Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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single toxicity of Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon and Malathion and joint toxicity of ternary mixtures of organophosphate insecticides to photobacterium phosphoreum were determined. The result showed that CA and IA models produced the deviations while synergistic/antagonistic, dose level-dependent and dose ratio-dependent effects occurred in this mixture with the result of significance testing. When all the mixtures mixed the chemicals in their EC1 and EC50, the overall effects of the mixture mainly performed synergistic. However, since the dose level of mixture varied and the single toxicity of mixture components was different, antagonistic also occured. Based on the analysis, the relationship of mixture components was quantified, and the transformation between antagonistic and synergistic was demonstrated. Because it is difficult to predict these complex modes of action for mixtures using CA and IA model, this study verified an effective toxicity prediction approach for complex mixtures under the condition of unknown MOA. Mixture toxicities were determined for 12 industrial organic chemicals bearing four different modes of toxic actions (MOAs) to Photobacterium phosphoreum in order to compare the predictability of the integrated fuzzy concentration addition-independent action model (INFCIM) with two-stage prediction (TSP) model. Three mixtures were designed, with the first and second mixtures based on the ratios at the 1% and 50% effect concentration (EC1 and EC50) of each component, respectively, and the third mixture equimolar ratio of individual components. For the EC1, EC50 and equimolar ratio, prediction errors from the INFCIM at the 50% combination effects in all the validation sets were 0.3%, 6% and 0.6%, respectively. While for the TSP model, the corresponding errors were 2.8%, 19% and 24% respectively. Thus the INFCIM performed better than the TSP model. INFCIM calculated two weight coefficients from molecular structural descriptors, which weigh the relationship between concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) through fuzzy membership functions. Thus MOAs are not pre-requisitions for mixture toxicity prediction by the INFCIM approach, implying the practicability of this method in risk assessment of mixtures.
Keywords: 0768:Environmental science
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Keywords: (UMI)AAIH264348
Wang, Zhuang
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2008
0768: Environmental science
Health and environmental sciences
2012-07-18 ZH

1469. Ward, T. R. and Mundy, W. R. Organophosphorus Compounds Preferentially Affect Second Messenger Systems Coupled to M2/M4 Receptors in Rat Frontal Cortex. 1996; 39, (1): 49-55.

Rec #: 1550
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPYO,MLO

1470. Warne, M. St. J.; Westbury, A. M., and Sunderam, R. I. M. A Compilation of Data on the Toxicity of Chemicals to Species in Australasia. Part 1: Pesticides. M.St.J.Warne, Ecotoxicology Section, Environment Protection Authority of New South Wales, EPA/UTS Centre for Ecotoxicology, University of Technology Sydney, Gore Hill, 2065, Australia//: 1998; 4, (2): 93-144.

Rec #: 1630
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1471. Warner, R. W. Water Pollution: Freshwater Macroinvertebrates. 1974; 46, (6): 1341-1350.

Rec #: 2020
Keywords: REVIEW
Call Number: NO REVIEW (CPY)
Notes: EcoReference No.: 65094
Chemical of Concern: CPY

1472. Wason, S. C.; Smith, T. J.; Perry, M. J., and Levy, J. I. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures. 2012; 9, (5): 1971-1983.

Rec #: 71759
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids) and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet). We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children's cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by chemical and non-chemical stressors through metabolism or PD outcomes.
Keywords: cumulative exposure, risk assessment, pesticides, health disparities,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 948ZJ

1473. Wasswa, J. ; Nkedi-Kizza, P., and Kiremire, B. T. Characterization of Sorption of Endosulfan Isomers and Chlorpyrifos on Container Walls Using Mixed Solvent Systems. 2010; 58, (13): 7902-7907.

Rec #: 71769
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The reliability of sorption data for organic contaminants with low water solubility has generated great concern because of the variability in the literature of the soil water partition coefficient (K(OC)) values for these compounds. In particular, sorption on container walls in aqueous systems when measuring the sorption coefficient, K(D) (used to calculate K(OC) values), for strongly hydrophobic compounds (SHOCs) is a potential source for discrepancies in the K(OC) values. In this study, we eliminated sorption on container walls when measuring sorption of three halogenated compounds (alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and chlorpyrifos) using mixed solvents. Various mixtures of methanol and water were used. Sorption experiments were designed using polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)-lined centrifuge tubes and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) syringe. Solution sample analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with a UV diode array detector and C-18 column at a wavelength of 214 nm, with acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase. The solvophobic model was used to calculate the percent recovery (% R(M)) in water of the test compounds. Our results show that there is considerable sorption on container walls for the three chemicals at volume fractions of methanol (f(c) < 0.4). The data show that, in aqueous systems, percent recoveries for alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and chlorpyrifos are 48, 45, and 61, respectively. Thus, to generate reliable sorption data for alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and chlorpyrifos and other SHOCs, experiments may be conducted using Teflon-lined centrifuge tubes and HPLC syringes at volume fractions of methanol (f(c) >= 0.5).
Keywords: Solvophobic model, aqueous systems, percent recovery, Teflon-lined
ISI Document Delivery No.: 621JX

1474. Watkins, Christopher B. and Nock, Jacqueline F. Rapid 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and delayed controlled atmosphere storage of apples. 2012 Jul; 69, (0): 24-31.

