Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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Analysis of juvenile striped bass liver extracts revealed site-specific elevations of vitellogenin, metallothionein, and EROD biomarkers across the estuary. Although some striped bass in the estuary showed EROD activity similar to unhandled hatchery controls, several sites in the estuary showed significantly higher EROD activity that was in the range of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF)-injected, positive controls. Overall, EROD activity averaged 283% higher in estuary fish than in hatchery controls. Chemical analyses of extracts from semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) deployed in the estuary for one month showed elevated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels. Semipermeable membrane devices extract injections-induced metallothionein and BROD in striped bass livers. These data show that environmental exposures are impacting EROD and other biomarkers in the SFE striped bass population. Previous studies in our laboratory have associated poor larval development with maternal transfer of environmental contaminants. Further studies are needed to monitor contaminant exposures by the use of biomarkers and to integrate them into a more effective pelagic species recovery plan in the SFE.
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; ASFA Aquaculture Abstracts; ASFA 1: Biological Sciences & Living Resources
Keywords: Membranes
Keywords: Toxicants
Keywords: Estuaries
Keywords: ENA 12:Oceans & Estuaries
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Morone saxatilis
Keywords: metallothioneins
Keywords: Liver
Keywords: invasive species
Keywords: Fish
Keywords: Contaminants
Keywords: Morone
Keywords: INE, USA, California, San Francisco Estuary
Date revised - 2011-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - INE, USA, California, San Francisco Estuary
Pages - 393-402
ProQuest ID - 886642828
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Bioindicators; Membranes; Toxicants; metallothioneins; Estuaries; invasive species; Liver; Fish; Contaminants; Morone saxatilis; Morone; INE, USA, California, San Francisco Estuary
Last updated - 2011-11-09
Place of publication - Oxford
Corporate institution author - Spearow, Jimmy L; Kota, Rama S; Ostrach, David J
DOI - OB-128923ba-3f0f-403c-9ecacsamfg201; 14430327; 1552-8618 English

1295. Spierer, A.; Begeot, F.; Spierer, P., and Delattre, M. Su(Var)3-7 Links Heterochromatin and Dosage Compensation in Drosophila.


Rec #: 51279
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: In Drosophila, dosage compensation augments X chromosome-linked transcription in males relative to females. This process is achieved by the Dosage Compensation Complex (DCC), which associates specifically with the male X chromosome. We previously found that the morphology of this chromosome is sensitive to the amounts of the heterochromatin-associated protein SU(VAR)3-7. In this study, we examine the impact of change in levels of SU(VAR)3-7 on dosage compensation. We first demonstrate that the DCC makes the X chromosome a preferential target for heterochromatic markers. In addition, reduced or increased amounts of SU(VAR)3-7 result in redistribution of the DCC proteins MSL1 and MSL2, and of Histone 4 acetylation of lysine 16, indicating that a wild-type dose of SU(VAR)3-7 is required for X-restricted DCC targeting. SU(VAR)3-7 is also involved in the dosage compensated expression of the X-linked white gene. Finally, we show that absence of maternally provided SU(VAR)3-7 renders dosage compensation toxic in males, and that global amounts of heterochromatin affect viability of ectopic MSL2-expressing females. Taken together, these results bring to light a link between heterochromatin and dosage compensation.
MESH HEADINGS: ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Animals, Genetically Modified
MESH HEADINGS: Crosses, Genetic
MESH HEADINGS: DNA-Binding Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *Dosage Compensation, Genetic
MESH HEADINGS: Drosophila Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Drosophila melanogaster/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Eye Proteins/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Female
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression
MESH HEADINGS: Genes, Insect
MESH HEADINGS: Heterochromatin/*genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Nuclear Proteins/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: X Chromosome/genetics/metabolism eng

1296. Sprague, L. A. and Nowell, L. H. Comparison of Pesticide Concentrations in Streams at Low Flow in Six Metropolitan Areas of the United States. 2008; 27, (2): 288-298.


Rec #: 1390
Keywords: FATE
Call Number: NO FATE (ATZ,CBL,CPY,DZ,FPN,MLN,MTL,PRO,SZ,TBZ,TET,TFN)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACO,ATZ,CBL,CPY,DLD,DZ,FPN,MLN,MTL,PRO,SZ,TBZ,TET,TFN

1297. Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen Mundampra, and Pradeep, Thalappil. Immobilized graphene-based composite from asphalt: Facile synthesis and application in water purification. 2013 Feb 15-; 246Çô247, (0): 213-220.


Rec #: 5010
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: An in situ strategy for the preparation of graphene immobilized on sand using asphalt, a cheap carbon precursor is presented. The as-synthesized material was characterized in detail using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The presence of G and D bands at 1578 cmęĆ1 and 1345 cmęĆ1 in Raman spectroscopy and the 2D sheet-like structure with wrinkles in transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of graphenic materials. In view of the potential applicability of supported graphenic materials in environmental application, the as-synthesized material was tested for purifying water. Removal of a dye (rhodamine-6G) and a pesticide (chlorpyrifos), two of the important types of pollutants of concern in water, were investigated in this study. Adsorption studies were conducted in batch mode as a function of time, particle size, and adsorbent dose. The continuous mode experiments were conducted in multiple cycles and they confirmed that the material can be used for water purification applications. The adsorption efficacy of the present adsorbent system was compared to other reported similar adsorbent systems and the results illustrated that the present materials are superior. The adsorbents were analyzed for post treatment and their reusability was evaluated. Adsorption/ Graphene-sand composite/ Pesticide removal/ Water purification/ Asphalt

1298. Sridharan, I.; Kim, T., and Wang, R. Adapting Collagen/Cnt Matrix in Directing Hesc Differentiation.


Rec #: 50899
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The lineage selection in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) differentiation relies on both the growth factors and small molecules in the media and the physical characteristics of the micro-environment. In this work, we utilized various materials, including the collagen-carbon nanotube (collagen/CNT) composite material, as cell culture matrices to examine the impact of matrix properties on hESC differentiation. Our AFM analysis indicated that the collagen/CNT formed rigid fibril bundles, which polarized the growth and differentiation of hESCs, resulting in more than 90% of the cells to the ectodermal lineage in Day 3 in the media commonly used for spontaneous differentiation. We also observed the differentiated cells followed the coarse alignment of the collagen/CNT matrix. The research not only revealed the responsiveness of hESCs to matrix properties, but also provided a simple yet efficient way to direct the hESC differentiation, and imposed the potential of forming neural-cell based bio-devices for further applications.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Differentiation/*drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Collagen Type I/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Embryonic Stem Cells/*drug effects/physiology/ultrastructure
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Microscopy, Atomic Force
MESH HEADINGS: *Nanotubes, Carbon
MESH HEADINGS: Rats eng

1299. Srinivasulu, M; Mohiddin, G J; Subramanyam, K; Rangaswamy, V, and Srinivasulu, M. Effect of Insecticides Alone and in Combination With Fungicides on Nitrification and Phosphatase Activity in Two Groundnut (Arachis Hypogeae L.) Soils. 2012 Jun; 34, (3): 365-374.


