Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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Using rat primary microglial cultures, here we show that Dichlorvos exposure can activate and induce apoptotic cell death in microglia. We observed significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory molecules like nitric oxide, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta when microglia were treated with Dichlorvos (10 mu M). Significant up-regulation of CD11b, microglial specific activation marker, was also observed after 24 h of Dichlorvos treatment. The activated microglial cells eventually undergo cell death after 48 h of Dichlorvos treatment. The DNA fragmentation pattern of Dichlorvos treated microglia along with increased expression of Bax in mitochondria, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and caspase-3 activation led us to assume that microglia were undergoing apoptosis. Thus, the present study showed that Dichlorvos can induce microglial activation and ultimately apoptotic cell death. These findings gave new perspective to the current knowledge of Dichlorvos (OPs) mediated CNS damage and presents microglial activation as a potential therapeutic target for preventing the OP induced neuronal damage.
Keywords: NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE, DUAL ROLE, BRAIN, MECHANISM, NEUROTOXICITY,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 990IS

1330. Swarcewicz, M. K. and Gregorczyk, A. The effects of pesticide mixtures on degradation of pendimethalin in soils. 2012; 184, (5): 3077-3084.


Rec #: 70109
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Most agronomic situations involve a sequence of herbicide, fungicide, and insecticide application. On the other hand, use of pesticidal combinations has become a standard practice in the production of many agricultural crops. One of the most important processes influencing the behavior of a pesticide in the environment is its degradation in soil. It is known that due to several pesticide applications in one vegetation season, the pesticide may be present in mixtures with other pesticides or xenobiotics in soil. This study examines the role which a mixture of chemicals plays in pesticide degradation. The influence of other pesticides on the rate of pendimethalin (PDM) degradation in soil was measured in controlled conditions. Mixtures of PDM with mancozeb or mancozeb and thiamethoxam significantly influenced the degradation of pendimethalin under controlled conditions. The second type of mixtures, with metribuzin or thiamethoxam, did not affect the behavior of pendimethalin in soil. Also, we determined the influence of water content on the rate of pendimethalin degradation alone in two soils and compared it to the rate in three pesticide mixtures. We compared two equations to evaluate the predictors of the rate of herbicide dissipation in soil: the first-order kinetic and the non-linear empirical models. We used the non-linear empirical model assuming that the degradation rate of a herbicide in soil is proportional to the difference of the observed concentration of herbicide in soil at time and concentration of herbicide in the last day of measurement.
Keywords: Dissipation, Mancozeb, Metribuzin, Pendimethalin, Soil, Thiamethoxam
ISI Document Delivery No.: 933RX

1331. Swier, S. R.; Rollins, A.; Nye, L.; Rodgers, V., and Johnson, A. Efficacy of Nematodes, Talstar and Lorsban for Residual Control of Black Vine Weevil, 1998. SOIL; 1999; 24, 77-78 (C20).


Rec #: 2270
Keywords: NO CONC
Call Number: NO CONC (BFT,CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: BFT,CPY

1332. Taccari, M ; Comitini, F; Casucci, C; Ciani, M, and Taccari, M. Toxicity Assessment of Compounds in Soil Using a Simple Respirometric Technique. 2011 Jan; 65, ( 1): 60-64.


Rec #: 43659
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A laboratory procedure using a simple respirometric technique was evaluated to determine the microbial toxicity in soil of three toxicant compounds: two pesticides, chlorpyrifos and glyphosate; and diesel oil. The microbial toxicity was tested using the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) method, evaluating the soil samples for both the reduction in maximum SOUR (SOUR sub(max)) and the cumulative oxygen demands after 20 h (OD sub(20)). Consumption rate curves were produced for the lowest concentrations assessed: diesel (2460 ppm), chlorpyrifos (62.5 ppm), and glyphosate (250 ppm) (limiting amounts considered as local soil contamination). In comparison with the control, these showed drastic reductions in SOUR sub(max), demonstrating the high sensitivity of this SOUR method. The SOUR sub(max) provides a better indication of the microbial toxicity of these contaminants compared to the OD sub(20) because of the different effects of these toxic compounds on microbial communities in the soil. Increasing concentrations of these toxic compounds resulted in different responses, evaluated as percentage inhibition by these different xenobiotic compounds. For these reasons, the microbial toxicity of xenobiotic compounds can be better recognized with SOUR sub(max) as compared to other respirometric methodologies.
Keywords: A 01380:Plant Protection, Fungicides & Seed Treatments
Keywords: Sour taste
Keywords: Biodeterioration
Keywords: Biodegradation
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Toxicants
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: Microbial activity
Keywords: Xenobiotics
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Oil
Keywords: Soil pollution
Keywords: Oxygen
Keywords: W 30950:Waste Treatment & Pollution Clean-up
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: soil contamination
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Diesel
Keywords: Contaminants
Keywords: Glyphosate
Keywords: Biology
Date revised - 2011-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 60-64
ProQuest ID - 876369183
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sour taste; Biodeterioration; Biodegradation; Toxicants; Contamination; Toxicity; Oil; Soil; Chlorpyrifos; Soil pollution; Oxygen; Pesticides; Diesel; Contaminants; Glyphosate; soil contamination; Microbial activity; Xenobiotics
Last updated - 2011-11-09
Corporate institution author - Taccari, M; Comitini, F; Casucci, C; Ciani, M
DOI - OB-818851ac-1222-47a2-8d98csamfg201; 14183910; 0964-8305 English

