, linearity, limits of detection, and robustness which includes an analysis of baseline stability and reproducibility of ligand immobilization using carbamate (carbofuran and carbaryl) and organophosphate (cadusafos, ethoprofos, and chlorpyrifos) insecticide residues. With direct binding analysis, insecticide residues were detected at less than the minimum 0.01 ppm and analyzed in less than 100 sec with a good linear relationship. Based on these results, we find that the binding interaction with active target groups in enzymes using the miniaturized SPR biosensor could detect low concentrations which satisfy, the maximum residue limits for pesticide tolerance in Korea, Japan, and the USA.
Keywords: Surface plasmon resonance, biosensor, insecticide, pesticide, carbamate,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 368WS

1552. Yang, G. and Kang, S. SPR-based antibody-antigen interaction for real time analysis of carbamate pesticide residues. 2008; 17, (1): 15-19.


Rec #: 72549
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This research was conducted to develop a quick and sensitive method of detecting carbamate residues using the immobilization of antibody-antigen interactions with surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We have used commercialized surface plasmon resonance equipment (Biacore 3000). The antibody used for the immunoassay was specific for glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the antigens included several carbamate pesticides (carbofuran, carbaryl, and benfuracarb). When antigens were applied to the protein GST, the detection limit was 2 ng/mL of carbamate pesticide. The fabricated protein GST maintained its activity for over 200 measurements. Thus we determined that the SPR biosensors could detect the specific reversible binding of a reactant in solution to a binding partner immobilized on the surface of the sensor and allow real-time detection and monitoring.
Keywords: biosensor, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), carbamate, pesticide residue
ISI Document Delivery No.: 273IC

1553. Yang, G; Kang, S, and Yang, G. Detection of Multi-Class Pesticide Residues Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Based on Polyclonal Antibody. 2008 Jun; 17, (3): 547-552.


Rec #: 45869
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The detection of carbamate (carbofuran, carbaryl, benfracarb, tbiodicarb, and methomil) and organophosphate (diazinon, cadusafos, ethoprofos, parathion-methyl, and chlorpyrifos) pesticide residues with very low detection limits was carried out using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based equipment The capacity to develop a portable SPR biosensor for food safety was also investigated.
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