Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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tabun by PON1 with the objective of comparing the hydrolysis potential of human and rabbit serum purified and recombinant human PON1. The hydrolysis potential of PON1 against tabun, sarin, and soman was evaluated by using an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) back-titration Ellman method. Efficient hydrolysis of tabun (100 nM) was observed with ę+25Çô40 mU of PON1, while higher concentration (80Çô250 mU) of the enzyme was required for the complete hydrolysis of sarin (11 nM) and soman (3 nM). Our data indicate that tabun hydrolysis with PON1 was ę+30Çô60 times and ę+200Çô260 times more efficient than that with sarin and soman, respectively. Moreover, the catalytic activity of PON1 varies from source to source, which also reflects their efficiency of hydrolyzing different types of nerve agents. Thus, efficient hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 suggests its promising potential as a prophylactic treatment against tabun exposure. Catalytic bioscavenger/ Paraoxonase 1/ Chemical warfare nerve agents/ Prophylaxis/ Medical chemical defense/ Tabun

1407. Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Alamneh, Yonas; Rezk, Peter; Biggemann, Lionel; Perkins, Michael W.; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Doctor, Bhupendra P., and Nambiar, Madhusoodana P. Protective efficacy of catalytic bioscavenger, paraoxonase 1 against sarin and soman exposure in guinea pigs. 2011 Mar 15-; 81, (6): 800-809.

Rec #: 3490
Keywords: INHALE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been portrayed as a catalytic bioscavenger which can hydrolyze large amounts of chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) and organophosphate (OP) pesticides compared to the stoichiometric bioscavengers such as butyrylcholinesterase. We evaluated the protective efficacy of purified human and rabbit serum PON1 against nerve agents sarin and soman in guinea pigs. Catalytically active PON1 purified from human and rabbit serum was intravenously injected to guinea pigs, which were 30 min later exposed to 1.2 +ů LCt50 sarin or soman using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technology. Pre-treatment with 5 units of purified human and rabbit serum PON1 showed mild to moderate increase in the activity of blood PON1, but significantly increased the survival rate with reduced symptoms of CWNA exposure. Although PON1 is expected to be catalytic, sarin and soman exposure resulted in a significant reduction in blood PON1 activity. However, the blood levels of PON1 in pre-treated animals after exposure to nerve agent were higher than that of untreated control animals. The activity of blood acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and brain acetylcholinesterase was significantly higher in PON1 pre-treated animals and were highly correlated with the survival rate. Blood O2 saturation, pulse rate and respiratory dynamics were normalized in animals treated with PON1 compared to controls. These results demonstrate that purified human and rabbit serum PON1 significantly protect against sarin and soman exposure in guinea pigs and support the development of PON1 as a catalytic bioscavenger for protection against lethal exposure to CWNAs. Chemical warfare nerve agents/ Sarin/ Soman/ Catalytic bioscavenger/ Paraoxonase 1

1408. Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Alamneh, Yonas A.; Doctor, Bhupendra P., and Nambiar, Madhusoodana P. Crossroads in the evaluation of paraoxonase 1 for protection against nerve agent and organophosphate toxicity. 2012 Apr 5-; 210, (1): 87-94.

Rec #: 3180
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a 45 kDa arylesterase associated with circulating high density lipoproteins (HDL), has been described as an anti-atherogenic element in cardiovascular disorders. The efficacy of PON1 as a catalytic bioscavenger against OP and CWNA toxicity has been on debate for the last few decades. Hydrolysis of various organophosphates (OPs) and chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) by PON1 has been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Recently, we established the protective efficacy of human and rabbit serum purified PON1 as well as human recombinant PON1 expressed in Trichoplusia ni larvae against nerve agent toxicity in guinea pigs. Exogenous administration of purified PON1 was effective in protecting against 1.2 X LCt50 of sarin and soman administered endotracheally with microinstillation technology. However, the short half-life of exogenously administered PON1, probably due to poor association with circulating HDL, warrant alternative approaches for successful utility of PON1 in the treatment of OP/CWNA toxicity. In this mini review, we address the pros and cons of current PON1 prophylaxis and propose potential solutions for successful development of PON1 as an effective catalytic bioscavenger. Catalytic bioscavenger/ Paraoxonase 1/ Organophosphates/ Chemical warfare nerve agents/ Therapeutics/ Combination therapy

1409. Valles, N. B.; Retamal, M.; Mezcua, M., and Fernandez-Alba, A. R. A sensitive and selective method for the determination of selected pesticides in fruit by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization. 2012; 1264, 110-116.