Rec #: 3740
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The quality of Ç˙McIntoshÇÖ and Ç˙EmpireÇÖ apples [Malus +ů sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] after treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and delayed controlled atmosphere (CA) storage has been investigated. For each cultivar, fruit from three orchard blocks were harvested in two growing regions. 1-MCP was applied after overnight cooling to 2 -_C and CA conditions applied 2, 7 and 14 d after harvest. Quality of fruit was assessed after CA storage for 6 months plus 1 and 7 d at 20 -_C. 1-MCP suppressed the internal ethylene concentrations (IECs) of the fruit during the14 d period before CA conditions were applied, but the extent of suppression was lower in fruit with high IECs at harvest. Untreated fruit of both Ç˙McIntoshÇÖ and Ç˙EmpireÇÖ exposed to CA storage after 2 d maintained firmness levels similar to 1-MCP treated fruit, but only for 1 d of shelf life. 1-MCP treatment resulted in firm fruit after delayed CA up to 14 d, but the most consistent effects were found in Ç˙EmpireÇÖ which has lower IECs than Ç˙McIntoshÇÖ. Orchard block differences in IEC affected the persistence of 1-MCP effects on firmness. Effects of 1-MCP treatment on storage disorders were inconsistent, although slight increases in risk of external carbon dioxide injury were detected. Rapid treatment of fruit with 1-MCP after harvest can afford storage operators more freedom to delay CA storage application, but attention to cultivar, fruit maturity and susceptibility of fruit to storage disorders must be considered. Malus +ů domestica Borkh/ Storage/ Ethylene/ Firmness/ Physiological disorders/ Carbon dioxide injury

1475. Weerasekera, G.; Smith, K. D.; Quiros-Alcala, L.; Fernandez, C.; Bradman, A.; Eskenazi, B.; Needham, L. L., and Barr, D. B. A mass spectrometry-based method to measure dialkylphosphate degradation products of organophosphorous insecticides in dust and orange juice. 2009; 11, (7): 1345-1351.

Rec #: 71779
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are urinary metabolites and breakdown products of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. Urinary DAPs are widely used to assess exposure to OP pesticides in epidemiologic studies. Recent evidence suggests that preformed DAPs are present in food and that they may also be present in other parts of the environment. Thus, DAP concentrations observed in urine may reflect a person's exposure to both parent OP pesticides and preformed DAPs in food and other environmental media. The presence of preformed DAPs in multiple media may indicate that previous studies have overestimated exposure to OP pesticides and that the use of urinary DAPs as biomarkers of exposure for OP pesticides may not accurately characterize exposure in non-acute settings. To establish the presence of DAPs in environmental and food media, we developed analytical methods to measure six DAPs in dust and orange juice. The limits of detection (LOD) for the dimethyl phosphates (dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate, and dimethyldithiophosphate) ranged from 2.8-9.9 ng g(-1) and 0.2-0.4 ng mL(-1) in dust and juice, respectively. The LODs for the diethyl phosphates (diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate, diethyldithiophosphate) ranged from 5.2-10.4 ng g(-1) and 0.5-3.0 ng mL(-1) in dust and juice, respectively. The extraction efficiencies for the analytes ranged from 23% to 91% and from 41% to 85% in dust and orange juice, respectively. DMP was detected in about half of the dust samples whereas DEP was detected in 80% of the dust samples tested. Other DAPs were less frequently detected in dust. Less than 3% of intact pesticide present in the matrices was converted to their respective DAPs during the pre-analytic and analytic process. Evaluation of the conversion of intact pesticides in the samples to DAPs will help us to better understand the contribution of preformed DAPs to urinary DAP concentrations.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 468HR

1476. Wei, W.; Zong, X. M.; Wang, X.; Yin, L. H.; Pu, Y. P., and Liu, S. Q. A disposable amperometric immunosensor for chlorpyrifos-methyl based on immunogen/platinum doped silica sol-gel film modified screen-printed carbon electrode. 2012; 135, (3): 888-892.

