Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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The present study aims to establish an in vitro system for developmental neurotoxicity testing employing mESCs. We developed a robust and reproducible protocol for fast and efficient differentiation of the mESC line D3 into neural cells, optimized with regard to chemical testing. Embryonic stem cells/ Developmental neurotoxicity/ In vitro developmental neurotoxicity testing

1432. Vischetti, C; Cardinali, a; Monaci, E; Nicelli, M; Ferrari, F; Trevisan, M; Capri, E, and Vischetti, C. Measures to Reduce Pesticide Spray Drift in a Small Aquatic Ecosystem in Vineyard Estate. 2008 Jan 25; 389, (2-3): 497-502.

Rec #: 46179
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A field experiment is reported to ascertain the drift of two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and metalaxyl) in a vineyard in Italian climatic conditions and the effect of mitigation measures, such as buffer zones and tree rows, on pesticide drift contamination in a small aquatic system located inside the field. Results indicated that, in typical Italian agricultural conditions, spray drift in vineyards occurs at a distance of more than 24 m and adequate buffer zones are required to protect surface water bodies from direct contamination. The presence of tree rows in front of the water body inside the agricultural field, against the main wind direction, resulted in a very high reduction of the spray drift and of the ecotoxicological risk for aquatic ecosystem. In addition, a comparison between the data obtained in the experiment and the Drift Calculator procedure showed that the model failed when the procedure is used for short distances. However, concordance was found in terms of maximum drift distances.
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Ecosystems
Keywords: water bodies
Keywords: Trees
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: buffers
Keywords: Agricultural pollution
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: climatic conditions
Keywords: Surface Water
Keywords: Field Tests
Keywords: Water quality
Keywords: Freshwater
Keywords: Wind fields
Keywords: mitigation
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: R2 23050:Environment
Keywords: Sprays
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: agricultural land
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Inland water environment
Keywords: Aquatic environment
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: vineyards
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: aquatic ecosystems
Keywords: Environment management
Keywords: Pollution control
Date revised - 2008-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 497-502
ProQuest ID - 20044483
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Agricultural pollution; Pesticides; Water quality; Inland water environment; Wind fields; Environment management; Pollution control; water bodies; Trees; Surface water; buffers; Sprays; agricultural land; climatic conditions; Aquatic environment; Chlorpyrifos; mitigation; vineyards; aquatic ecosystems; Agricultural Chemicals; Contamination; Ecosystems; Surface Water; Field Tests; Toxicity; Freshwater
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Science of the Total Environment [Sci. Total Environ.]. Vol. 389, no. 2-3, pp. 497-502. 25 Jan 2008.
Corporate institution author - Vischetti, C; Cardinali, A; Monaci, E; Nicelli, M; Ferrari, F; Trevisan, M; Capri, E
DOI - MD-0008080925; 8182370; CS0820441; 0048-9697 English

1433. Vischetti, C.; Coppola, L.; Monaci, E.; Cardinali, A., and Castillo, M. D. Microbial impact of the pesticide chlorpyrifos on Swedish and Italian biobeds. 2007; 27, (3): 267-272.