Rec #: 71009
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Multiresidue methods (MRMs) for pesticides residues determination in fruit and vegetables, based on GC-MS, are mainly performed in electron impact ionization mode. However an important group of them provide much better response working in negative chemical ionization mode due to the elimination of a high percentage of background signal. Considering that a selective and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of multiclass pesticide residues in different commodities by GC-MS with a triple stage quadrupole analyzer (GC-TSQ-MS): the pesticide signal has been optimized in MS-MS whilst working in negative chemical ionization mode using methane as the reagent gas. The proposed method was fully validated for 53 compounds in tomato, apple and orange matrices. The obtained limits of determination were lower than 0.1 mu g/kg for more than 50% of the pesticides studied, and lower than 1 mu g/kg for all pesticides studied, except for cypermethrin, boscalid, bifenthrin and deltamethrin. Linearity was studied in the 0.5-50 mu g/kg range and a linear response was obtained for all pesticides in all matrices. Recoveries were evaluated at two different levels (1 and 50 mu g/kg) and recoveries were ranged between 70 and 120% in tomato, apple and orange, except in the cases of chlorfenapyr, ofurace, chlozolinate, chlorothalonil, tolylfluanid and dichlofluanid with recovery values close to 60% at 1 mu g/kg fortification levels. Repetitivity was evaluated and the relative standard deviation (RSD%) was lower than 10% in all cases. The developed method was employed in the analysis of real samples intended for baby food and the obtained results showed that 50% of the samples were positive for different pesticide residues. The concentration range detected was between 5 and 100 mu g/kg. The positive detection of OCs was particularly noticeable: these included chlorothalonil, fenhexamide, clorpyrifos and lambda cyhalothrin, which are very persistent and toxic with low acute reference dose. Endosulfan sulfate, which is not approved, was detected at a low concentration. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Negative chemical ionization, GC-MS/MS triple-quadrupole, Pesticides,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 034GW

1410. Valverde, B. E.; Merayo, A.; Rojas, C. E., and Alvarez, T. Interaction Between a Cover Crop (Mucuna sp.), a Weed (Rottboellia cochinchiensis) and a Crop (Maize). Vols. 1-3; International Conference, Brighton, England, UK, November 20-23, 1995. XXIII+419p.(Vol. 1); XXIII+359p.(Vol. 2); XXIII+421p.(Vol. 3) British Crop Protection Council (BCPC): Farnham, England, UK. ISBN 0-948404-89-2//: SOIL; 1995: 197-200.

Rec #: 2240
Keywords: NO EFFECT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,NHN,PAQT,PDM,PQT

1411. Van Audenhaege, M.; Heraud, F.; Menard, C.; Bouyrie, J.; Morois, S.; Calamassi-Tran, G.; Lesterle, S.; Volatier, J. L., and Leblanc, J. C. Impact of food consumption habits on the pesticide dietary intake: Comparison between a French vegetarian and the general population. 2009; 26, (10): 1372-1388.

Rec #: 71019
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This study aims to compare the pesticide residue dietary intake of the French general population and the vegetarian population, separated into five specific diets: omnivorous (OMN), lacto-vegetarian (LV), ovo-lacto-vegetarian (OLV), pesco-lacto-vegetarian (PLV) and vegan (VG). Theoretical Maximum Daily Intakes (TMDIs) based on Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) were calculated as a percentage of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Among the 421 pesticides studied, only 48 had TMDI above ADI for at least one population subgroup. An excessive exposure was noticed for 44, 43, 42, 41 and 30 pesticides in the OLV, VG, OMN, LV and PLV groups, respectively, versus 29 in the general population. Meat and egg products consumption was responsible for higher intakes of organochlorine pesticides in the general population than in the vegetarian population (TMDI = 348% versus 146-183% ADI for aldrin). However, as the limited consumption of animal-origin commodities was largely offset by a higher fruit, vegetable and cereal intake in the vegetarian diets, vegetarians appear to be preferentially exposed to pesticides, for which fruit, vegetables and cereals are the main contributors, such as tri-allate, chlorpyrifos-methyl and diazinon. This study illustrates that consumption habits have a real impact on pesticide exposure in terms of intake levels, number and type of pesticides, representing a potential risk of dietary exposure. Except for organochlorine compounds, the vegetarian population may be more exposed to pesticide residues than the general population due to specific dietary habits. Thus, this population should be considered for risk assessment of pesticide residues.
Keywords: exposure assessment, pesticide residues, vegetarian diet, consumption
ISI Document Delivery No.: 492WQ

1412. Van Den Brink, Paul J. Ecological Risk Assessment: From Book-Keeping to Chemical Stress Ecology. 2008 Dec 15; 42, (24): 8999-9004.