Rec #: 71789
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A disposable amperometric immunosensor for sensitive detection of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM) has been developed by combining dual signal amplification of platinum colloid with an enzymatic catalytic reaction. The immunosensor was fabricated by modification of the screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) with nanocomposites made by skillful doping of bovine serum albumin conjugated chlorpyrifos-methyl antigen (BSA-Ag) and platinum colloid into silica sol-gel. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and electrochemical measurements showed that platinum colloid domains in the nanocomposite material could enhance electron transfer and change the brittleness of the silica sol-gel. The immobilisation of BSA-Ag on the nanocomposite retained its immunoactivities, which allowed the immobilised BSA-Ag to effectively capture unbound Ab-HRP in the detection solution. A linear response to CM concentration was exhibited, ranging from 0.4 to 20 ng/mL. Detection of CM with the presented method in soil or grape samples treated with CM matched the reference values well, which indicated that the proposed disposable immunosensor hold promising applications in environmental and food monitoring. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos-methyl, Platinum colloid, Silica sol-gel, Competitive
ISI Document Delivery No.: 028BB

1477. Weichenthal, Scott; Moase, Connie; Chan, Peter, and Weichenthal, Scott. A Review of Pesticide Exposure and Cancer Incidence in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort. 2010 May 5; 118, (8): 1117-1125.

Rec #: 47909
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We reviewed epidemiologic evidence related to occupational pesticide exposures and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort. Studies were identified from the AHS publication list available at as well as through a Medline/PubMed database search in March 2009. We also examined citation lists. Findings related to lifetime-days and/or intensity-weighted lifetime-days of pesticide use are the primary focus of this review, because these measures allow for the evaluation of potential exposure-response relationships. We reviewed 28 studies; most of the 32 pesticides examined were not strongly associated with cancer incidence in pesticide applicators. Increased rate ratios (or odds ratios) and positive exposure-response patterns were reported for 12 pesticides currently registered in Canada and/or the United States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). However, estimates of association for specific cancers were often imprecise because of small numbers of exposed cases, and clear monotonic exposure-response patterns were not always apparent. Exposure misclassification is also a concern in the AHS and may limit the analysis of exposure-response patterns. Epidemiologic evidence outside the AHS remains limited with respect to most of the observed associations, but animal toxicity data support the biological plausibility of relationships observed for alachlor, carbaryl, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, and trifluralin. Continued follow-up is needed to clarify associations reported to date. In particular, further evaluation of registered pesticides is warranted.
Keywords: Environmental Engineering Abstracts (EN); CSA / ASCE Civil Engineering Abstracts (CE)
Date revised - 2010-12-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1117-1125
ProQuest ID - 818834532
Last updated - 2013-02-05
British nursing index edition - Environmental Health Perspectives [Environ. Health Perspect.]. Vol. 118, no. 8, pp. 1117-1125. 5 May 2010.
Corporate institution author - Weichenthal, Scott; Moase, Connie; Chan, Peter
DOI - 8e69aa22-d7fb-410e-a382csactrl101v; 13748320; 0091-6765; 1552-9924 English

1478. Weinhold, B and Weinhold, B. New Pesticides, Old Problems: Despite Warnings, Use During Pregnancy Persists. 2008 Dec; 116, (12): A 533.

Rec #: 45359
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The sight of scurrying cockroaches trumps warnings against using pesticides during pregnancy. That's one insight from a study of pesticide use before and after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2001 and 2002 retail sales restrictions of chlorpyrifos and diazinon [EHP 116:1681-1688; Williams et al.]. The team of U.S. researchers also found that use of replacement pesticides is steadily increasing to fill the void, that the air the test subjects breathed remains surprisingly contaminated with chlorpyrifos and diazinon up to 5 years after the restrictions went into effect, and that household use of pesticide spray cans and bug bombs contaminated the air far more than did use of bait traps or boric acid or spraying by professional exterminators.
Keywords: Sprays
Keywords: Z 05350:Medical, Veterinary, and Agricultural Entomology
Keywords: Spraying
Keywords: Public health
Keywords: Pregnancy
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Cans
Keywords: EPA
Keywords: households
Keywords: USA
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Traps
Keywords: R2 23060:Medical and environmental health
Keywords: boric acid
Keywords: Entomology Abstracts; Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: ENA 01:Air Pollution
Date revised - 2009-01-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA
Pages - A 533
ProQuest ID - 20243163
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - USA; Pesticides; Public health; Pregnancy; Sprays; Diazinon; Chlorpyrifos; households; EPA; Spraying; Traps; boric acid; Cans
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Environmental Health Perspectives [Environ. Health Perspect.]. Vol. 116, no. 12, p. A 533. Dec 2008.
Corporate institution author - Weinhold, B
DOI - MD-0009045638; 8859414; 0091-6765 English

1479. Weis, J. S. and Weis, P. Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Early Fish Development. 1989; 1, (1): 45-73.

Rec #: 1800
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: EcoReference No.: 65053
Chemical of Concern: AMSV,CPY

1480. Weiwei, G; Changyi, G; Hong, L, and Weiwei, G. Time-Series Analysis and Human Dietary Exposure Assessment on Chlorpyrifos Pesticide Residue in Leafy Vegetables. 2010 Sep; 20, (9): 719-720.