1333. Tadeo, J. L.; Castro, J., and Sanchez-Brunete, C. Multiresidue Determination in Soil of Pesticides Used in Tomato Crops by Sonication-Assisted Extraction in Small Columns and Gas Chromatography. SOIL; 2004; 84, (1-3): 29-37.


Rec #: 1420
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Call Number: NO CHEM METHODS (CPY,ES1,ES2,ESS,PDM,TFN)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: BTL,CPY,EFL,ES1,ES2,ESS,PDM,TFN

1334. Taggart, D. J.; Mitchell, J. K., and Friesen, P. D. A Conserved N-Terminal Domain Mediates Required Dna Replication Activities and Phosphorylation of the Transcriptional Activator Ie1 of Autographa Californica Multicapsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus.


Rec #: 49939
Keywords: VIRUS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: IE1 is the principal transcriptional regulator of the baculoviruses. Like multifunctional transcription factors of other large DNA viruses, IE1 is an essential, site-specific DNA-binding phosphoprotein that activates virus gene expression and promotes genome replication. To define the poorly understood mechanisms by which IE1 achieves its diverse functions, we identified IE1 domains that contribute to productive infection of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the baculovirus prototype. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the N-terminal 23 residues of IE1 are required for origin-specific DNA replication and AcMNPV propagation, but not for DNA-binding-dependent transcriptional activation. Within this defined replication domain, we identified an invariant TPXR/H motif that resembles a consensus cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation site. Amino acid substitutions of potential phosphorylation sites within or near this motif caused loss of IE1-mediated DNA replication activity. Remarkably, substitution of the single threonine (residue 15) within the TPXR/H motif caused complete loss of AcMNPV multiplication. The replication domain was required for IE1 phosphorylation. It was also sufficient for conferring phosphorylation of a heterologous protein. Importantly, IE1 hyperphosphorylation coincided exclusively with AcMNPV DNA replication. The temporal regulation of IE1 phosphorylation and the essential nature of the TPXR/H motif suggest that phosphorylation critically alters and possibly activates DNA replication activity of IE1 during infection. The striking conservation of the TPXR/H motif among IE1 proteins further suggests that this molecular switch may be a common mechanism by which the alphabaculoviruses coordinate DNA replication and gene expression by using a single regulator.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Line
MESH HEADINGS: Conserved Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: *DNA Replication
MESH HEADINGS: Drosophila melanogaster
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
MESH HEADINGS: Immediate-Early Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Nucleopolyhedrovirus/chemistry/*genetics/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Phosphorylation
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Structure, Tertiary
MESH HEADINGS: Spodoptera
MESH HEADINGS: Trans-Activators/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Virus Replication eng

1335. Tait, S.; Ricceri, L.; Venerosi, A.; Maranghi, F.; Calamandrei, G., and Mantovani, A. Long-Term Effect of Developmental Exposure to Chlorpyrifos on Hypothalamic Neuropeptides in Mice. 2008; 180, (Suppl. 1): S175(ABS).


Rec #: 1430
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Call Number: NO ABSTRACT (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1336. Tait, Sabrina; Ricceri, Laura; Venerosi, Aldina; Maranghi, Francesca; Calamandrei, Gemma, and Mantovani, Alberto. Long-term effect of developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos on hypothalamic neuropeptides in mice: Abstracts of the 45th Congress of the European Societies of Toxicology. 2008 Oct 5-; 180, Supplement, (0): S175.


Rec #: 2480
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1337. Takahashi, S.; Kawashima, K.; Kawasaki, M.; Kamito, J. ; Endo, Y.; Akatsu, K.; Horino, S.; Yamada, R., and Kera, Y. Enrichment and characterization of chlorinated organophosphate ester-degrading mixed bacterial cultures. 2008; 106, (1): 27-32.