Rec #: 42719
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The effect of selected pesticides, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos alone and in combination with mancozeb and carbendazim, respectively, was tested on nitrification and phosphatase activity in two groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.) soils. The oxidation of ammonical nitrogen was significantly enhanced under the impact of selected pesticides alone and in combinations at 2.5 kg ha super(-1) in black soil, and furthermore, increase in concentration of pesticides decreased the rate of nitrification, whereas in the case of red soil, the nitrification was increased up to 5.0 kg ha super(-1) after 4 weeks, and then decline phase was started gradually from 6 to 8 weeks of incubation. The activity of phosphatase was increased in soils, which received the monocrotophos alone and in combination with mancozeb up to 2.5 and 5.0 kg ha super(-1), whereas the application of chlorpyrifos singly and in combination with carbendazim at 2.5 kg ha super(-1) profoundly increased the phosphatase activity after 20 days of incubation, in both soils. But higher concentrations of pesticides were either innocuous or inhibitory to the phosphatase activity.
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: Arachis
Keywords: Arachis hypogaea
Keywords: SW 3040:Wastewater treatment processes
Keywords: Soil Contamination
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: Geochemistry
Keywords: Incubation
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Peanuts
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Nitrification
Keywords: Oxidation
Keywords: Fungicides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Nitrogen
Date revised - 2012-04-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 365-374
ProQuest ID - 1008845216
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Soil; Insecticides; Nitrification; Oxidation; Fungicides; Pesticides; Nitrogen; Peanuts; Agricultural Chemicals; Soil Contamination; Geochemistry; Incubation; Arachis hypogaea; Arachis
Last updated - 2012-12-14
British nursing index edition - Environmental Geochemistry and Health [Environ. Geochem. Health]. Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 365-374. Jun 2012.
Corporate institution author - Srinivasulu, M; Mohiddin, G J; Subramanyam, K; Rangaswamy, V
DOI - fc6dbfc2-ce05-4b35-8df0mfgefd108; 16540544; 0269-4042; 1573-2983 English

1300. Srivastava, S.; Narvi, S. S., and Prasad, S. C. Levels of select organophosphates in human colostrum and mature milk samples in rural region of Faizabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2011; 30, (10): 1458-1463.


Rec #: 69769
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Introduction: Human colostrum and mature milk samples from rural mothers were separately screened for organophosphate pesticides (OPPs). The samples were assessed for the pollution load they are transmitting to the nursing infant to determine potential toxicity. The role of colostrum for toxicity monitoring was assessed in comparison to mature milk as it is the very first infant food. Materials and methods: The pesticides were quantified using a Gas Chromatograph equipped with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) and the results were further validated on GC linked with Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Results: A total of 33 samples were analyzed out of 40 samples collected. These samples were from 33 mothers. Out of these, 25 were colostrum samples and 8 were mature milk samples. Frequency percentage (N%) of organophosphates analyzed was highest for ethion (23.1% or 6/26) in colostrum and chlorpyrifos (50% or 4/8) in mature milk samples. Frequency percentage in colostrum was 19.2% (5/26) for chlorpyrifos and 3.8% (1/26) for dimethoate; 25.0% (2/8) mature milk samples carried dimethoate and 12.5% (1/8) carried ethion. Mean OPPs in colostrum: dimethoate (85.888 ng/g fat) > ethion (48.000 ng/g fat) > chlorpyrifos (4.003 ng/g fat); and mature milk: ethion (744.925 ng/g fat) > chlorpyrifos (37.274 ng/g fat) > dimethoate (26.752 ng/g fat). MS data revealed the presence of methyl parathion, which was not quantitated. None of the samples exceeded acceptable daily intake standards set by Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). The study will pave way for further analysis on pesticide toxicology.
Keywords: organophosphates, colostrum, milk, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, ethion
ISI Document Delivery No.: 832NR

1301. Stahlschmidt, P. and Bruhl, C. A. Bats at risk? Bat activity and insecticide residue analysis of food items in an apple orchard. 2012; 31, (7): 1556-1563.


Rec #: 69779
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Although bats are reported as being threatened by pesticides, they are currently not considered in European Union pesticide risk assessments. The reason for that contradiction is probably related to the scarcity of information on bat activity in pesticide-treated fields and the pesticide residues on their food items. The authors recorded bat activity and measured pesticide residues on bat-specific food items following applications of two insecticides in an apple orchard. High activity levels of the common pipistrelle bat, a foraging habitat generalist, were detected. Airborne foragers and bats that take part of their food by gleaning arthropods from the vegetation were recorded frequently. The initial value and the decline of pesticide residues were found to depend on the arthropod type, their surface to volume ratio, their mobility, and the mode of action of the applied pesticide. The highest initial residue values were measured on foliage-dwelling arthropods. By following the toxicity-exposure ratio approaches of the current pesticide risk assessment, no acute dietary risk was found for all recorded bat species. However, a potential reproductive risk for bat species that include foliage-dwelling arthropods in their diet was indicated. The results emphasize the importance of adequately evaluating the risks of pesticides to bats, which, compared to other mammals, are potentially more sensitive due to their ecological traits. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 15561563. (C) 2012 SETAC
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos-methyl, Fenoxycab, Mammal, Risk assessment, Sensitivity
ISI Document Delivery No.: 958ZS

1302. Stamatis, N; Hela, D; Konstantinou, I, and Stamatis, N. Pesticide Inputs From the Sewage Treatment Plant of Agrinio to River Acheloos, Western Greece: Occurrence and Removal. 2010 Sep 1; 62, (5): 1098-1105.