Rec #: 40359
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: time series analysis
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts
Date revised - 2010-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 719-720
ProQuest ID - 759317140
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Diets; Pesticide residues; time series analysis; Pesticides
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Annals of Epidemiology [Ann. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 719-720. Sep 2010.
Corporate institution author - Weiwei, G; Changyi, G; Hong, L
DOI - 32cb88a2-ecbe-4261-9f25csamfg201; 13717910; 1047-2797 English

1481. Weldon, R H; Barr, D B; Trujillo, C; Bradman, a; Holland, N; Eskenazi, B, and Weldon, R H. A Pilot Study of Pesticides and Pcbs in the Breast Milk of Women Residing in Urban and Agricultural Communities of California. 2011 Nov; 13, (11): 3136-3144.

Rec #: 43059
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Currently, there is no nationally representative human milk biomonitoring program in the United States (U.S.) and no studies have reported non-persistent pesticides in the milk of U.S. women. In this pilot study we developed a multiresidue laboratory method to measure non-persistent and persistent pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in human milk samples from women residing in the agricultural region of Salinas, CA (n = 13) and the urban San Francisco Bay Area, CA (n = 21). Samples were collected from 2002-2007. Median concentrations in pg g super(-1) milk among urban and agricultural women, respectively were reported for: chlorpyrifos (24.5 and 28.0), cis-permethrin (81.9 and 103), trans-permethrin (93.1 and 176), hexachlorobenzene (191 and 223), beta -hexachlorocyclohexane (220 and 443), o, p'-DDT (36.6 and 62.4), p, p'-DDT,(107 and 102), o, p'-DDE (5.65 and 5.17), p, p'-DDE (3170 and 3490), dacthal (2.79 and 3.43), PCB 118 (92.8 and 17.0), PCB 138 (183 and 38.2), PCB 153 (242 and 43.6) and PCB 180 (239 and 683). Among urban women, median concentrations were 4.02 and 4.32 pg g super(-1) milk for chlorpyrifos-methyl and propoxur, respectively. These results suggest that neonates and young children may be exposed to persistent and non-persistent pesticides and PCBs via breast milk.
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Milk
Keywords: ENA 12:Oceans & Estuaries
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: breast milk
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Laboratory methods
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: INE, USA, California, San Francisco Bay
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Neonates
Keywords: PCB compounds
Keywords: Urban areas
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Location - INE, USA, California, San Francisco Bay
Pages - 3136-3144
ProQuest ID - 915409125
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Bioindicators; Milk; Laboratory methods; Pesticides; Neonates; PCB compounds; Urban areas; breast milk; INE, USA, California, San Francisco Bay
Last updated - 2012-01-12
Corporate institution author - Weldon, R H; Barr, D B; Trujillo, C; Bradman, A; Holland, N; Eskenazi, B
DOI - OB-MD-0017932884; 16129382; 1464-0325 English

1482. Weldon, Rosana Alysia Hernandez and Eskenazi, Brenda Holland Nina. Biomonitoring Persistent and Non-Persistent Chemicals in Human Breast Milk and Endocrine Disruption of Lactation. 2010.

Rec #: 51719
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Breastfeeding has numerous benefits to mother and child including improved maternal post-partum health, maternal/child bonding, and infant neurodevelopment and immune function. However, concern has been expressed about potential health risks posed to infants from environmental chemicals in human milk. The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires the United States Environmental Protection Agency to set pesticide tolerance levels in food that ensure the safety of sensitive sub-populations, particularly pregnant women and children. Maternal dietary and environmental exposures to organophosphate (OP), organochlorine (OC), carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may lead to measurable levels of these chemicals in breast milk and because some of these chemicals interfere with hormone regulation, a mother's ability to lactate may be compromised by exposure. Lactational exposures to infants are of particular concern because infants' metabolic, neurologic and other systems are developing leading children to be more susceptible to the hazards of pesticides than adults. Although persistent pesticides, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), have been biomonitored in human milk for decades, there are few studies measuring non-persistent pesticides in milk and no studies examining potential sources of non-persistent pesticides in milk. Using data and samples from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS), another study on peripartum pesticide excretion, and a study of breast milk samples collected from San Francisco Bay Area women, this research aimed to: (1) to determine whether persistent organic pollutants measured in the blood of CHAMACOS participants are associated with shortened lactation duration; (2) to measure and compare the chemical concentrations of OPs, OCs, carbamates, pyrethroids, and PCBs in the milk of women residing in an rural area with those of women residing in an urban region; and (3) to investigate whether concentrations of two non-persistent pesticides highly detected in milk are correlated with concentrations measured in other biological samples and determine the potential predictors or sources of maternal exposure. Maternal concentrations of potentially endocrine disrupting chemicals measured in maternal serum were not associated with shortened lactation duration. Breast milk samples from urban and agricultural populations contained all of the persistent chemicals measured and the non-persistent pesticides, chlorpyrifos and permethrin. Concentrations of these two non-persistent pesticides were positively, but not statistically significantly correlated with concentrations measured in the plasma and urine of the same women. Lastly, some dietary and household factors may be potential sources of exposure to the mothers studied. The proposed research will provide information on maternal exposure and lactational exposure of non-persistent and persistent pesticides and PCBs to our most sensitive population, infants. Understanding whether lactation is potentially disrupted and the extent of dietary exposures to infants will allow for informed policy decisions regarding the use of pesticides and for the design of effective interventions in order to ensure the safety of this food for infants.
Start Page: 111
ISSN/ISBN: 9781124554815
Keywords: Breastfeeding
Keywords: 0470:Environmental Health
Keywords: Polychlorinated biphenyls
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Biomonitoring
Keywords: Breast milk
Keywords: Endocrine disruption
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Keywords: Lactation
Breast milk
Polychlorinated biphenyls
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2010
0470: Environmental Health
Weldon, Rosana Alysia Hernandez
Endocrine disruption
Health and environmental sciences English

