Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilums was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 degrees C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 degrees C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pyrethroid, Bifenthrin, Insecticides, Urban pollution, Hyalella azteca
ISI Document Delivery No.: 828HW

1491. Weston, D P; Holmes, R W; Lydy, Mj, and Weston, D P. Residential Runoff as a Source of Pyrethroid Pesticides to Urban Creeks. 2009 Jan; 157, (1): 287.


Rec #: 48909
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Residential runoff as a source of pyrethroid pesticides to urban creeks was studied. Pyrethroid insecticides replaced organophosphates like diazinon and chlorpyrifos for pest control in urban environments. Storm drain outfalls were the primary source of pyrethroids to creeks because the systems lacked any other potential sources and because the highest concentrations were often found in sediments in front of drain outfalls. The results showed that winter flows at the Roseville site, during and shortly after storm events, were typically 30-80 L/s, about 10-fold higher than summer flows. It was concluded that storm water runoff was responsible for greater transport of pyrethroids to urban surface waters than was summer irrigation runoff.
Keywords: PEST CONTROL
Keywords: SEDIMENT
Keywords: SENSITIVITY
Keywords: PYRETHROID PESTICIDES
Keywords: SEASONAL COMPARISONS
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Keywords: STORM RUNOFF
Keywords: TOXICOLOGY
Keywords: ENA 07:General
Keywords: IRRIGATION
Date revised - 2009-08-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 287
ProQuest ID - 14025319
Document feature - |n 6 |t graphs
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - PEST CONTROL; SEDIMENT; SENSITIVITY; PYRETHROID PESTICIDES; SEASONAL COMPARISONS; STORM RUNOFF; TOXICOLOGY; IRRIGATION
Last updated - 2011-12-15
British nursing index edition - Environmental Pollution [Environ. Pollut.]. Vol. 157, no. 1, 287 p. Jan 2009.
Corporate institution author - Weston, D P; Holmes, R W; Lydy, MJ
DOI - 161e63a7-61d4-4b90-be41csamfg301; 10330053; 0269-7491 English

1492. Weston, Donald P.; Ding, Yuping; Zhang, Minghua, and Lydy, Michael J. Identifying the cause of sediment toxicity in agricultural sediments: The role of pyrethroids and nine seldom-measured hydrophobic pesticides. 2013 Jan; 90, (3): 958-964.


Rec #: 5290
Keywords: SEDIMENT CONC
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Few currently used agricultural pesticides are routinely monitored for in the environment. Even if concentrations are known, sediment LC50 values are often lacking for common sediment toxicity testing species. To help fill this data gap, sediments in California ÇÖs Central Valley were tested for nine hydrophobic pesticides seldom analyzed: abamectin, diazinon, dicofol, fenpropathrin, indoxacarb, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, propargite, and pyraclostrobin. Most were detected, but rarely at concentrations acutely toxic to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus dilutus. Only abamectin, fenpropathrin, and methyl parathion were found at concentrations of potential concern, and only in one or two samples. One-quarter of over 100 samples from agriculture-affected waterways exhibited toxicity, and in three-fourths of the toxic samples, pyrethroids exceeded concentrations expected to cause toxicity. The pyrethroid Bi-fen-thrin in particular, as well as lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, permethrin, and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos, were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity, rather than the more novel analytes, despite the fact that much of the sampling targeted areas of greatest use of the novel pesticides. Pesticides/ Agricultural water quality/ Pyrethroids/ Hyalella azteca/ Chironomus dilutus

1493. Weston, Donald P and Jackson, Colin J. Use of Engineered Enzymes to Identify Organophosphate and Pyrethroid-Related Toxicity in Toxicity Identification Evaluations. 2009 Jul 15; 43, (14): 5514-5520.