Rec #: 47759
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This work reports the occurrence and the removal of a wide spectrum of pesticides in municipal wastewaters from the Agrinio region, Greece. Analytical determination was carried out by means of solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography equipped with flame thermionic and mass spectrometric detection. The herbicides atrazine, alachlor, isoproturon, and s-metolachlor and the insecticides diazinon, methidathion, fenthion and chlorpyriphos, were more frequently detected in influent and effluent samples while they were also detected in river samples. Isoproturon and diazinon showed the highest concentrations in influent samples that reached concentrations up to 2,328 and 1,486 ng L[super]-1, respectively. Secondary treatment and cumulative removal rates for herbicides and insecticides ranged between 23-91%, 21-99% and 36-99%, 38-99%, respectively. The data demonstrate that there are significant levels of pesticides entering river waterways.
Keywords: ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; ASFA 2: Ocean Technology Policy & Non-Living Resources; Environment Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: Greece
Keywords: Water sampling
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: influents
Keywords: Effluents
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Atrazine
Keywords: Municipal wastes
Keywords: Diazinon
Date revised - 2011-07-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Greece
Pages - 1098-1105
ProQuest ID - 886273486
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Insecticides; Water sampling; Atrazine; Pesticides; Municipal wastes; Herbicides; Effluents; influents; Diazinon; Greece
Last updated - 2011-11-08
Corporate institution author - Stamatis, N; Hela, D; Konstantinou, I
DOI - OB-821848e0-ddb9-433f-96adcsaobj201; 14898186; 0273-1223 English

1303. Stanley, K.; Simonich, S. M.; Bradford, D.; Davidson, C., and Tallent-Halsell, N. Comparison of Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion for the Measurement of Semivolatile Organic Compound Accumulation in Tadpoles. 2009; 28, (10): 2038-2043.


Rec #: 330
Keywords: NO CONC,NO DURATION,SURVEY
Call Number: NO CONC (ACE,ACR,ANT,ATZ,CHR,CPY,DCPA,DZ,EPTC,ES,ES2,ESS,FA,FLU,MLN,MP,MTL,PAHs,PHE,PYR,SZ,TFN), NO DURATION (ACE,ACR,ANT,ATZ,CHR,CPY,DCPA,DZ,EPTC,ES,ES2,ESS,FA,FLU,MLN,MP,MTL,PAHs,PHE,PYR,SZ,TFN), NO SURVEY (ACE,ACR,ANT,ATZ,CHR,CPY,DCPA,DZ,EPTC,ES,ES2,ESS,FA,FLU,MLN,MP,MTL,PAHs,PHE,PYR,SZ,TFN)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACE,ACO,ACR,AND,ANT,ATZ,BAP,CHR,CPY,DCPA,DDE,DDT,DLD,DZ,EN,EPRN,EPTC,ES,ES2,ESS,ETN,FA,FLU,HCCH,HPT,MBZ,MLN,MP,MRX,MTL,MXC,PCB,PCH,PEB,PHE,PPCP,PRN,PYR,SZ,TFN,TRL,TZL

1304. Starbuck, C. and Barrett, B. Biology and Control of Horned/Gouty Oak Galls. http://ppp.missouri.edu/newsletters/meg/archives/v16n4/v16n 4.pdf//: 2010; 16, (4): 29-30.


Rec #: 2260
Keywords: NO CONC,NO DURATION
Call Number: NO CONC (ACP,BFT,CPY,DCTP,DMT,IMC), NO DURATION (ACP,BFT,CPY,DCTP,DMT,IMC)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ABM,ACP,BFT,CPY,DCTP,DMT,IMC

1305. Starks, Sarah E.; Gerr, Fred; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F.; Jones, Michael P.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P., and Hoppin, Jane A. Neurobehavioral function and organophosphate insecticide use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. 2012 Jan; 34, (1): 168-176.


Rec #: 4390
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Although persistent decrements in cognitive function have been observed among persons who have recovered from clinically overt organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning, little is known about the cognitive effects of chronic OP exposures that do not result in acute poisoning. To examine associations between long-term pesticide use and neurobehavioral (NB) function, NB tests were administered to licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa and North Carolina. Between 2006 and 2008, 701 male participants completed nine NB tests to assess memory, motor speed and coordination, sustained attention, verbal learning and visual scanning and processing. Data on ever-use and lifetime days of use of 16 OP pesticides were obtained from AHS interviews conducted before testing between 1993 and 2007 and during the NB visit. The mean age of participants was 61 years (SD = 12). Associations between pesticide use and NB test performance were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. NB test performance was associated with lifetime days of use of some pesticides. Ethoprop was significantly associated with reduced performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning. Malathion was significantly associated with poor performance on a test of visual scanning and processing. Conversely, we observed significantly better test performance for five OP pesticides. Specifically, chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos were associated with better verbal learning and memory; coumaphos was associated with better performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning; and parathion was associated with better performance on a test of sustained attention. Several associations varied by state. Overall, we found no consistent evidence of an association between OP pesticide use and adverse NB test performance among this older sample of pesticide applicators. Potential reasons for these mostly null results include a true absence of effect as well as possible selective participation by healthier applicators. Agricultural workers/ Epidemiology/ Organophosphates/ Neuropsychological testing/ Pesticide exposure

1306. Starks, Se ; Gerr, F; Kamel, F; Lynch, C F; Jones, M P; Alavanja, M C; Sandler, D P; Hoppin, Ja, and Starks, SE. Neurobehavioral Function and Organophosphate Insecticide Use Among Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. 2011 Oct; 17, (4): 364-365.