1483. Weng, B-Q; Jiang, Z-H; Xiao, S-X; Lei, J-G; Wang, Y-X; Tang, X-Q, and Weng, B-Q. Analysis on Nutrients and Pesticide Residues in Strain J Sub(3) Agaricus Blazei Murill Irradiated by Super(60)Co. 2011 Feb 20; 30, (2 ): 244-248.

Rec #: 43539
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Agaricus blazei Murill as rare edible fungi was adored by more and more customers. But with the increasing attention of food hygiene quality, it was important guidance of the safety production of Agaricus blazei to understand the health status of Agaricus blazei in the actual cultivation. This paper studied the difference in terms of nutritional quality, heavy metal contents and pesticide residues between strain J sub(3) and J sub(1). The results showed that the contents of delicious amino acid(56.5 g times kg super(-1)), sweet amino acid(52.4 g times kg super(-1)), sulfur amino acid(15.8 g times kg super(-1)), branched chain amino acid(38.1 g times kg super(-1)), aromatic amino acid(16.1 g times kg super(-1)), children amino acid(17.8 g times kg super(-1)), necessary amino acid (95.0 g times kg super(-1)in the fruit bodies of Agaricus blazei J sub(3), occupied 25.48%, 23.64%, 7.13%, 17.19%, 7.26%, 8.03% and 42.85% of total amount of amino acid(221.7 g times kg super(-1)), respectively. These values were 28.12%, 12.93%, 0%, 14.41%, 12.59%, 16.34% and 11.76% respectively higher than those of Agaricus blazei J sub(1). The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids(76.15%) and unsaturated fatty acid(77.55%) in Agaricus blazei J sub(3) were 4.39% and 3.82% higher than Agaricus blazei J sub(1) respectively. The contents of cadmium, mercury and arsenic in fruitbodies of Agaricus blazei J sub(3), were 3.86 mg times kg super(-1), 0.42 mg times kg super(-1) and 0.09 mg times kg super(-1), respectively, and decreased by 45.86%, 32.25% and 18.18% than those of Agaricus blazei J sub(1). Lead content was lower than the limit of mushroom health standard of China(GB 7096--2003). Arsenic content was also lower than national green food standard for edible fungus (NY/T 749--2003) in China. The residues of pesticides in the fruitbodies of Agaricus blazei J sub(3), such as bifenthrin, decamethrim, chlorothalonil, hexachlorocyclohexane, carbendazim, avermectins, thiophanate-methyl, methami-dophos, chlorpyrifos, DDT and S0 sub(2), were lower than the limits of national green food standard for edible fungus (NY/T 749--2003), respectively. Therefore, strain J sub(3) of Agaricus blazei has a higher application value.
Keywords: Sulfur
Keywords: Agaricus blazei
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Sulphur
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Heavy metals
Keywords: Food
Keywords: K 03400:Human Diseases
Keywords: Nutrients
Keywords: Nutrition
Keywords: Microbiology Abstracts C: Algology, Mycology & Protozoology; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Lead
Keywords: Cadmium
Keywords: Carbendazim
Keywords: Food quality
Keywords: heavy metals
Keywords: Arsenic
Keywords: Sweet taste
Keywords: Amino acids
Keywords: Avermectin
Keywords: Fungi
Keywords: Fruit bodies
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Strains
Keywords: thiophanate-methyl
Keywords: Basidiocarps
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Chlorothalonil
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: hexachlorocyclohexane
Keywords: DDT
Keywords: Mercury
Keywords: China, People's Rep.
Keywords: Hexachlorocyclohexane
Keywords: Nutrients (mineral)
Keywords: Hygiene
Keywords: Aromatics
Date revised - 2011-04-01
Language of summary - English
Location - China, People's Rep.
Pages - 244-248
ProQuest ID - 860386194
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Arsenic; Sulphur; Heavy metals; DDT; Pesticides; Nutrients (mineral); Hygiene; Strains; Aromatics; Sulfur; Pesticide residues; Food; Nutrients; Lead; Cadmium; Carbendazim; Food quality; Sweet taste; Amino acids; Fruit bodies; Fungi; Avermectin; Children; Basidiocarps; thiophanate-methyl; Chlorpyrifos; Chlorothalonil; Mercury; Hexachlorocyclohexane; hexachlorocyclohexane; Nutrition; heavy metals; Agaricus blazei; China, People's Rep.
Last updated - 2012-04-23
British nursing index edition - Journal of Agro-Environment Science [J. Agro-Environ. Sci.]. Vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 244-248. 20 Feb 2011.
Corporate institution author - Weng, B-Q; Jiang, Z-H; Xiao, S-X; Lei, J-G; Wang, Y-X; Tang, X-Q
DOI - MD-0015620243; 14542256; CS1147188; 1672-2043 English