Rec #: 48409
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Engineered variants of a carboxylesterase from Lucilia cuprina (E3) and a phosphotriesterase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (OpdA) with enhanced hydrolytic activities against pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides were evaluated as a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulation. Reduction in toxicity in the presence of the enzyme provides an indication that the toxicant is the enzyme's target substrate. Carboxy/esterase E3 variants were evaluated to determine if the enzymes could mitigate toxicity of pyrethroids to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca. Enzymes were able to achieve 12-70-fold reduction in toxicity for bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin in water. Only a 2-fold reduction in toxicity was observed with pyrethroid-contaminated sediment though the phosphotriesterase OpdA achieved at least a 35-fold reduction in toxicity from the organophosphate chlorpyrifos in sediment. Tests with urban runoff samples and agriculture-affected sediments demonstrated that the enzymes could be useful in TIEs to identify pesticide-related toxicity. The approach promises to be a useful TIE tool for organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, particularly in a water matrix, and potentially could be used for identification of toxicity attributable to other pesticides.
Keywords: Insecticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Pyrethrins -- toxicity
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical -- toxicity
Keywords: Enzymes -- metabolism
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Enzymes -- chemical synthesis
Keywords: Enzymes -- genetics
Keywords: Environmental Monitoring
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Protein Engineering
Keywords: Pyrethrins
Keywords: Organophosphates -- toxicity
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical
Keywords: Serum Albumin, Bovine
Keywords: Serum Albumin, Bovine -- metabolism
Date completed - 2009-09-22
Date created - 2009-08-27
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 5514-5520
ProQuest ID - 67612945
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Environmental science & technology, July 15, 2009, 43(14):5514-5520
Corporate institution author - Weston, Donald P; Jackson, Colin J
DOI - MEDL-19708390; 19708390; 0013-936X eng

1494. Weston, Donald P and Lydy, Michael J. Focused Toxicity Identification Evaluations to Rapidly Identify the Cause of Toxicity in Environmental Samples. 2010 Jan; 78, (4): 368-374.


Rec #: 44279
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Over the past 5 years numerous toxicity studies in California using the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, have reported that pyrethroid insecticides, and less frequently the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, have been responsible for observed toxicity. As work continues to characterize and mitigate these water quality impacts, an approach is needed to screen samples exhibiting toxicity quickly and cost-effectively to establish if these same substances are again responsible, or if other, more atypical toxicants are responsible. Causality is often determined by a standard toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), but when there is strong historical evidence of a likely toxicant, we propose use of a focused TIE procedure to screen samples using manipulations specifically designed to identify pyrethroid- or chlorpyrifos-related toxicity. The focused tests use reduced temperature, piperonyl butoxide addition, and engineered enzymes specifically designed to hydrolyze certain pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides. The target compounds exhibit unique response profiles to this battery of manipulations, distinct from each other and other non-insecticides. When used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data, the focused approach was successful in identifying cause of toxicity in a variety of urban and agricultural settings. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Geologic Sediments -- chemistry
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Soil Pollutants -- toxicity
Keywords: Pyrethrins -- toxicity
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical -- toxicity
Keywords: Population Dynamics
Keywords: California
Keywords: Soil Pollutants
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: 51-03-6
Keywords: Water Pollutants, Chemical
Keywords: Piperonyl Butoxide
Keywords: Insecticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Industrial Waste -- adverse effects
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants -- toxicity
Keywords: Temperature
Keywords: Amphipoda -- drug effects
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Industrial Waste
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Pyrethrins
Keywords: Piperonyl Butoxide -- toxicity
Keywords: Industrial Waste -- analysis
Keywords: Environmental Monitoring -- methods
Date completed - 2010-05-06
Date created - 2010-01-29
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 368-374
ProQuest ID - 733949372
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Chemosphere, January 2010, 78(4):368-374
Corporate institution author - Weston, Donald P; Lydy, Michael J
DOI - MEDL-20018342; 20018342; 1879-1298 eng

1495. Weston, Donald P; Lydy, Michael J, and Weston, Donald P. Urban and Agricultural Sources of Pyrethroid Insecticides to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. 2010 Feb 2; 44, (5): 1833-1840.