Rec #: 43109
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Although persistent decrements in cognitive function have been observed among persons who have recovered from clinically overt organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning, little is known about the cognitive effects of chronic OP exposures that do not result in acute poisoning. To examine associations between long-term pesticide use and neurobehavioral (NB) function, NB tests were administered to licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa and North Carolina. Between 2006 and 2008, 701 male participants completed nine NB tests to assess memory, motor speed and coordination, sustained attention, verbal learning, and visual scanning and processing. Data on ever-use and lifetime days of use of 16 OP pesticides were obtained from AHS interviews conducted before testing between 1993 and 2007 and during the NB visit. The mean age of participants was 61 years (SD = 12). Associations between pesticide use and NB test performance were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. NB test performance was associated with lifetime days of use of some pesticides. Ethoprop was significantly associated with reduced performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning. Malathion was significantly associated with poor performance on a test of visual scanning and processing. Conversely, we observed significantly better test performance for five OP pesticides. Specifically, chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos were associated with better verbal learning and memory; coumaphos was associated with better performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning; and parathion was associated with better performance on a test of sustained attention. Several associations varied by state. Overall, we found no consistent evidence of an association between OP pesticide use and adverse NB test performance among this older sample of pesticide applicators. Potential reasons for these mostly null results include a true absence of effect as well as possible selective participation by healthier applicators.
Keywords: USA, North Carolina
Keywords: Age
Keywords: phorate
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Memory
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: Information processing
Keywords: Coumaphos
Keywords: Learning
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: N3 11001:Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience
Keywords: Poisoning
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Sensorimotor integration
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Visual discrimination learning
Keywords: cognitive ability
Keywords: Scanning
Keywords: USA, Iowa
Keywords: Cognitive ability
Keywords: Neurotoxicity
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Attention
Keywords: CSA Neurosciences Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Parathion
Date revised - 2011-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, North Carolina; USA, Iowa
Pages - 364-365
ProQuest ID - 907191188
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Learning; Age; Data processing; phorate; Poisoning; organophosphates; Malathion; Sensorimotor integration; Chlorpyrifos; Visual discrimination learning; Memory; Insecticides; Scanning; Cognitive ability; Information processing; Pesticides; Coumaphos; Attention; Parathion; cognitive ability; Organophosphates; Neurotoxicity; USA, North Carolina; USA, Iowa
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health [J. Agric. Saf. Health]. Vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 364-365. Oct 2011.
Corporate institution author - Starks, SE; Gerr, F; Kamel, F; Lynch, C F; Jones, M P; Alavanja, M C; Sandler, D P; Hoppin, JA
DOI - MD-0017838169; 16062002; 1074-7583 English

1307. Starr, J.; Graham, S.; Ii, D. S.; Andrews, K., and Nishioka, M. Pyrethroid pesticides and their metabolites in vacuum cleaner dust collected from homes and day-care centers. 2008; 108, (3): 271-279.


Rec #: 69819
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Urinary metabolites of pyrethroid pesticides have been used as biomarkers to estimate human exposure to the parent insecticide. It is important to establish whether these markers are present in environments or media to which humans are exposed routinely. Failure to account for the contribution of pre-existing markers to urinary concentrations could result in risk assessments that overestimate exposure. The purpose of this study was to quantify the concentrations of 13 selected pyrethroid pesticides and their degradation products in samples of indoor dust that had been collected in vacuum cleaner bags during the children's total exposure to persistent pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants (CTEPP) study of homes and day cares in North Carolina and Ohio. Sieved contents of 85 vacuum cleaner bags were analyzed, and permethrin was found in all samples. Sixty-nine samples contained at least one additional pyrethroid, but none contained more than five pyrethroids in detectable concentrations. Resmethrin, prallethrin, and fenpropathrin were not detected in any samples, while 36 contained phenothrin. The median concentration of permethrin in the samples was 1454 ng/g of dust. Excluding permethrin, pyrethroid concentrations were typically less than or equal to 100ng/g of dust. The majority of degradates were present in more than half of the dust samples, usually at concentrations of less than or equal to 100 ng/g of dust. For those pyrethroids with a characteristic oxydibenzene group, the cyclopropane degradates were present at higher concentrations than the corresponding benzoic acid moieties. Using urinary concentrations of these metabolites to model human exposure to the parent pyrethroids, may over-estimate risk due to the presence of pre-existing degradates in dust. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pyrethroids, Biomarkers, Degradation, Indoor dust
ISI Document Delivery No.: 368YR

1308. Steinmann, K. P.; Zhang, M. H.; Grant, J. A.; Pickel, C., and Goodhue, R. E. Pheromone-based pest management can be cost-effective for walnut growers. 2008; 62, (3): 105-110.


Rec #: 69829
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Many organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides currently used by California walnut growers have been linked to negative environmental or human health impacts, increasing the probability of use restrictions and phase-outs. We assessed the acceptability of alternative reduced-risk strategies by comparing their costs to those of pest management programs currently in use among San Joaquin County walnut growers. To do this, we analyzed data from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation's legally mandated Pesticide Use Reports on actual pesticide applications for 3 years, from 2002 to 2004. While many factors other than cost i nfluence growers'pest management choices, we found that alternative strategies can be cost-competitive with conventional approaches, depending on the pest pressure and savings due to reductions in secondary pest outbreaks.
Keywords: ESFENVALERATE, CHLORPYRIFOS, MITES, ACARI
ISI Document Delivery No.: 326JK

1309. Stone, D. L.; Sudakin, D. L., and Jenkins, J. J. Longitudinal trends in organophosphate incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center, 1995-2007. 2009; 8, 18-18.


Rec #: 69859
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background: Regulatory decisions to phase-out the availability and use of common organophosphate pesticides among the general public were announced in 2000 and continued through 2004. Based on revised risk assessments, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were determined to pose unacceptable risks. To determine the impact of these decisions, organophosphate (OP) exposure incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) were analyzed for longitudinal trends. Methods: Non-occupational human exposure incidents reported to NPIC were grouped into pre-( 1995-2000) and post-announcement periods (2001-2007). The number of total OP exposure incidents, as well as reports for chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion, were analyzed for significant differences between these two periods. The number of informational inquiries from the general public was analyzed over time as well. Results: The number of average annual OP-related exposure incidents reported to NPIC decreased significantly between the pre- and post-announcement periods (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon reports was observed over time (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the number of incident reports for malathion was observed (p = 0.4), which was not phased-out of residential use. Similar to exposure incidents, the number of informational inquiries received by NPIC declined over time following the phase-out announcement. Conclusion: Consistent with other findings, the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon exposure incidents reported to NPIC significantly decreased following public announcement and targeted regulatory action.
Keywords: UNITED-STATES
ISI Document Delivery No.: 444UK

1310. Stout, D. M.; Bradham, K. D.; Egeghy, P. P.; Jones, P. A.; Croghan, C. W.; Ashley, P. A.; Pinzer, E.; Friedman, W.; Brinkman, M. C.; Nishioka, M. G., and Cox, D. C. American Healthy Homes Survey: A National Study of Residential Pesticides Measured from Floor Wipes. 2009; 43, (12): 4294-4300.