Rec #: 70139
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorinated organophosphate ester (OPE)-degrading enrichment cultures were obtained using tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) or tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) as the sole phosphorus source. In cultures with 46 environmental samples, significant TCEP and TDCPP degradation was observed in 10 and 3 cultures, respectively, and successive subcultivation markedly increased their degradation rates. 67E and 45D stable enrichment cultures obtained with TCEP and TDCPP, respectively, completely degraded 20 mu M of the respective compounds within 6 h and also the other, although the degradation rate of TCEP by 45D was relatively slow. We confirmed chloride ion generation on degradation in both cases and the generation of 2-chloroethanol (2-CE) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) as metabolites of TCEP and TDCPP, respectively. 67E and 45D also showed dehalogenation ability toward 2-CE and 1,3-DCP, respectively. Addition of inorganic phosphate did not significantly influence their ability to degrade the chlorinated OPEs but markedly increased their dehalogenation ability, which was maximum at 0.2 mM of inorganic phosphate and decreased at a higher concentration. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that dominant bacteria in 67E are related to Acidovorax spp. and Sphingomonas spp. and those in 45D are Acidovorax spp., Aquabacterium spp., and Sphingomonas spp. This analysis indicated the relationship of the Sphingomonas- and Acidovorax-related bacteria with the cleavage of the phosphoester bond and dehalogenation, respectively, in both cultures. This is the first report on bacterial enrichment cultures capable of degrading both TCEP and TDCPP.
Keywords: tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 352PG

1338. Tamarit-L+¦pez, Jes+ s; Morais, Sergi; Puchades, Rosa, and Maquieira, +üngel. Direct hapten-linked multiplexed immunoassays on polycarbonate surface. 2011 Jan 15-; 26, (5): 2694-2698.


Rec #: 5750
Keywords: METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Direct hapten-linked multiplexed immunoassay is developed on the polycarbonate surface of standard Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs) for six compounds of environmental concern, as proof of concept. Carboxylated haptens are directly linked to the aminated polycarbonate surface through carbodiimide/succinimide coupling. The modified DVD surface maintained its physical and optical properties. Multiplexed assay reached detection limits down to 0.1 ++g/L for chlorpyrifos, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropionic acid, sulfathiazole and sulfasalazine and down to 1.0 ++g/L for fenthion and malathion. This approach presents advantages such as the improvement in sensitivity in comparison to proteinÇôhapten conjugate format for all the studied analytes and the absence of cross-interference effects, allowing high throughput multianalysis on the same surface. Also, a comparison of the performance of two sensing strategies indicated that DVD disc and drive approach turned out in a simpler mode, the assays being more reproducible and with higher signal to noise ratios. Direct hapten-linked immunoassay/ Polycarbonate/ Digital versatile disc/ Microarray/ Multiplexed analysis

1339. Tamarit-Lopez, J.; Morais, S.; Banuls, M. J.; Puchades, R., and Maquieira, A. Development of Hapten-Linked Microimmunoassays on Polycarbonate Discs. 2010; 82, (5): 1954-1963.


Rec #: 70159
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An amino-modified polycarbonate surface of compact discs is used to link haptens covalently and directly as an alternative to the classic protein-hapten conjugate adsorption coating strategy employed in immunoassays. The modified surface maintains its physical and optical properties, and a standard disk drive can then read the assay results. Advantages are evaluated, such as the use of it broader spectrum of coupling media including organic, solvents that are inappropriate for proteins but necessary for some water-insoluble haptens and the bypassing of the synthesis and purification for protein conjugates. As proof of concept, competitive microimmunoassays were developed for chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid (2,4,5-TP), in microarray format, obtaining detection limits of 37.2, 8.1, and 76 ng/L, respectively. The sensitivity was 1 order of magnitude better than that obtained for all the studied systems using hapten-protein conjugates adsorbed on polystyrene enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates and polycarbonate surfaces. Further, the influence of hapten structure and presentation on molecular recognition pattern is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first time that microarray and compact disc technologies converge with this particular hapten immobilization mode. The great potential of the approach is demonstrated through the high-throughput capability of the disc in a range of analytical applications, as well as the inherent advantages of compact disc reading technology.
Keywords: IMMUNOSORBENT-ASSAY, 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID, MICROTITER PLATES,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 559QN

1340. Tamasi, V. ; Miller, K. K.; Ripp, S. L.; Vila, E.; Geoghagen, T. E., and Prough, R. A. Modulation of Receptor Phosphorylation Contributes to Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Alpha by Dehydroepiandrosterone and Other Peroxisome Proliferators.