Rec #: 44219
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: While studies have documented the presence of pyrethroid insecticides at acutely toxic concentrations in sediments, little quantitative data on sources exist. Urban runoff, municipal wastewater treatment plants and agricultural drains in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta were sampled to understand their importance as contributors of these pesticides to surface waters. Nearly all residential runoff samples were toxic to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and contained pyrethroids at concentrations exceeding acutely toxic thresholds, in many cases by 10-fold. Toxicity identification evaluation data were consistent with pyrethroids, particularly bifenthrin and cyfluthrin, as the cause of toxicity. Pyrethroids passed through secondary treatment systems at municipal wastewater treatment facilities and were commonly found in the final effluent, usually near H. azteca 96-h EC50 thresholds. Agricultural discharges in the study area only occasionally contained pyrethroids and were also occasional sources of toxicity related to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos. Discharge of the pyrethroid bifenthrin via urban stormwater runoff was sufficient to cause water column toxicity in two urban creeks, over at least a 30 km reach of the American River, and at one site in the San Joaquin River, though not in the Sacramento River.
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: acute toxicity
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Deltas
Keywords: Freshwater
Keywords: Toxicity tests
Keywords: Wastewater treatment
Keywords: Sewage disposal
Keywords: Urban runoff
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Stormwater runoff
Keywords: USA, California, San Joaquin R.
Keywords: deltas
Keywords: USA, California, Sacramento R.
Keywords: Municipal wastes
Keywords: Pyrethroids
Keywords: Agricultural runoff
Keywords: Urban areas
Keywords: Secondary treatment
Keywords: Rivers
Keywords: Wastewater Facilities
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: ENA 05:Environmental Design & Urban Ecology
Keywords: INE, USA, California, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta
Keywords: River discharge
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: Brackish
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Effluents
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: Hyalella azteca
Keywords: USA, California, American R.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Municipal Wastewater
Keywords: Water Pollution Effects
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: water column
Keywords: Urban Runoff
Keywords: Wastewater Treatment
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Water Resources Abstracts
Date revised - 2010-08-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, California, American R.; USA, California, San Joaquin R.; USA, California, Sacramento R.; INE, USA, California, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta
Pages - 1833-1840
ProQuest ID - 754544539
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sewage disposal; Insecticides; Pesticides; River discharge; Deltas; Toxicity; Agricultural runoff; Wastewater treatment; Toxicity tests; acute toxicity; Organophosphates; Surface water; Effluents; Sediments; Urban runoff; Chlorpyrifos; Stormwater runoff; deltas; water column; Municipal wastes; Pyrethroids; Urban areas; Secondary treatment; Rivers; Wastewater Facilities; Municipal Wastewater; Agricultural Chemicals; Water Pollution Effects; Urban Runoff; Wastewater Treatment; Hyalella azteca; USA, California, American R.; USA, California, San Joaquin R.; USA, California, Sacramento R.; INE, USA, California, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta; Brackish; Freshwater
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Environmental Science & Technology [Environ. Sci. Technol.]. Vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1833-1840. 2 Feb 2010.
Corporate institution author - Weston, Donald P; Lydy, Michael J
DOI - 1efff011-d5ac-4447-86eacsamfg201; 13268768; CS1101313; 0013-936X English

1496. Weston, Donald P; Zhang, Minghua; Lydy, Michael J, and Weston, Donald P. Identifying the Cause and Source of Sediment Toxicity in an Agriculture-Influenced Creeks. 2008 Apr; 27, (4): 953.


Rec #: 49559
Keywords: SEDIMENT CONC
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Cause and source of sediment toxicity in an agriculture-influenced creek are identified. Sediment toxicity is observed in five of seven tributaries sampled. All sediments are analyzed for seven pyrethroids, chlorpyrifos, and 20 organochlorine pesticides or their degradation products. Bifenthrin is commonly found throughout Del Puerto Creek and its tributary drains. The results suggest that while bifenthrin is predominantly responsible for the toxicity of the sediment to Hyalella azteca, the sediment will likely still be toxic in the absence of bifenthrin. Agricultural bifenthrin use is scattered throughout the watershed, though some of the parcels receiving the largest amounts of bifenthrin are located south of the Creek and east of Highway 33. The multiple reported uses throughout the watershed support the environmental data in which bifenthrin is found in the sediments of nearly all tributary drains.
Keywords: CALIFORNIA
Keywords: SEDIMENT
Keywords: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
Keywords: MONITORING, ENV
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Keywords: BIODEGRADATION
Keywords: TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON
Keywords: TOXICOLOGY
Keywords: ENA 07:General
Keywords: ENV IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Date revised - 2009-08-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 953
ProQuest ID - 14849642
Document feature - |n 4 |t graphs
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - CALIFORNIA; SEDIMENT; QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS; MONITORING, ENV; BIODEGRADATION; TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON; TOXICOLOGY; ENV IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Last updated - 2011-12-15
British nursing index edition - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry [Environ. Toxicol. Chem.]. Vol. 27, no. 4, 953 p. Apr 2008.
Corporate institution author - Weston, Donald P; Zhang, Minghua; Lydy, Michael J
DOI - a3528b56-1738-4f01-9c87csamfg301; 10731034; 0730-7268 English