Rec #: 69869
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in collaboration with the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a survey measuring lead, allergens, and insecticides in a randomly selected nationally representative sample of residential homes. Multistage sampling with clustering was used to select the 1131 homes of which a subset of 500 randomly selected homes included the collection of hard surface floor wipes. Samples were collected by trained field technicians between June 2005 and March 2006 using isopropanol wetted wipes. Samples were analyzed for a suite of 24 compounds which included insecticides in the organochlorine, organophosphate, pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole classes, and the insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide. The most commonly detected were permethrin (89%), chlorpyrifos (78%), chlordane (64%, piperonyl butoxide (52%), cypermethrin (46%), and fipronil (40%). Mean and geometric mean (GM) concentrations varied widely among compounds, but were highest for trans-permethrin (mean 2.22 ng/cm(2) and GM 0.14 ng/cm(2)) and cypermethrin (mean 2.9 ng/cm(2) and GM 0.03 ng/cm(2)). Results show that most floors in occupied homes in the U.S. have measurable levels of insecticides that may serve as sources of exposure to occupants.
Keywords: EXPOSURES, CHILDREN
ISI Document Delivery No.: 457XF

1311. Sturlan, S.; Sachet, M.; Baumann, S.; Kuznetsova, I. ; Spittler, A., and Bergmann, M. Influenza a Virus Induces an Immediate Cytotoxic Activity in All Major Subsets of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.


Rec #: 50959
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Cites: Nat Rev Immunol. 2008 Apr;8(4):259-68 (medline /18340344)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Immunol. 2000 Mar 1;164(5):2635-43 (medline /10679103)
COMMENTS: Cites: Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2008 Feb;10(1):32-7 (medline /18228179)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Clin Invest. 2007 Oct;117(10):2834-46 (medline /17823660)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Exp Med. 2007 Jun 11;204(6):1441-51 (medline /17535975)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Immunol. 2007 Mar 1;178(5):2688-98 (medline /17312110)
COMMENTS: Cites: Science. 2006 Nov 10;314(5801):997-1001 (medline /17038589)
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A replication defective influenza A vaccine virus (delNS1 virus) was developed. Its attenuation is due to potent stimulation of the innate immune system by the virus. Since the innate immune system can also target cancer cells, we reasoned that delNS1 virus induced immune-stimulation should also lead to the induction of innate cytotoxic effects towards cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated CD56+, CD3+, CD14+ and CD19+ subsets and different combinations of the above subsets were stimulated by delNS1, wild type (wt) virus or heat inactivated virus and co-cultured with tumor cell lines in the presence or absence of antibodies against the interferon system. Stimulation of PBMCs by the delNS1 virus effectively induced cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, virus induced cytotoxicity was exerted by all major subtypes of PBMCs including CD56+, CD3+, CD14+ and CD19+ cells. Virus induced cytotoxicity in CD3+, CD14+ and CD19+ cells was dependent on virus replication, whereas virus induced cytotoxicity in CD56+ cells was only dependent on the binding of the virus. Virus induced cytotoxicity of isolated cell cultures of CD14+, CD19+ or CD56+ cells could be partially blocked by antibodies against type I and type II (IFN) interferon. In contrast, virus induced cytotoxicity in the complete PBMC preparation could not be inhibited by blocking type I or type II IFN, indicating a redundant system of activation in whole blood.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that apart from their well known specialized functions all main subsets of peripheral blood cells also initially exert a cytotoxic effect upon virus stimulation. This closely links the innate immune system to the adaptive immune response and renders delNS1 virus a potential therapeutic tool for viro-immunotherapy of cancer.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Antigens, CD/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Biological Markers/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Line, Tumor
MESH HEADINGS: Coculture Techniques
MESH HEADINGS: Cytokines/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Cytotoxins/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Female
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Immunity, Innate/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Influenza A virus/genetics/*immunology/*pathogenicity/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Leukocytes, Mononuclear/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Inbred BALB C
MESH HEADINGS: Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/genetics/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Spleen/cytology
MESH HEADINGS: Virus Replication eng

1312. Suarez-Lopez, J. R.; Jacobs, D. R.; Himes, J. H.; Alexander, B. H.; Lazovich, D., and Gunnar, M. Lower acetylcholinesterase activity among children living with flower plantation workers. 2012; 114, 53-59.


Rec #: 69909
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background: Children of workers exposed to pesticides are at risk of secondary pesticide exposure. We evaluated the potential for lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children cohabiting with fresh-cut flower plantation workers, which would be expected from organophosphate and carbamate insecticide exposure. Parental home surveys were performed and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in 277 children aged 4-9 years in the Secondary Exposure to Pesticides among Infants, Children and Adolescents (ESPINA) study. Participants lived in a rural county in Ecuador with substantial flower plantation activity. RESULTS: Mean acetylcholinesterase activity was 3.14 U/ml, standard deviation (SD) of 0.49. It was lower by 0.09 U/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.19, -0.001) in children of flower workers (57% of participants) than non-flower workers' children, after adjustment for gender, age, height-for-age, hemoglobin concentration, income, pesticide use within household lot, pesticide use by contiguous neighbors, examination date and residence distance to nearest flower plantation. Using a 4 level polychotomous acetylcholinesterase activity dependent variable, flower worker cohabitation (vs. not) had odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.19, 9.64) for being < 15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. Children cohabitating for >= 5 years (vs. never) had OR of 4.11 (95% CI: 1.17, 14.38) of AChE activity within < 15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. Conclusions: Cohabitation with a flower worker was related to lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children. This supports the hypothesis that the amount of take-home pesticides from flower workers suffices to decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, with lower activity associated with longer exposure. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, AChE, Children, Pesticide, Organophosphate
ISI Document Delivery No.: 925ML

1313. Subburaju, S. and Selvarajan, V. R. The Acute Toxic Effect of Chlorpyrifos on the Oxygen Consumption of Different Regions of Brain of Tilapia mossambica (Peters). BCM,PHY. Dep. Zool., Univ. Madras, Guindy Campus, MADRAS-600 025//: AQUA; 1988; 17, 35-36.