1484. Werner, Inge; Deanovic, Linda a; Miller, Jeff; Denton, Debra L; Crane, David; Mekebri, Abdou; Moore, Matthew T; Wrysinski, Jeanette, and Werner, Inge. Use of Vegetated Agricultural Drainage Ditches to Decrease Toxicity of Irrigation Runoff From Tomato and Alfalfa Fields in California, Usa. 2010 Dec 1; 29, (12): 2859-2868.

Rec #: 47589
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The current study investigated the potential of vegetated drainage ditches for mitigating the impact of agricultural irrigation runoff on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Water column toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas),and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was measured for 12 h or less at the ditch inflow and outflow, using custom-built in situ exposure systems. In addition, water and sediment samples were subject to standard toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and H. azteca, respectively. No acute toxicity to larval fathead minnow was observed; however, runoff was highly toxic to invertebrates. Passage through a 389- to 402-m section of vegetated ditch had a mitigating effect and reduced toxicity to some degree. However, runoff from an alfalfa field treated with chlorpyrifos remained highly toxic to both invertebrate species, and runoff from a tomato field treated with permethrin remained highly toxic to H. azteca after passage through the ditch. Predicted toxic units calculated from insecticide concentrations in runoff and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values generally agreed with C. dubia toxicity measured in the laboratory but significantly underestimated in situ toxicity to H. azteca. Sediments collected near the ditch outflow were toxic to H. azteca. Results from the current study demonstrate that experimental vegetated ditches were unable to eliminate the risk of irrigation runoff to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, protective measures based on chemical concentrations or laboratory toxicity tests with C. dubia do not ensure adequate protection of aquatic ecosystems from pyrethroid-associated toxicity.
Keywords: toxicity testing
Keywords: Irrigation
Keywords: Larvae
Keywords: outflow
Keywords: alfalfa
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: invertebrates
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Hyalella azteca
Keywords: Lycopersicon esculentum
Keywords: Ceriodaphnia dubia
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: mitigation
Keywords: Pimephales
Keywords: USA, California
Keywords: R2 23050:Environment
Keywords: aquatic ecosystems
Date revised - 2011-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, California
Pages - 2859-2868
ProQuest ID - 860447250
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - toxicity testing; mitigation; Irrigation; Larvae; outflow; alfalfa; Toxicity; aquatic ecosystems; invertebrates; Lycopersicon esculentum; Hyalella azteca; Ceriodaphnia dubia; Pimephales; USA, California
Last updated - 2011-11-09
Place of publication - Oxford
Corporate institution author - Werner, Inge; Deanovic, Linda A; Miller, Jeff; Denton, Debra L; Crane, David; Mekebri, Abdou; Moore, Matthew T; Wrysinski, Jeanette
DOI - OB-2e162793-bbb7-47e6-a36bcsamfg201; 14430079; 1552-8618 English

1485. Werner, S. J.; Tupper, S. K.; Linz, G. M., and Homan, H. J. Evaluation and Development of Blackbird Repellents for Agricultural Applications. 2009: 5 p.

Rec #: 2860

1486. Weschler, C J; Nazaroff, W W, and Weschler, C J. Svoc Exposure Indoors: Fresh Look at Dermal Pathways. 2012 Oct; 22, (5): 356-377.