Rec #: 71409
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Biobeds provide a simple and cheap solution to reducing point- source contamination by pesticides from farm activities. In its original design, the Swedish biobed is a clay- lined pit in the ground filled with a biomixture of topsoil, peat and straw and covered with a grass layer. The straw stimulates the growth of lignin- degrading fungi and the formation and activity of ligninolytic enzymes which can degrade many different pesticides. Here we compared the behaviour of the chlorpyrifos pesticide in two biobeds of different composition: a Swedish biobed composed of 50% v vine straw, 25% v peat and 25% v Swedish soil; and an Italian biobed composed of 40% v vine straw, 40% v green compost and 20% v Italian soil. Microbial biomass was measured in the Italian biomix by the fumigation- extraction method. The microbial activity was estimated by measuring mineralisation of a synthetic lignin, (14)C- de- hydrogenative polymerisate ((14)C- DHP) in the Swedish biomix. Microbial respiration was followed over time in both biomixes. Our results show that the chlorpyrifos half- lives were similar in both biomixes. The microbial biomass content was reduced by 25 and 50% with, respectively, 10 and 50 mg kg(-1) chlorpyrifos in the Italian biomix. The respiration activity was affected only at 50 mg kg(-1) chlorpyrifos in the Italian biomix. No effect was observed in the Swedish biomix despite the higher chlorpyrifos concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). The mineralisation of (14)C- DHP was not affected by the presence of chlorpyrifos in the Swedish biomix. These findings could be explained by the presence of chlorpyrifos- sensitive microorganisms in the Italian biomix and chlorpyrifos-resitant microorganisms in the Swedish biomix. The more robust microflora developed in the Swedish biomix may be explained by its lower nitrogen content, higher C/ N ratio and lower pH, all of which are favourable for the development of lignin- degrading fungi and their activity. In Sweden more than 1000 biobeds are in practical use on farms and they have been shown to be efficient at reducing pesticide water- body contamination. The present study compares the capability of an Italian biomix for degrading pesticides to that shown by the Swedish original biomix in order to introduce this biological system for a sustainable Italian agriculture.
Keywords: chlorpyrifos, organic biomixes, pesticide biodegradation, ligninolytic
ISI Document Delivery No.: 189DB

1434. Vischetti, C; Monaci, E; Cardinali, a; Casucci, C; Perucci, P, and Vischetti, C. The Effect of Initial Concentration, Co-Application and Repeated Applications on Pesticide Degradation in a Biobed Mixture. 2008 Aug; 72, (11): 1739-1743.

Rec #: 45669
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A 180d laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the degradation rates of chlorpyrifos (10 and 50mgkg super(-) super(1)) and metalaxyl (100mgkg super(-) super(1)) separately and co-applied in a biomix constituted by topsoil, vine-branches and urban-waste-garden compost. The effect of repeated application of metalaxyl was also investigated. Microbial biomass-C (MBC) content and metabolic quotient (qCO sub(2)) were measured to evaluate changes in microbial biomass size and activity induced by the presence of the two pesticides. Degradation rate decreased with increasing concentration of chlorpyrifos in all treatments. Metalaxyl half-life was significantly reduced in co-application with chlorpyrifos indicating a synergic interaction between the two pesticides in favour of enhanced degradation rate for metalaxyl but not for chlorpyrifos. Furthermore, repeated application resulted in a sharp reduction of metalaxyl half-life from 37d after first application to 4d after third application. MBC content was negatively influenced by the addition of pesticides but it started to recover immediately, in both separate and co-applied treatments, reaching the control value when pesticide residues were about 50% of the initial concentration. The qCO sub(2) reached a steady-state after about 20d in separately applied and 40d in co-applied treatments, indicating a tendency to arrive at a new metabolic equilibrium. In conclusion, the biomix tested has been shown to degrade pesticides relatively fast and to have a microbial community that is varied enough to allow selection of those microorganisms able to degrade metalaxyl and chlorpyrifos.
Keywords: A 01380:Plant Protection, Fungicides & Seed Treatments
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Metalaxyl
Keywords: Biodegradation
Keywords: Composts
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Microorganisms
Keywords: Microbiology Abstracts A: Industrial & Applied Microbiology; Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: W 30965:Miscellaneous, Reviews
Keywords: Biomass
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Date revised - 2008-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1739-1743
ProQuest ID - 290172605
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Metalaxyl; Pesticides; Chlorpyrifos; Biodegradation; Composts; Microorganisms; Biomass; Pesticide residues
Last updated - 2011-11-04
Corporate institution author - Vischetti, C; Monaci, E; Cardinali, A; Casucci, C; Perucci, P
DOI - OB-MD-0008364018; 8400253; 0045-6535 English

1435. Viswanath, Gunda; Chatterjee, Shamba; Dabral, Swati; Nanguneri, Siddharth R.; Divya, Gunda, and Roy, Partha. Anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting activities of chlorpyrifos and piperophos. 2010 May 1-; 120, (1): 22-29.