Rec #: 45319
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Software
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Daphnia -- drug effects
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants -- toxicity
Keywords: Endpoint Determination
Keywords: Records as Topic
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants
Keywords: Risk Assessment
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Ecology
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Ecotoxicology
Date completed - 2009-02-23
Date created - 2009-01-29
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 8999-9004
ProQuest ID - 66668595
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Environmental science & technology, December 15, 2008, 42(24):8999-9004
Corporate institution author - Van den Brink, Paul J
DOI - MEDL-19174864; 19174864; 0013-936X eng

1413. van der Schans, M. J.; Hulst, A. G.; van der Riet Çô van Oeveren, D.; Noort, D.; Benschop, H. P., and Dishovsky, Ch. New tools in diagnosis and biomonitoring of intoxications with organophosphorothioates: Case studies with chlorpyrifos and diazinon. (0).

Rec #: 2200
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are neurotoxic compounds that are widely used in agriculture. Classical methods for monitoring OP exposure comprise the measurement of intact OP, its metabolites or cholinesterase activity. Newly developed methods focus on the analysis of the OP adduct bound to proteins such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and albumin. These adducts can be analyzed by means of fluoride reactivation or by analysis with LCÇôMS/MS of the pepsin or pronase digest of butyrylcholinesterase and albumin, respectively. The utility of these methods is illustrated through the analysis of plasma samples obtained from patients taken 1Çô49 days after ingestion of the organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and/or diazinon. Thus, in this particular case several independent methodologies were applied to the biomedical samples, all pointing to the same exposure. Pesticides/ Diagnosis/ Organophosphates/ Adducts

1414. Van Dort, C. J.; Baghdoyan, H. A., and Lydic, R. Neurochemical Modulators of Sleep and Anesthetic States.

Rec #: 51179
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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COMMENTS: Cites: Anesth Analg. 2003 Mar;96(3):706-12, table of contents (medline /12598250)
COMMENTS: Cites: Neurosci Lett. 2003 Mar 6;338(3):229-32 (medline /12581838)
COMMENTS: Cites: Anesthesiology. 2003 Feb;98(2):428-36 (medline /12552203)
COMMENTS: Cites: Anesthesiology. 2003 Feb;98(2):404-11 (medline /12552200)
COMMENTS: Cites: Anesthesiology. 2003 Feb;98(2):364-72 (medline /12552195)
COMMENTS: Cites: Anesth Analg. 2003 Jan;96(1):148-52, table of contents (medline /12505941)
COMMENTS: Cites: Sleep. 2002 Dec15;25(8):835-41 (medline /12489888)
COMMENTS: Cites: Anesthesiology. 2002 Dec;97(6):1541-9 (medline /12459683)
COMMENTS: Cites: Anesthesiology. 2002 Oct;97(4):906-11 (medline /12357158)
MESH HEADINGS: Acetylcholine
MESH HEADINGS: *Anesthesia, General
MESH HEADINGS: Anesthetics/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Consciousness/*drug effects/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Neurotransmitter Agents/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Sleep/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Unconsciousness/*chemically induced
MESH HEADINGS: Wakefulness/*drug effects/*physiology eng

1415. Van Emmerik, T. J.; Angove, M. J.; Johnson, B. B., and Wells, J. D. Sorption of chlorpyrifos to selected minerals and the effect of humic acid. 2007; 55, (18): 7527-7533.