Rec #: 42519
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Abstract This paper critically examines indoor exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via dermal pathways. First, it demonstrates that - in central tendency - an SVOC's abundance on indoor surfaces and in handwipes can be predicted reasonably well from gas-phase concentrations, assuming that thermodynamic equilibrium prevails. Then, equations are developed, based upon idealized mass-transport considerations, to estimate transdermal penetration of an SVOC either from its concentration in skin-surface lipids or its concentration in air. Kinetic constraints limit air-to-skin transport in the case of SVOCs that strongly sorb to skin-surface lipids. Air-to-skin transdermal uptake is estimated to be comparable to or larger than inhalation intake for many SVOCs of current or potential interest indoors, including butylated hydroxytoluene, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diethyl phthalate, Galaxolide, geranyl acetone, nicotine (in free-base form), PCB28, PCB52, Phantolide, Texanol and Tonalide. Although air-to-skin transdermal uptake is anticipated to be slow for bisphenol A, we find that transdermal permeation may nevertheless be substantial following its transfer to skin via contact with contaminated surfaces. The paper concludes with explorations of the influence of particles and dust on dermal exposure, the role of clothing and bedding as transport vectors, and the potential significance of hair follicles as transport shunts through the epidermis. Human exposure to indoor pollutants can occur through dietary and nondietary ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Many factors influence the relative importance of these pathways, including physical and chemical properties of the pollutants. This paper argues that exposure to indoor semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) through the dermal pathway has often been underestimated. Transdermal permeation of SVOCs can be substantially greater than is commonly assumed. Transport of SVOCs from the air to and through the skin is typically not taken into account in exposure assessments. Yet, for certain SVOCs, intake through skin is estimated to be substantially larger than intake through inhalation. Exposure scientists, risk assessors, and public health officials should be mindful of the dermal pathway when estimating exposures to indoor SVOCs. Also, they should recognize that health consequences vary with exposure pathway. For example, an SVOC that enters the blood through the skin does not encounter the same detoxifying enzymes that an ingested SVOC would experience in the stomach, intestines, and liver before it enters the blood.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Bisphenol A
Keywords: Inhalation
Keywords: Skin
Keywords: Lipids
Keywords: H 2000:Transportation
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Particulates
Keywords: Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Ingestion
Keywords: Volatile organic compounds
Date revised - 2012-12-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 356-377
ProQuest ID - 1136413974
Document feature - figure 6
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Bisphenol A; Inhalation; Skin; Lipids; Enzymes; Particulates; Ingestion; Volatile organic compounds
Last updated - 2013-01-11
British nursing index edition - Indoor Air [Indoor Air]. Vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 356-377. Oct 2012.
Corporate institution author - Weschler, C J; Nazaroff, W W
DOI - fa79c180-1c18-4d4e-a122csamfg201; 17159641; 0905-6947; 1600-0668 English

1487. Weschler, C J and Weschler, C J. Changes in Indoor Pollutants Since the 1950s. 2009 Jan; 43, (1): 153-169.

Rec #: 48879
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Over the past half-century there have been major changes in building materials and consumer products used indoors. Composite-wood, synthetic carpets, polymeric flooring, foam cushioning, plastic items and scented cleaning agents have become ubiquitous. The same is true for mechanical and electrical appliances such as washer /dryers, TVs and computers. These materials and products emit an array of chemicals including solvents, unreacted monomers, and additives. The consequent changes in emission profiles for indoor pollutants have been accompanied by modifications in building operations. Residences and non-residences are less ventilated than they were decades ago. Air-conditioned buildings are more numerous, especially in certain parts of the world. Most of these recirculate a high fraction of their air. The personal habits of building occupants, including the fraction who smoke indoors, have also changed. Taken together, these changes have altered the kind and concentrations of chemicals that occupants are exposed to in their homes, workplaces and schools. Since the 1950s, levels of certain indoor pollutants (e.g., formaldehyde, aromatic and chlorinated solvents, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs) have increased and then decreased. Levels of other indoor pollutants have increased and remain high (e.g., phthalate esters, brominated flame-retardants, nonionic surfactants and their degradation products). Many of the chemicals presently found in indoor environments, as well as in the blood and urine of occupants, were not present 50 years ago. Given the public's exposure to such species, there would be exceptional value in monitoring networks that provided cross-sectional and longitudinal information regarding pollutants found in representative buildings.
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: M2 551.556:Wind Effects (551.556)
Keywords: Consumer products
Keywords: Ventilation
Keywords: Air conditioning
Keywords: Indoor air pollution
Keywords: Formaldehyde
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: EE 20:Air Pollution: Monitoring, Control & Remediation
Keywords: schools
Keywords: Emissions
Keywords: PCB compounds
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Solvents
Keywords: Construction materials
Keywords: Esters
Keywords: Buildings
Keywords: Smoke
Keywords: phthalates
Keywords: Foam
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Building materials
Keywords: Indoor environments
Keywords: Surfactants
Keywords: Additives
Keywords: Environmental Engineering Abstracts; Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Date revised - 2009-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 153-169
ProQuest ID - 289678336
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Buildings; Chemicals; Solvents; Consumer products; PCB compounds; Air conditioning; Esters; Construction materials; Additives; Surfactants; Indoor environments; Pesticides; phthalates; schools; Urine; Formaldehyde; Emissions; Ventilation; Indoor air pollution; Foam; Building materials; Smoke
Last updated - 2011-11-07
Corporate institution author - Weschler, C J
DOI - OB-MD-0009021409; 8835185; 1352-2310 English

1488. Weschler, Charles J; Nazaroff, William W, and Weschler, Charles J. Svoc Partitioning Between the Gas Phase and Settled Dust Indoors. 2010 Sep; 44, (30): 3609-3620.