Rec #: 1400
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1314. ---. Sublethal Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Selected Oxidative Enzymes in Different Tissues of the Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). 4394//: AQUA; 1990.


Rec #: 1410
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1315. Suciu, N. A. and Capri, E. Adsorption of chlorpyrifos, penconazole and metalaxyl from aqueous solution by modified clays. 2009; 44, (6): 525-532.


Rec #: 69939
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Sorption of three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, metalaxyl and penconazole) has been measured on a commercial clay montmorillonite and on the same mineral modified with either of two cationic-surfactant micelles. Both micelle-clay complexes, commercial names Cloisite 20A and Cloisite 30B, showed a good capacity to sorb all three pesticides from water, whereas their sorption on the natural montmorillonite was not described by an isotherm. Modelling sorption on both micelle-clay complexes showed that the Freundlich sorption constant (K(F)) was higher for chlorpyrifos on Cloisite 20A (K(F) = 7.76) than on Cloisite 30B (K(F) = 5.91), whereas the sorption of metalaxyl was stronger on Cloisite 30B (K(F) = 1.07) than on Cloisite 20A (K(F) = 0.57). Moreover the micelle-clay complex Cloisite 20A also showed a good affinity for penconazole, the maximum quantity adsorbed (q(m)) of 6.33 mg g(-1) being 45% more than that on Cloisite 30B. Single-batch adsorption of each pesticide onto both micelle-clay complexes was studied using the Freundlich isotherm for chlorpyrifos and metalaxyl and the Langmuir isotherm for penconazole. The Cloisite 20A micelle-clay complex was predicted to require 23% less adsorbent to treat certain volumes of wastewater containing 30 mg L(-1) chlorpyrifos, 43% more to treat metalaxyl similarly and 57% less to treat penconazole compared with Cloisite 30B.
Keywords: Modified clays, natural montmorillonite, pesticide, maximum adsorption,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 535VX

1316. Sudakin, D. L. and Power, L. E. Organophosphate exposures in the United States: A longitudinal analysis of incidents reported to poison centers. 2007; 70, (2): 141-147.


Rec #: 69949
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The implementation of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 resulted in a decision by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to phase out and eliminate the use of organophosphate insecticides in residential environments. The phase-out and cancellation process began in the year 2000 and was complete in 2005. The purpose of this investigation was to utilize national Poison Control Center data to assess whether the risk mitigation decision had an impact on the number of incident cases involving organophosphates in the United States. Organophosphate exposure incident data were extracted from Annual Reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) for the years 1995 to 2004. The number of organophosphate exposure incidents peaked at 20,135 in 1997, and declined in each subsequent year. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the average annual number of organophosphate exposure incidents when comparing data from the time periods before (1995-1999) and after (2000-2004) the commencement of the phase-out process. The decrease in organophosphate incident cases was observed for all age categories, as well as for the circumstances surrounding the exposure ( unintentional and intentional exposure incidents). TESS data showed a significant decrease in incident cases involving organophosphates in association with the phase-out from residential uses. The results of this investigation are consistent with other studies that have reported that regulatory restriction of access to pesticide formulations may have a significant impact on the number of human exposure incidents.
Keywords: QUALITY PROTECTION ACT, PESTICIDE-RELATED ILLNESS, AMERICAN-ASSOCIATION,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 148TN

1317. Sudakin, D. L. and Stone, D. L. Dialkyl phosphates as biomarkers of organophosphates: The current divide between epidemiology and clinical toxicology. 2011; 49, (9): 771-781.


Rec #: 69959
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Context. Organophosphate insecticides are widely utilized throughout the world. The cholinergic toxidrome, resulting from cholinesterase inhibition, is the clinically relevant endpoint in organophosphate poisoning. In recent years, urinary dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) have emerged as a common method of assessing exposure to organophosphates in epidemiological investigations. Using dialkyl phosphates as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphates, several recent epidemiological studies have reported associations with adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review the application and limitations of urinary DAPs as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate insecticides. Methods. A literature search was conducted of the PubMed database, using keywords dialkylphosphate "and "dialkyl phosphate. "The scientific literature was reviewed to identify sources of dialkyl phosphate metabolites from in vivo metabolism of organophosphates, and as environmental degradation products. Epidemiological investigations were reviewed to summarize the use of use of DAPs as biomarkers in cross-sectional studies, occupational exposures, acute poisonings, and in health outcome studies. Emphasis was placed on the assessment of DAPs in the context of existing biomarker frameworks, as defined by the National Research Council. Studies were assessed for concurrent use of cholinesterase activity as a biomarker of effect, and whether a dose-response relationship could be determined between DAPs and cholinesterase depression or cholinergic effects. Results. Over 184 publications were identified, describing dialkyl phosphates and their use as biomarkers of exposure. The in vivo metabolism of organophosphates yields different DAPs, depending upon whether they undergo bioactivation or detoxification. The detection of urinary DAPs does not provide specificity with respect to the organophosphate from which they were derived, or their toxicological potency. Several recent studies documented the common presence of DAPs in residential environments and foods. Experimental studies support that DAPs have significant oral bioavailability, and undergo little to no metabolism prior to urinary excretion. Cross-sectional studies in multiple countries confirm that urinary DAPs are commonly detectable in the general population. No occupational studies were identified supporting a dose-response relationship between DAPs and significant cholinesterase inhibition. No occupational studies were identified supporting evidence of a threshold level of DAPs excretion at which clinical cholinergic signs or symptoms have been observed. Recent prospective epidemiological studies using DAPs as biomarkers have not concurrently assessed effects on cholinesterase activity, or conducted analyses that distinguish different DAPs that reflect bioactivation versus detoxification pathways. Discussion. There are numerous limitations to the use of DAPs as biomarkers of exposure. These include a lack of specificity with respect to the organophosphate from which they were derived, and a growing body of evidence that toxicologically irrelevant DAPs are commonly encountered in food and the environment. Substantial intra-and inter-day variability has been reported for dialkyl phosphate excretion in humans, which is problematic for studies that rely on single measurements to assess exposure. The toxicological distinction between different DAPs reflecting biomarkers of activation and detoxification processes has not been considered in some prospective epidemiological studies. A relationship between DAPsas biomarkers of exposure and the critical biomarker of effect, cholinesterase activity, has not been established. Conclusions. The science of exposure assessment using DAPs as biomarkers is not advancing, and this complicates the interpretation of epidemiological studies. At the current time, DAPs have very limited utility in clinical toxicology or in the risk assessment process for organophosphates. Until these limitations are addressed, the appropriate role of DAPs in the assessment of human health risks from organophosphates is unclear.
Keywords: Pesticide, Organophosphate, Dialkyl phosphate, Dialkylphosphate,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 847OB