Rec #: 51329
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a C19 human adrenal steroid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in vivo but does not ligand-activate PPARalpha in transient transfection experiments. We demonstrate that DHEA regulates PPARalpha action by altering both the levels and phosphorylation status of the receptor. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were transiently transfected with the expression plasmid encoding PPARalpha and a plasmid containing two copies of fatty acyl coenzyme oxidase (FACO) peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor responsive element consensus oligonucleotide in a luciferase reporter gene. Nafenopin treatment increased reporter gene activity in this system, whereas DHEA treatment did not. Okadaic acid significantly decreased nafenopin-induced reporter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Okadaic acid treatment of primary rat hepatocytes decreased both DHEA- and nafenopin-induced FACO activity in primary rat hepatocytes. DHEA induced both PPARalpha mRNA and protein levels, as well as PP2A message in primary rat hepatocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the serines at positions 12 and 21 were rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment with DHEA and nafenopin. Results using specific protein phosphatase inhibitors suggested that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for DHEA action, and protein phosphatase 1 might be involved in nafenopin induction. Mutation of serines at position 6, 12, and 21 to an uncharged alanine residue significantly increased transcriptional activity, whereas mutation to negative charged aspartate residues (mimicking receptor phosphorylation) decreased transcriptional activity. DHEA action involves induction of PPARalpha mRNA and protein levels as well as increased PPARalpha transcriptional activity through decreasing receptor phosphorylation at serines in the AF1 region.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Line, Tumor
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Survival/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Cells, Cultured
MESH HEADINGS: Data Interpretation, Statistical
MESH HEADINGS: Dehydroepiandrosterone/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
MESH HEADINGS: Genes, Reporter
MESH HEADINGS: Hepatocytes/drug effects/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Luciferases/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Mutation
MESH HEADINGS: Nafenopin/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: PPAR alpha/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Peroxisome Proliferators/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Phosphorylation/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Plasmids
MESH HEADINGS: Pyrimidines/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis
MESH HEADINGS: Rats
MESH HEADINGS: Rats, Sprague-Dawley
MESH HEADINGS: Transfection eng

1341. Tan, D. H. ; Peng, S. Q.; Wu, Y. L.; Wang, Y. M.; Lu, C. F., and Yan, C. H. Chronic organophosphate (OP)-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a withdrawal syndrome. 2009; 72, (4): 405-406.


Rec #: 70189
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a less well-characterized syndrome, which is usually delay-occurred, persists long and is similar to the symptom of cholinergic deficit, its mechanism is unclear. The characteristics of chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder are somewhat opposite to the direct action of OP pesticide, since withdrawal effect is usually opposite to the original effect of a drug, hypothesis that chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a kind of withdrawal syndrome is suggested. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM, ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE, EXPOSURE, NEURONS,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 425EM

1342. Tan, De-Hong; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Wu, Ying-Liang; Wang, Yi-Mei; Lu, Chun-Feng; Ding, Wei; Wang, Qiao-Xu, and Yan, Chang-Hui. Chlorpyrifos Induces Delayed Cytotoxicity After Withdrawal in Primary Hippocampal Neurons Through Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Inhibition. 2009 Oct; 32, (10): 1649-1655.


Rec #: 40969
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In this study, the delayed effect and related mechanism after chlorpyrifos (CPF) withdrawal was studied in primary rat hippocampal neurons. The results showed that 10 muM CPF induced no detectable cytotoxicity during 96 h continuous exposure while its withdrawal after 48 h exposure induced evident cytotoxicity, as indexed by decreased methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) metabolism, increased loss of neurons immunostained by neuron-specific enolase (NSE) antibody, and the increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cell rate in the following 24 h and 48 h incubation in the absence of CPF. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 activation by phosphorylation was observed and persisted during CPF exposure. However, CPF withdrawal after 48 h exposure led to inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Carbacol and nerve growth factor (NGF), which are ERK1/2 activators, protected the neurons after CPF withdrawal, while atropine and PD98059, which are ERK1/2 inhibitors, exacerbated the cytotoxicity, indicating the involvement of inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in CPF-induced delayed cytotoxicity. In conclusion, CPF withdrawal after exposure induced delayed cytotoxicity in cultured neurons. Inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was found to be related to the delayed cytotoxicity. This finding may provide a new insight into the toxicological mechanism of organophosphorus pesticides, especially chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by delayed occurrence.
Keywords: 51-55-8
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: 51-83-2
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Cholinergic Agonists
Keywords: Neurons -- drug effects
Keywords: EC 2.7.11.24
Keywords: Cholinergic Agonists -- pharmacology
Keywords: Nerve Growth Factor -- pharmacology
Keywords: Hippocampus -- drug effects
Keywords: Rats
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Phosphorylation
Keywords: Flavonoids -- pharmacology
Keywords: Atropine -- pharmacology
Keywords: Phosphopyruvate Hydratase -- immunology
Keywords: Insecticides -- toxicity
Keywords: PD 98059
Keywords: Flavonoids
Keywords: EC 4.2.1.11
Keywords: 9061-61-4
Keywords: Nerve Growth Factor
Keywords: Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: In Situ Nick-End Labeling
Keywords: Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases -- antagonists & inhibitors
Keywords: Carbachol
Keywords: Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
Keywords: Carbachol -- pharmacology
Keywords: Atropine
Date completed - 2010-01-28
Date created - 2009-10-05
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1649-1655
ProQuest ID - 734069651
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin, October 2009, 32(10):1649-1655
Corporate institution author - Tan, De-Hong; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Wu, Ying-Liang; Wang, Yi-Mei; Lu, Chun-Feng; Ding, Wei; Wang, Qiao-Xu; Yan, Chang-Hui
DOI - MEDL-19801823; 19801823; 1347-5215 eng

1343. Tan, Furong; Wang, Ligang; Wang, Jinbin; Wu, Xiao; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Lingxi; Tao, Shiru; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Yan; Tang, Xueming, and Tang, Xueming. Enhanced Pesticide Sensitivity of Novel Housefly Actylcholinesterases: a New Tool for the Detection of Residual Pesticide Contamination. 2011 Mar; 34, (3): 305-314.