Rec #: 2050
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The present work describes the screening and characterization of some common endocrine disrupting chemicals for their (anti)androgenic activities. Various chemicals (mostly pesticides and pharmaceuticals) were screened with the NIH3T3 cell line stably expressing human androgen receptor (hAR) and luciferase reporter gene for their ability to stimulate luciferase activity or inhibit the response that was evoked by 0.4 nM testosterone. The most potent anti-androgenic compounds identified in our assay included chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and piperophos. Finally, the chemicals were analyzed for their effects on steriodogenesis in rat Leydig cells. Piperophos and chlorpyrifos showed a significant decrease in testosterone biosynthesis by Leydig cells. RT-PCR studies showed decrease in the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes: cytochrome P450scc, 3+_-HSD and 17+_-HSD and immunoblot analysis demonstrated a decrease in steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression by both these chemicals. Chlorpyrifos also showed a decrease in LH receptor stimulated cAMP production. In conclusion, we demonstrate that commonly used pesticides like chlorpyrifos and piperophos pose serious threat to male reproductive system by interfering at various levels of androgen biosynthesis. Endocrine disruptors/ Anti-androgenic/ StAR/ Steroidogenic enzymes/ Androgen receptor

1436. Viswanathan, S; Radecka, H; Radecki, J, and Viswanathan, S. Electrochemical Biosensor for Pesticides Based on Acetylcholinesterase Immobilized on Polyaniline Deposited on Vertically Assembled Carbon Nanotubes Wrapped With Ssdna. 2009 May 15; 24, (9): 2772-2777.

Rec #: 44749
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor for the determination of pesticides: methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos, two of the most commonly used organophosphorous insecticides in vegetable crops, is described. The self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) wrapped by thiol terminated single strand oligonucleotide (ssDNA) on gold was utilized to prepare nano size polyaniline matrix for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme immobilization. The key step of this biosensor was AChE-acetylcholine enzymatic reaction which causes the small changes of local pH in the vicinity of an electrode surface. The pesticides were determined through inhibition of enzyme reaction. The dynamic range for the determination of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos was found to be in between 1.0x10 super(-) super(1) super(1) and 1.0x10 super(-) super(6)M (0.6Keywords: Rivers
Keywords: Crop
Keywords: Vegetables
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: N 14845:Miscellaneous
Keywords: Oligonucleotides
Keywords: Biochemistry Abstracts 2: Nucleic Acids; Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: Crops
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Biosensors
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Carbon
Keywords: Thiols
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Electrodes
Keywords: W 30955:Biosensors
Keywords: Gold
Keywords: nanotubes
Keywords: Methyl parathion
Keywords: pH effects
Keywords: Immobilization
Date revised - 2009-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 2772-2777
ProQuest ID - 20521080
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Rivers; Vegetables; Crop; Acetylcholinesterase; Enzymes; Oligonucleotides; Crops; Biosensors; Chlorpyrifos; Carbon; Insecticides; Thiols; Pesticides; Electrodes; Gold; nanotubes; Methyl parathion; pH effects; Immobilization
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Biosensors and Bioelectronics [Biosensors Bioelectron.]. Vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 2772-2777. 15 May 2009.
Corporate institution author - Viswanathan, S; Radecka, H; Radecki, J
DOI - MD-0009542873; 9212948; 0956-5663 English

1437. Vogel, J. R.; Majewski, M. S., and Capel, P. D. Pesticides in Rain in Four Agricultural Watersheds in the United States. 2008; 37, 1101-1115.

Rec #: 1530

1438. Vogt, Rainbow; Bennett, Deborah; Cassady, Diana; Frost, Joshua; Ritz, Beate, and Hertz-Picciotto, Irva. Cancer and Non-Cancer Health Effects From Food Contaminant Exposures for Children and Adults in California: a Risk Assessment. 2012; 11, (1): 83.