Rec #: 71039
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Sorption of chlorpyrifos (CPF) from 2.85 mu M (1 mg/L) aqueous solutions in 0.01 M NaCl to montmorillonite, kaolinite, and gibbsite was investigated at 25 degrees C. Uptake of CPF by kaolinite and gibbsite was generally < 10%, with pH having at most a small effect. Sorption to montmorillonite was significantly greater, with approximately 50% of the initial CPF being removed from solution below pH 5. Above pH 5 the sorption decreased to about 30%. About 70% of CPF was sorbed to kaolinite and gibbsite after 30 min, whereas on montmorillonite only 50% sorbed in an initial rapid uptake (-30 min) followed by slower sorption, with a maximum achieved by 24 h. Although CPF desorbed completely from kaolinite in methanol, only about two-thirds was desorbed from montmorillonite. CPF has only a weak affinity for the surfaces of kaolinite and gibbsite. In the case of montmorillonite, sorption is significantly stronger and may involve a combination of sorption to external surfaces and diffusion into microporous regions. At pH > 6 increased negative surface charge results in a lower affinity of CPF for the external surface. In the presence of 50 mg/L humic acid (HA) the amount of CPF sorbed on gibbsite and kaolinite was 3-4 times greater than that in the binary systems. The HA forms an organic coating on the mineral surface, providing a more hydrophobic environment, leading to enhanced CPF uptake. The HA coating on montmorillonite may reduce access of CPF to microporous regions, with CPF tending to accumulate within the HA coating.
Keywords: chlorpyrifos, sorption, montmorillonite, kaolinite, gibbsite, humic acid
ISI Document Delivery No.: 205YK

1416. Van Geen, A.; Zheng, Y.; Goodbred, S. Jr; Horneman, A.; Aziz, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Stute, M.; Mailloux, B.; Weinman, B.; Hoque, M. A.; Seddique, A. A.; Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, S. H., and Ahmed, K. M. Flushing History as a Hydrogeological Control on the Regional Distribution of Arsenic in Shallow Groundwater of the Bengal Basin.

Rec #: 79849
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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COMMENTS: Cites: Science. 2006 Dec 15;314(5806):1687-8 (medline /17170279)
COMMENTS: Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Dec 15;40(24):7745-50 (medline /17256522)
ABSTRACT: Whereas serious health consequences of widespread consumption of groundwater elevated in As have been documented in several South Asian countries, the mechanisms responsible for As mobilization in reducing aquifers remain poorly understood. We document here a previously unrecognized and consistent relationship between dissolved As concentrations in reducing groundwater and the phosphate-mobilizable As content of aquifer sediment for a set of precisely depth-matched samples from across Bangladesh. The relationship holds across nearly 3 orders of magnitude in As concentrations and suggests that regional as well as local patterns of dissolved As in shallow groundwater are set by the solid phase according to a remarkably constant ratio of approximately 250 microg/L dissolved As per 1 mg/kg P-mobilizable As. We use this relationship in a simple model of groundwater recharge to propose that the distribution of groundwater As in shallow aquifers of the Bengal Basin could primarily reflect the different flushing histories of sand formations deposited in the region over the past several thousand years.
MESH HEADINGS: Arsenic/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Geologic Sediments/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Geological Phenomena
MESH HEADINGS: Iron/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Oxidation-Reduction
MESH HEADINGS: Water Pollutants, Chemical/*analysis eng

1417. Van Toor, R. F.; Viljanen-Rollinson, S. L. H., and Teulon, D. A. J. Benchmarking of Potato Pesticide Use in Canterbury. SOIL; 2008; 61, 137-146.

Rec #: 1520
Keywords: NO TOX DATA

1418. van Vliet, E.; Stoppini, L.; Balestrino, M.; Eskes, C. ; Griesinger, C.; Sobanski, T.; Whelan, M.; Hartung, T., and Coecke, S. Electrophysiological recording of re-aggregating brain cell cultures on multi-electrode arrays to detect acute neurotoxic effects. 2007; 28, (6): 1136-1146.

Rec #: 71069
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Neurotoxicity aims to understand how xenobiotics interfere with the function of the nervous system and to unravel their mechanisms of action. Neuronal activity is the primary functional output of the nervous system and deviations from its resting level may indicate toxicity. Consequently, the monitoring of electrophysiological activity in complex cell culture systems appears particularly promising for neurotoxicity assessment. To detect acute neurotoxic effects of chemicals we developed a test system based on the electrophysiological recordings from neural networks in re-aggregating brain cell cultures using multi-electrode arrays. We characterised the electrophysiological properties of the cultures and, using known neurotoxicants, evaluated their usefulness to predict neurotoxic effects. Aggregates displayed evoked field potentials and spontaneous neural activity involving glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission. Paired pulse inhibition indicated the presence of short-term synaptic plasticity via functional inhibitory networks. Cultures were treated with 0.1-100 mu M of
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