Rec #: 43499
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The full-length cDNA encoding an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was cloned and sequenced from the housefly, Musca domestica, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence analysis revealed that this 2,076bp sequence encodes a mature protein of 612 amino acids (67kDa) and a 79 residue signal peptide. The amino acid sequence shared 52.8-81.4% identity with the AChE proteins of other insects. The cDNA sequence, which lacked the signal peptide was inserted into the vector pPIC9K and then introduced into strain GS115 of the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant AChE protein was then expressed in P. pastoris strain GS115 by methanol induction. Site-directed mutagenesis of the A262G, Y327F, Y327D and I374D residues, either singly or in combination, was performed by reverse PCR. These mutants improved the catalytic activity and sensitivity to the organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Although the sensitivity of other mutants was slightly increased, the results still showed that the sensitivity of triple mutant, GDD (A262G/Y327D/I374D), enhanced remarkably as much as 16 times for methomyl, 14 times for both carbofuran and chlorpyrifos, and ten times for parathion-methyl, compared to that of the wild-type. The results strongly suggested that these residues are the key structural elements controlling AChE enzyme catalytic activity and sensitivity to inhibition by insecticides. The AChE enzyme obtained by this method could be used to detect the organophosphate and carbamate insecticide residues in fruits and vegetables, a characteristic of great potential research and industrial application.
Keywords: Site-directed mutagenesis
Keywords: Musca domestica
Keywords: Fruits
Keywords: Z 05300:General
Keywords: Vegetables
Keywords: Entomology Abstracts; Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: Carbofuran
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Signal peptides
Keywords: Methanol
Keywords: Vectors
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Pesticides (carbamates)
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: W 30905:Medical Applications
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Industrial applications
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction
Keywords: Pichia pastoris
Keywords: Amino acid sequence
Date revised - 2011-07-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 305-314
ProQuest ID - 879474857
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Site-directed mutagenesis; Fruits; Vegetables; Contamination; Carbofuran; Acetylcholinesterase; Methanol; Signal peptides; Enzymes; Vectors; organophosphates; Pesticides (carbamates); Chlorpyrifos; Insecticides; Industrial applications; Pesticides; Polymerase chain reaction; Amino acid sequence; Musca domestica; Pichia pastoris
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering [Bioprocess Biosystems Eng.]. Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 305-314. Mar 2011.
Corporate institution author - Tan, Furong; Wang, Ligang; Wang, Jinbin; Wu, Xiao; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Lingxi; Tao, Shiru; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Yan; Tang, Xueming
DOI - 12bfa6d5-c290-43d5-9225mfgefd101; 14379430; 1615-7591; 1615-7605 English

1344. Tan, S.; Lam, W. P.; Wai, M. S.; Yu, W. H., and Yew, D. T. Chronic Ketamine Administration Modulates Midbrain Dopamine System in Mice.


Rec #: 73659
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Ketamine is an anesthetic and a popular abusive drug. As an anesthetic, effects of ketamine on glutamate and GABA transmission have been well documented but little is known about its long-term effects on the dopamine system. In the present study, the effects of ketamine on dopamine were studied in vitro and in vivo. In pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells and NGF differentiated-PC 12 cells, ketamine decreased the cell viability while increasing dopamine (DA) concentrations in a dose-related manner. However, ketamine did not affect the expression of genes involved in DA synthesis. In the long-term (3 months) ketamine treated mice, significant increases of DA contents were found in the midbrain. Increased DA concentrations were further supported by up-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. Activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons could be related to ketamine modulated cortical-subcortical glutamate connections. Using western blotting, significant increases in BDNF protein levels were found in the midbrain, suggesting that perhaps BDNF pathways in the cortical-subcortical connections might contribute to the long-term ketamine induced TH upregulation. These data suggest that long-term ketamine abuse caused a delayed and persistent upregulation of subcortical DA systems, which may contribute to the altered mental status in ketamine abusers.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Dopamine/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Dopaminergic Neurons/*drug effects/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
MESH HEADINGS: Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/*administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage
MESH HEADINGS: Ketamine/*administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage
MESH HEADINGS: Mesencephalon/*drug effects/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: PC12 Cells
MESH HEADINGS: Rats
MESH HEADINGS: Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Up-Regulation/drug effects eng

1345. Tanaka, A.; Masago, H.; Kanou, K., and Ujiie, A. Studies on Simple Analytical Methods of Trace Pesticides in Water and Acute Toxicity to Fish. I. Simple Test Methods for Organophosphate Pesticides and Fish Swimming Test for Pesticide Toxicity. II. A.Tanaka, Public Health Inst. Gunma Prefect., Gunma, Japan//: 1982; 24, (8): 907-915(JPN).