1318. Sullivan, Daniel J; Vecchia, Aldo V; Lorenz, David L; Gilliom, Robert J; Martin, Jeffrey D , and Sullivan, Daniel J. Trends in Pesticide Concentrations in Corn-Belt Streams, 1996-2006. 2009.


Rec #: 45299
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Trends in the concentrations of commonly occurring pesticides in the Corn Belt of the United States were assessed, and the performance and application of several statistical methods for trend analysis were evaluated. Trends in the concentrations of 11 pesticides with sufficient data for trend assessment were assessed at up to 31 stream sites for two time periods: 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Pesticides included in the trend analyses were atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, alachlor, cyanazine, EPTC, simazine, metribuzin, prometon, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon. The statistical methods applied and compared were (1) a modified version of the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test (SEAKEN), (2) a modified version of the Regional Kendall test, (3) a parametric regression model with seasonal wave (SEAWAVE), and (4) a version of SEAWAVE with adjustment for streamflow (SEAWAVE-Q). The SEAKEN test is a statistical hypothesis test for detecting monotonic trends in seasonal time-series data such as pesticide concentrations at a particular site. Trends across a region, represented by multiple sites, were evaluated using the regional seasonal Kendall test, which computes a test for an overall trend within a region by computing a score for each season at each site and adding the scores to compute the total for the region. The SEAWAVE model is a parametric regression model specifically designed for analyzing seasonal variability and trends in pesticide concentrations. The SEAWAVE-Q model accounts for the effect of changing flow conditions in order to separate changes caused by hydrologic trends from changes caused by other factors, such as pesticide use. There was broad, general agreement between unadjusted trends (no adjustment for streamflow effects) identified by the SEAKEN and SEAWAVE methods, including the regional seasonal Kendall test. Only about 10 percent of the paired comparisons between SEAKEN and SEAWAVE indicated a difference in the direction of trend, and none of these had differences significant at the 10-percent significance level. This consistency of results supports the validity and robustness of all three approaches as trend analysis tools. The SEAWAVE method is favored, however, because it has less restrictive data requirements, enabling analysis for more site/pesticide combinations, and can incorporate adjustment for streamflow (SEAWAVE-Q) with substantially fewer measurements than the flow-adjustment procedure used with SEAKEN. Analysis of flow-adjusted trends is preferable to analysis of non-adjusted trends for evaluating potential effects of changes in pesticide use or management practices because flow-adjusted trends account for the influence of flow-related variability. Analysis of flow-adjusted trends by SEAWAVE-Q showed that all of the pesticides assessed, except simazine and acetochlor, were dominated by varying degrees of concentration downtrends in one or both analysis periods. Atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, cyanazine, EPTC, and metribuzin - all major corn herbicides, as well as prometon and chlorpyrifos, showed more prevalent concentration downtrends during 1996-2002 compared to 2000-2006. Diazinon had no clear trends during 1996-2002, but had predominantly downward trends during 2000-2006. Acetochlor trends were mixed during 1996-2002 and slightly upward during 2000-2006, but most of the trends were not statistically significant. Simazine concentrations trended upward at most sites during both 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Comparison of concentration trends to agricultural-use trends indicated similarity in direction and magnitude for acetochlor, metolachlor, alachlor, cyanazine, EPTC, and metribuzin. Concentration downtrends for atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were steeper than agricultural-use downtrends at some sites, indicating the possibility that agricultural management practices may have increasingly reduced transport to streams (particularly atrazine) or, for chlorpyrifos and diazinon, that non
Start Page: 76
End Page: 76
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: Testing Procedures
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: SW 3040:Wastewater treatment processes
Keywords: Alachlor
Keywords: Streamflow
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Streams
Keywords: Stream flow
Keywords: USA
Keywords: Q2 02123:Conservation
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Hydrologic Models
Keywords: Atrazine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; ASFA 2: Ocean Technology Policy & Non-Living Resources
Keywords: Diazinon
Date revised - 2011-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA
Pages - 76
ProQuest ID - 904498209
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pesticides; Herbicides; Streams; Stream flow; Testing Procedures; Hydrologic Models; Agricultural Chemicals; Atrazine; Alachlor; Streamflow; Diazinon; USA
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Scientific Investigations Report. U.S. Geological Survey. no. 2009-5132, 76 pp. 2009.
Corporate institution author - Sullivan, Daniel J; Vecchia, Aldo V; Lorenz, David L; Gilliom, Robert J; Martin, Jeffrey D
DOI - 88ceeb2f-8c60-4008-8100csamfg201; 15957700; NO1100778 English

1319. Sultatos, L G; Kaushik, R, and Sultatos, L G. Altered Binding of Thioflavin T to the Peripheral Anionic Site of Acetylcholinesterase After Phosphorylation of the Active Site by Chlorpyrifos Oxon or Dichlorvos. 2008 Aug 1; 230, (3): 390-396.