1497. Wetters, J. H. and Dishburger, H. J. Residues of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Sweet Potatoes Following Pre-plant Application of Lorsban Insecticides. SOIL; 1976.


Rec #: 1560
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1498. Wetters, J. H.; Norton, E. J., and Jeffries, T. K. Residues of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Alfalfa Green Forage and Hay Following Foliar Applications of Lorsban 4E Insecticide. SOIL; 1979.


Rec #: 1570
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1499. Whangchai, K.; Saetung, W.; Uthaibutra, J.; Pengphol, S., and Phiyanalinmat, S. Effect of ozone on the reduction of pesticide residue in baby corn (Zea mays L.). 2010(875): 291-295.


Rec #: 54839
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Keywords: ozonated water
Paper presented at the Southeast Asia Symposium on Quality and Safety of Fresh and Fresh Cut Produce, held August 3-5, 2009, Bangkok, Thailand. Includes references 1023116596

1500. Whangchai, K.; Uthaibutra, J.; Phiyanalinmat, S.; Pengphol, S., and Nomura, N. Effect of Ozone Treatment on the Reduction of Chlorpyrifos Residues in Fresh Lychee Fruits. 2011; 33, (3): 232-235.


Rec #: 71919
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The effect of ozone on the reduction of chlorpyrifos residue in lychee cv. Chakapat (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was studied. Lychee fruits were dipped in the solution of chlorpyrifos at a concentration of 10 mg L-1 for 10 min. Then, they were exposed to ozone gas (O3) at concentrations of 80, 160, 200, 240 mg L-1 and dipped in ozone-containing water, at concentrations of 2.2, 2.4, 3.4 and 3.2 mg. L-1 for 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. Both ozone gas and ozone-containing water reduced pesticide residue in lychee, but exposure to ozone gas for 60 min was most effective. When lychee fruits were stored at 25 degrees C for 6 days, both processes did not show significant differences in weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA). However, ozone-containing water decreased the eating quality of lychees after storage, compared with the ozone-fumigated groups.
Keywords: Ozone, Ozone-Containing Water, Ozone Treatment, Lychee Pesticide,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 768WY

1501. White, M. A.; Clark, K. M.; Grayhack, E. J., and Dumont, M. E. Characteristics Affecting Expression and Solubilization of Yeast Membrane Proteins.


Rec #: 51489
Keywords: YEAST
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Biochemical and structural analysis of membrane proteins often critically depends on the ability to overexpress and solubilize them. To identify properties of eukaryotic membrane proteins that may be predictive of successful overexpression, we analyzed expression levels of the genomic complement of over 1000 predicted membrane proteins in a recently completed Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein expression library. We detected statistically significant positive and negative correlations between high membrane protein expression and protein properties such as size, overall hydrophobicity, number of transmembrane helices, and amino acid composition of transmembrane segments. Although expression levels of membrane and soluble proteins exhibited similar negative correlations with overall hydrophobicity, high-level membrane protein expression was positively correlated with the hydrophobicity of predicted transmembrane segments. To further characterize yeast membrane proteins as potential targets for structure determination, we tested the solubility of 122 of the highest expressed yeast membrane proteins in six commonly used detergents. Almost all the proteins tested could be solubilized using a small number of detergents. Solubility in some
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