Rec #: 1440
Keywords: NON-ENGLISH
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1346. Tanaka, T.; Hori, T.; Asada, T.; Oikawa, K., and Kawata, K. Simple one-step extraction and cleanup by pressurized liquid extraction for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of pesticides in green leafy vegetables. 2007; 1175, (2): 181-186.


Rec #: 70209
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A simple one-step extraction and cleanup using a pressurized liquid extraction method was developed for the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of pesticides in vegetables. The pressurized liquid extraction conditions were optimized and cleanup agents were evaluated. The investigated pesticides included six insecticides, chlorpyrifos methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, malathion, chlorpyrifos, O-ethyl O-4-nitrophenylphenyl phosphonothioate (EPN) and permethrins, a fungicide, isoprothiolane, and a herbicides, thiobencarb. The cleanup agent and a mixture of the vegetable and anhydrous sodium sulfate were separately packed in an extraction vessel. A transparent and colorless extract was obtained using graphitized carbon as the cleanup agent. The overall recoveries were 71-103% and the relative standard deviations ranged from 5.6 to 24%. The limit of detection values were 3-8 mu g kg(-1). This method was successfully applied to green leafy vegetables. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: vegetable, GC-MS, cleanup, pesticide, pressurized liquid extraction
ISI Document Delivery No.: 245PK

1347. Tang, F.; Shen, X., and Gao, X. W. In Vitro Inhibition of the Diphenolase Activity of Tyrosinase by Insecticides and Allelochemicals in Micromelalopha troglodyta (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae). 2009; 44, (2): 111-119.


Rec #: 70219
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Tyrosinase is a copper enzyme and plays a key role in normal insect development. We studied the in vitro inhibitory effects of selected insecticides and allelochemicals on the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase in Micromelalopha troglodyta (Graeser) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae). Two pyrethriods (cyfluthrin and deltamethrin) and 3 other insecticides (hexaflumuron, abamectin and imidacloprid) were the least inhibitory, whereas 5 organophosphates (triazophos, malathion, chlorpyrifos, omethoate and profenofos), 1 carbamate (methomyl), 4 pyrethriods (fenpropathrin, beta-cypermethrin, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), 1 organochlorine (endosulfan), 2 allelochemicals (tannic acid and 2-tridecanone) and 4 other insecticides (emamectin benzoate, fipronil, acetamiprid and pyridaben) were moderately inhibitory. Three chemicals (quercetin, phenyl thiourea and phoxim) were the most potent inhibitors of the enzymes among all compounds tested and inhibited the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase in vitro in a close-dependent manner. Furthermore, phenyl thiourea, phoxim and quercetin showed neither typical competitive nor noncompetitive binding to the substrate, with Ki of 0.13 mu M, 49.30 mu M and 37.71 mu M, respectively.
Keywords: diphenolase activity, tyrosinase, Micromelalopha troglodyta,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 436OE

1348. Tang, F; Wang, Y Y; Gao, X W, and Tang, F. In Vitro Inhibition of Carboxylesterases by Insecticides and Allelochemicals in the Larvae and Adults of Odontotermes Formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae). 2009; 53, (3): 667-675.


Rec #: 45309
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In vitro inhibitory effects by insecticides and allelochemicals on carboxylesterase activity were studied in the larvae and adults of Odontotermes formosanus. The results showed that five insecticides (phoxim, chlorpyrifos, triazophos, malathion and profenofos) were the best inhibitors of the enzymes among all compounds tested in these two stages, and these five insecticides inhibited carboxylesterase activity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the I sub(5)0 values of these five insecicides for carboxylesterase activity in these two stages ranged from 4.39x10 super(-8) to 6.4x10 super(-4) M, and these five insecticides inhibited carboxylesterase activity to different degrees in larvae and adults. These results may contribute to the understanding of the sensitivity difference of the larvae and adults of O. formosanus to pesticides, and could provide the basis for the management of O. formosanus.
Keywords: G 07810:Insects
Keywords: Termitidae
Keywords: Allelochemicals
Keywords: Z 05350:Medical, Veterinary, and Agricultural Entomology
Keywords: Carboxylesterase
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Y 25040:Behavioral Ecology
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Odontotermes
Keywords: Phoxim
Keywords: triazophos
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: D 04040:Ecosystem and Ecology Studies
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Genetics Abstracts; Entomology Abstracts; Animal Behavior Abstracts; Ecology Abstracts
Keywords: Isoptera
Date revised - 2009-11-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 667-675
ProQuest ID - 21147276
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Phoxim; triazophos; Insecticides; Pesticides; Allelochemicals; Enzymes; Carboxylesterase; Malathion; Odontotermes; Termitidae; Isoptera
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Sociobiology [Sociobiology]. Vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 667-675. 2009.
Corporate institution author - Tang, F; Wang, Y Y; Gao, X W
DOI - MD-0010940005; 11188931; 0361-6525 English

1349. Tang, F.; Zhang, X. B.; Liu, Y. S., and Gao, X. W. Tissue Distribution and Properties of Glutathione S-Transferases in Micromelalopha troglodyta (Lepidoptera : Notodontidae). 2008; 43, (3): 268-278.