Rec #: 47739
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a major class of indoor pollutants. Understanding SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust is important for characterizing the fate of these species indoors and the pathways by which humans are exposed to them. Such knowledge also helps in crafting measurement programs for epidemiological studies designed to probe potential associations between exposure to these compounds and adverse health effects. In this paper, we analyze published data from nineteen studies that cumulatively report measurements of dustborne and airborne SVOCs in more than a thousand buildings, mostly residences, in seven countries. In aggregate, measured median data are reported in these studies for 66 different SVOCs whose octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) span more than five orders of magnitude. We use these data to test a simple equilibrium model for estimating the partitioning of an SVOC between the gas phase and settled dust indoors. The results demonstrate, in central tendency, that a compound's octanol-air partition coefficient is a strong predictor of its abundance in settled dust relative to its gas phase concentration. Using median measured results for each SVOC in each study, dustborne mass fractions predicted using Koa and gas-phase concentrations correlate reasonably well with measured dustborne mass fractions (R2=0.76). Combined with theoretical understanding of SVOC partitioning kinetics, the empirical evidence also suggests that for SVOCs with high Koa values, the mass fraction in settled dust may not have sufficient time to equilibrate with the gas phase concentration.
Keywords: Atmospheric particulates
Keywords: M2 551.556:Wind Effects (551.556)
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Indoor air pollution
Keywords: relative abundance
Keywords: Buildings
Keywords: Dust
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts; ASFA 2: Ocean Technology Policy & Non-Living Resources
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Kinetics
Keywords: Q2 02405:Oil and gas
Keywords: Organic compounds
Keywords: Volatile organic compounds
Keywords: Eolian dust
Keywords: ENA 01:Air Pollution
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 3609-3620
ProQuest ID - 810969262
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Atmospheric particulates; Pollutants; Organic compounds; Eolian dust; Indoor air pollution; Kinetics; relative abundance; Buildings; Volatile organic compounds; Dust
Last updated - 2011-12-08
Corporate institution author - Weschler, Charles J; Nazaroff, William W
DOI - OB-c09be81a-780a-486b-9ef6csamfg201; 13513940; CS1119550; 1352-2310 English

1489. Wesseling, C.; de Joode, B. V.; Keifer, M.; London, L.; Mergler, D., and Stallones, L. Symptoms of psychological distress and suicidal ideation among banana workers with a history of poisoning by organophosphate or n-methyl carbamate pesticides. 2010; 67, (11): 778-784.

Rec #: 71839
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Objectives Neuropsychiatric disorders and increased suicide rates have been associated with exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting organophosphates. This study examined symptoms of psychological distress, including suicidal ideation, among banana workers in Costa Rica previously exposed to a cholinesterase inhibiting pesticide. Methods 78 workers who had received medical attention 1-3 years previously for occupational pesticide poisoning were recruited: 54 had been exposed to organophosphate, 24 to carbamate, and 43 and 35, respectively, had single and multiple poisoning episodes with a cholinesterase inhibitor. Referents were 130 non-poisoned workers randomly selected from company payrolls. Psychological distress symptoms during the month prior to interview were obtained using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), which has a general severity index and nine subscale scores. Differences in abnormal BSI scores (T score >= 63) were assessed through multivariate logistic regression for all poisoned and for subcategories of poisoned as compared to non-poisoned workers. Results Organophosphate poisoned workers reported significantly more symptoms than non-poisoned on all but one symptom dimension. Significant trends of increasing symptoms with increasing number of previous poisonings were seen for somatisation, obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression and anxiety. Carbamate poisoned workers only had increased scores for somatisation. The ORs for suicidal thoughts were: all poisoned 3.58 (95% CI 1.45 to 8.84); organophosphate poisoned 3.72 (1.41 to 9.81); carbamate poisoned 2.57 (0.73 to 9.81); and 2.65 and 4.98, respectively for 1 and >= 2 poisonings (trend p=0.01). Conclusions This cross-sectional study showed a relationship between acute occupational poisoning with organophosphates and psychological distress including suicidal ideation. Stronger designs are needed to address causality.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 667EM

1490. Weston, D. P.; Asbell, A. M.; Hecht, S. A.; Scholz, N. L., and Lydy, M. J. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest. 2011; 159, (10): 3051-3056.

Rec #: 71859
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere.
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