Rec #: 46969
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Doc number: 83 Abstract Background: In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis was conducted to estimate exposure to multiple dietary contaminants for children, who are more vulnerable to toxic exposure than adults. Methods: We estimated exposure to multiple food contaminants based on dietary data from preschool-age children (2-4 years, n=207), school-age children (5-7 years, n=157), parents of young children (n=446), and older adults (n=149). We compared exposure estimates for eleven toxic compounds (acrylamide, arsenic, lead, mercury, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, chlordane, DDE, and dioxin) based on self-reported food frequency data by age group. To determine if cancer and non-cancer benchmark levels were exceeded, chemical levels in food were derived from publicly available databases including the Total Diet Study. Results: Cancer benchmark levels were exceeded by all children (100%) for arsenic, dieldrin, DDE, and dioxins. Non-cancer benchmarks were exceeded by >95% of preschool-age children for acrylamide and by 10% of preschool-age children for mercury. Preschool-age children had significantly higher estimated intakes of 6 of 11 compounds compared to school-age children (p<0.0001 to p=0.02). Based on self-reported dietary data, the greatest exposure to pesticides from foods included in this analysis were tomatoes, peaches, apples, peppers, grapes, lettuce, broccoli, strawberries, spinach, dairy, pears, green beans, and celery. Conclusions: Dietary strategies to reduce exposure to toxic compounds for which cancer and non-cancer benchmarks are exceeded by children vary by compound. These strategies include consuming organically produced dairy and selected fruits and vegetables to reduce pesticide intake, consuming less animal foods (meat, dairy, and fish) to reduce intake of persistent organic pollutants and metals, and consuming lower quantities of chips, cereal, crackers, and other processed carbohydrate foods to reduce acrylamide intake.
Keywords: California
Keywords: United States--US
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Name - Environmental Protection Agency--EPA
Copyright - © 2012 Vogt et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Language of summary - English
Location - United States--US; California
Pages - 83
ProQuest ID - 1271876572
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - United States--US; California
Last updated - 2013-01-29
Place of publication - London
Corporate institution author - Vogt, Rainbow; Bennett, Deborah; Cassady, Diana; Frost, Joshua; Ritz, Beate; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
DOI - 2871295361; 67725392; 58366; ENVH; 23140444; BMDDENVH201201011476069X1183
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1439. Volz, D. C.; Belanger, S.; Embry, M.; Padilla, S.; Sanderson, H.; Schirmer, K.; Scholz, S., and Villeneuve, D. Adverse Outcome Pathways During Early Fish Development: A Conceptual Framework for Identification of Chemical Screening and Prioritization Strategies. 2011; 123, (2): 349-358.

Rec #: 2190
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ABSA,CPY,DXN,TCDD

1440. Von Der Ohe, Peter Carsten; Dulio, Valeria; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; De Deckere, Eric; Kuhne, Ralph; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Ginebreda, Antoni; De Cooman, Ward; Schuurmann, Gerrit; Brack, Werner, and von der Ohe, Peter Carsten. A New Risk Assessment Approach for the Prioritization of 500 Classical and Emerging Organic Microcontaminants as Potential River Basin Specific Pollutants Under the European Water Framework Directive. 2011 May 1; 409 , (11): 2064-2077.

Rec #: 47349
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Given the huge number of chemicals released into the environment and existing time and budget constraints, there is a need to prioritize chemicals for risk assessment and monitoring in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD). This study is the first to assess the risk of 500 organic substances based on observations in the four European river basins of the Elbe, Scheldt, Danube and Llobregat. A decision tree is introduced that first classifies chemicals into six categories depending on the information available, which allows water managers to focus on the next steps (e.g. derivation of Environmental Quality Standards (EQS), improvement of analytical methods, etc.). The priority within each category is then evaluated based on two indicators, the Frequency of Exceedance and the Extent of Exceedance of Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs). These two indictors are based on maximum environmental concentrations (MEC), rather than the commonly used statistically based averages (Predicted Effect Concentration, PEC), and compared to the lowest acute-based (PNECacute) or chronic-based thresholds (PNECchronic). For 56% of the compounds, PNECs were available from existing risk assessments, and the majority of these PNECs were derived from chronic toxicity data or simulated ecosystem studies (mesocosm) with rather low assessment factors. The limitations of this concept for risk assessment purposes are discussed. For the remainder, provisional PNECs (P-PNECs) were established from
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