Rec #: 2490
Keywords: IN VITRO
Call Number: NO IN VITRO (BFT,CPY,CYP,FPN,FPP,HFR,IMC,LCYT,MLN,MOM,OMT,PFF,PRB)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ABM,ACT,BFT,CPY,CYP,EMMB,FPN,FPP,HFR,IMC,LCYT,MLN,MOM,OMT,PFF,PRB

1350. Tang, J. S.; Zhang, M.; Cheng, G. H.; Li, A., and Lu, Y. T. Development of IC-ELISA for detection of organophosphorus pesticides in water. 2008; 43, (8): 707-712.


Rec #: 70249
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Diethyl (carboxymethyl) phosphonate (DECP) was used as the hapten to develop an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) for detecting organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Conjugator of DECP with bovin serum albumin (BSA) was used as the immunogen for producing the polyclonal antibodies (PcAbs). Three antisera were obtained after the immune procedure. Characterization studies of the PcAbs indicated that the titer of antiserum-1 was highest in 3 antisera, and antiserum-1 had high affinity and specificity to the parathion, dichlorvos and pirimiphos. The IC-ELISA showed an IC(50) of 0.428 mu g/mL with a detection limit of 0.0125 mu g/mL to parathion. The assay also indicated that the IC50 values of pirimiphos and dichlorvos were 0.331 mu g/mL and 1.25 mu g/mL respectively, and the detection limits of pirimiphos and dichlorvos were 0.0116 mu g/mL and 0.048 mu g/mL respectively. Recoveries of parathion, pirimiphos and dichlorvos spiked into water samples ranged from 90% to 160%. The results indicated that the ELISA could be a convenient and supplemental analytical tool for monitoring OPs residues in environmental water samples.
Keywords: Organophosphorus insecticide, indirect competitive enzyme-linked
ISI Document Delivery No.: 362XF

1351. Tang, Q.; Ben¡Tez, R., and Zeng, F. G. Spatial Channel Interactions in Cochlear Implants.


Rec #: 50109
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis owing to its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same five modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured the voltage distribution as a function of the electrode position in the cochlea in response to the stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of the electrode position in response to the stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or less in all measurements. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing a wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal side. In contrast, the evoked compound action potential and perceptual channel interaction data showed much greater individual variability. It is likely that actual reduction in neural and higher level interactions, instead of simple sharpening of the electric current field, would be the key to predicting and hopefully improving the variable cochlear implant performance. The present results are obtained with auditory prostheses but can be applied to other neural prostheses, in which independent spatial channels, rather than a high stimulation rate, are critical to their performance.
MESH HEADINGS: Action Potentials/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Aged
MESH HEADINGS: Algorithms
MESH HEADINGS: Child
MESH HEADINGS: *Cochlear Implants
MESH HEADINGS: Deafness/etiology/therapy
MESH HEADINGS: Electromagnetic Fields
MESH HEADINGS: Female
MESH HEADINGS: Hearing Tests
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Linear Models
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Middle Aged
MESH HEADINGS: Noise/adverse effects
MESH HEADINGS: *Prosthesis Design eng

1352. Tang, Tiantian; Dong, Jing; Ai, Shiyun; Qiu, Yanyan; Han, Ruixia, and Tang, Tiantian. Electro-Enzymatic Degradation of Chlorpyrifos by Immobilized Hemoglobin. 2011 Apr 15; 188, (1-3): 92-97.


Rec #: 39849
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Electro-enzymatic processes, which are enzyme catalysis combined with electrochemical reactions, have been used in the degradation of many environment pollutants. For some pollutants, the catalytic mechanisms of the electrochemical-enzyme reaction are still poorly understood. In this paper, the degradation of chlorpyrifos by a combination of immobilized hemoglobin and in situ generated hydrogen peroxide is reported for the first time. Hemoglobin was immobilized on graphite felts to catalyze the removal of chlorpyrifos in an electrochemical-enzyme system. Under the optimal conditions, more than 98% of the chlorpyrifos was degraded. Furthermore, the degradation products of chlorpyrifos were also studied and identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results suggest a possible degradation mechanism for chlorpyrifos with low power and high efficiency, reveal the feasibility of hemoglobin as a substitute for some expensive natural enzymes, and demonstrate the application of an electro-enzymatic process in the treatment of organophosphorus compounds in wastewater.
Keywords: Environmental degradation
Keywords: Feasibility studies
Keywords: P 3000:SEWAGE & WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Keywords: Graphite
Keywords: Organophosphorus compounds
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Wastewater treatment
Keywords: Spectrometry
Keywords: Hemoglobin
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Hydrogen peroxide
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Waste water
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Degradation products
Keywords: Catalysis
Date revised - 2011-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 92-97
ProQuest ID - 867737921
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Hemoglobin; Chlorpyrifos; Organophosphorus compounds; Graphite; Pollutants; Hydrogen peroxide; Enzymes; Waste water; Degradation products; Catalysis; Spectrometry; Feasibility studies; Environmental degradation; Degradation; Pesticides; Wastewater treatment
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Hazardous Materials [J. Hazard. Mater.]. Vol. 188, no. 1-3, pp. 92-97. 15 Apr 2011.
Corporate institution author - Tang, Tiantian; Dong, Jing; Ai, Shiyun; Qiu, Yanyan; Han, Ruixia
DOI - 82a94149-23a0-477a-bf89csamfg201; 14563808; 0304-3894 English

1353. Tarantino, G.; Di Minno, M. N., and Capone, D. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Is It Somehow Foreseeable?


Rec #: 50839
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: The classic view on the pathogenesis of drug-induced liver injury is that the so-called parent compounds are made hepatotoxic by metabolism (formation of neo-substances that react abnormally), mainly by cytochromes P-450 (CYP), with further pathways, such as mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, also playing a role. Risk factors for drug-induced liver injury include concomitant hepatic diseases, age and genetic polymorphisms of CYP. However, some susceptibility can today be predicted before drug administration, working on the common substrate, by phenotyping and genotyping studies and by taking in consideration patients' health status. Physicians should always think of this adverse effect in the absence of other clear hepatic disease. Ethical and legal problems towards operators in the health care system are always matters to consider.
MESH HEADINGS: Age Factors
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Calcium/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Dietary Supplements
MESH HEADINGS: Disease Susceptibility
MESH HEADINGS: Drug Interactions
MESH HEADINGS: Drug-Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Genotype
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Hypersensitivity, Immediate
MESH HEADINGS: Lipid Peroxidation
MESH HEADINGS: *Liver/drug effects/metabolism/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Liver Diseases/epidemiology/genetics/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Nutritional Status
MESH HEADINGS: Oxidative Stress
MESH HEADINGS: Pharmaceutical Preparations/*adverse effects
MESH HEADINGS: Phenotype
MESH HEADINGS: Sex Factors eng

1354. Tassano, M. R.; Audicio, P. F.; Gambini, J. P.; Fernandez, M.; Damian, J. P.; Moreno, M.; Chabalgoity, J. A.; Alonso, O.; Benech, J. C., and Cabral, P. Development of 99mtc(Co)₃-Dendrimer-Fitc for Cancer Imaging.


Rec #: 50079
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Study of fluorophore and technetium labeling of poly(amido)-amine (PAMAM) generation 4 (G4) dendrimer and its evaluation as potential molecular imaging agent in both normal and melanoma-bearing mice, are described. Dendrimers were first conjugated with FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate). Dendrimer-FITC was then incubated with the intermediate [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) and purified by gel filtration. Biodistribution and scintigraphy images were performed administrating (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-dendrimer-FITC to normal mice (NM) or melanoma-bearing mice (MBM). Cryostat tissue sections from MBM mice were analyzed by confocal microscopy. Radiolabeling yield of dendrimer was approx. 90%. The (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-dendrimer-FITC complex was stable for at least 24h. Biodistribution studies in NM showed blood clearance with hepatic and renal depuration. MBM showed a similar pattern of biodistribution with high tumor uptake that allowed tumor imaging. Confocal microscopy analysis showed cytoplasmic distribution of (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-dendrimer-FITC.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Dendrimers/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/*pharmacokinetics
MESH HEADINGS: Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/*pharmacokinetics
MESH HEADINGS: Melanoma, Experimental/*radionuclide imaging
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Inbred C57BL
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Imaging/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Organotechnetium Compounds/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/*pharmacokinetics
MESH HEADINGS: Polyamines/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/*pharmacokinetics
MESH HEADINGS: Radiopharmaceuticals/administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/*pharmacokinetics
MESH HEADINGS: Time Factors
MESH HEADINGS: Tissue Distribution eng

1355. Tejada, A. W. and Calumpang, S. M. F. The Fate of Carbofuran in Rice-Fish and Live-Stock Farming. 8253//: 1990; 36, (3): 237-243.


Rec #: 1450
Keywords: SURVEY
Call Number: NO SURVEY (CBF,CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CBF,CPY

1356. Teller, C; Halamek, J; Zeravik, J; Stocklein, Wfm; Scheller, F W, and Teller, C. Development of a Bifunctional Sensor Using Haptenized Acetylcholinesterase and Application for the Detection of Cocaine and Organophosphates. 2008 Sep 15; 24, (1): 111-117.


Rec #: 49199
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We developed a dual piezoelectric/amperometric sensor for the detection of two unrelated analytes in one experiment that uses propidium to anchor
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