Rec #: 42039
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase, when occupied by a ligand, is known to modulate reaction rates at the active site of this important enzyme. The current report utilized the peripheral anionic site specific fluorogenic probe thioflavin t to determine if the organophosphates chlorpyrifos oxon and dichlorvos bind to the peripheral anionic site of human recombinant acetylcholinesterase, since certain organophosphates display concentration-dependent kinetics when inhibiting this enzyme. Incubation of 3 nM acetylcholinesterase active sites with 50 nM or 2000 nM inhibitor altered both the B sub(m) sub(a) sub(x) and K sub(d) for thioflavin t binding to the peripheral anionic site. However, these changes resulted from phosphorylation of Ser203 since increasing either inhibitor from 50 nM to 2000 nM did not alter further thioflavin t binding kinetics. Moreover, the organophosphate-induced decrease in B sub(m) sub(a) sub(x) did not represent an actual reduction in binding sites, but instead likely resulted from conformational interactions between the acylation and peripheral anionic sites that led to a decrease in the rigidity of bound thioflavin t. A drop in fluorescence quantum yield, leading to an apparent decrease in B sub(m) sub(a) sub(x), would accompany the decreased rigidity of bound thioflavin t molecules. The organophosphate-induced alterations in K sub(d) represented changes in binding affinity of thioflavin t, with diethylphosphorylation of Ser203 increasing K sub(d), and dimethylphosphorylation of Ser203 decreasing K sub(d). These results indicate that chlorpyrifos oxon and dichlorvos do not bind directly to the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase, but can affect binding to that site through phosphorylation of Ser203.
Keywords: Pharmacy And Pharmacology
Keywords: Fluorescence
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Probes
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Acylation
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Phosphorylation
Keywords: Kinetics
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Dichlorvos
Date revised - 2008-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 390-396
ProQuest ID - 290119351
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Acetylcholinesterase; organophosphates; Chlorpyrifos; Dichlorvos; Phosphorylation; Kinetics; Enzymes; Fluorescence; Probes; Acylation
Last updated - 2011-11-04
Corporate institution author - Sultatos, L G; Kaushik, R
DOI - OB-MD-0008353629; 8374300; 0041-008X English

1320. Suman, P. and Singh, D. K. Estimating the uncertainty of pesticide residue analysis from mango using multi-residue analysis and validation of method. 2011; 93, (10): 1880-1896.


Rec #: 70009
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Validation of method was performed for various pesticides on mango matrix involving the processing of sample at ambient and cryogenic conditions. The linearity, limits of detection, repeatability, matrix effect, and recovery were studied as the aspects of method validation. The effect of matrix on recovery was found to be medium (20-50%) and strong (>50%). After correction by matrix-matched calibration curves, the recovery was calculated to be in the range of 80-107% and 80-105% at ambient and cryogenic processing, respectively. The precision estimated for the recovery of pesticides obtained from both solvent-and matrix-matched calibration curves and at both the processing conditions was determined to be >20% except for chlorpyrifos and atrazine. The uncertainty established for the methodology was >20%, which substantiates the efficiency and reliability of methodology used for pesticide residue analysis in mango in this study.
Keywords: mango, multi-residue analysis, method validation, matrix effect,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 884WY

1321. Sumith, J. A.; Hansani, P. L. C.; Weeraratne, T. C., and Munkittrick, K. R. Seasonal exposure of fish to neurotoxic pesticides in an intensive agricultural catchment, Uma-oya, Sri Lanka: Linking contamination and acetylcholinesterase inhibition. 2012; 31, (7): 1501-1510.


Rec #: 70029
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The annual cultivation pattern in the Uma-oya catchment in Sri Lanka is characterized by Yala and Maha rainfall periods and associated cropping. Two cultivation seasons were compared for pesticide residues: base flow, field drainage, and the runoff and supplementary sediment data for three sites in the catchment. Organophosphate and N-methyl carbamate pesticide analysis confirmed a higher concentration in the Yala season with low-flow conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was measured by standard spectrometry in the brain, muscle, and eye tissues of three freshwater cyprinid fishes, Garra ceylonensis, Devario malabaricus, and Rasbora daniconius from three study sites during months overlapping two seasons in 2010 (December) and 2011 (July). Baseline AChE data were measured from fish samples from a forested reserve in the Knuckles. A 73% inhibition in muscle AChE activity in G. ceylonensis was associated with intense pesticide exposure months in the Yala season. The AChE inhibition more than 70% in G. ceylonensis eyes in both Yala (76%) and Maha (72.5%) seasons indicates particular sensitivity of eye tissue to inhibitors. The less dramatic AChE inhibition in the eye tissues in D. malabaricus and R. daniconius in both seasons indicates exemplary protective capacity of muscle AChE in fish. The highest inhibition of AChE (up to 60% in brain and up to 56% in muscle AChE activity in R. daniconius and up to 47.8% in brain and up to 64.6% in muscle AChE activity in D. malabaricus) occurred during the Yala season. Tissue AChE activity and physiological activity in fish were correlated. The results collectively indicate that AChE is a consistent biomarker for diffused contaminant exposure in agricultural catchments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 15011510. (C) 2012 SETAC
Keywords: Agricultural catchment, Acetylcholinesterase, Cyprinid fish species,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 958ZS

1322. Sun, B-L; Zeng, X-B, and Sun, B-L. Adsorption-Desorption Behavior of Chlorpyrifos Toxic Metabolite 3,5,6-Tcp on Soils. 2011 Jun; 30, (6): 1114-1120.


Rec #: 39729
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: On the basis of the OECD Guideline 106, the batch equilibrium experiments were carried out in six kinds of soils to investigate adsorption and desorption processes of 3,5,6-TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol), which were an ionizable organic compound and one kind of toxic metabolites of chlorpyrifos. The results showed that the adsorption kinetic behaviors of the 3,5,6-TCP in the quaternary red soil, black soil, yellow loam soil and brown soil were best described by the Elovich equation, Double Constant model and Parabolic diffusion model, while it could not be well described by above models (Correlation coefficient1. The adsorption constant K super(a) sub(f) super(ds) and K sub(d) in six kinds of soils varied form 1.37 similar to 6.74 mu g super(1-nf) times mL super(nf) times g super(-1) and 0.50 times 1.30 mL times g super(-1) respectively. It was concluded that the quaternary red and black soils had the strongest capacity of adsorption, while the other four soils had a great leaching risk.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: sandy soils
Keywords: Sorption
Keywords: loam
Keywords: Desorption
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: Adsorption
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: ENA 15:Renewable Resources-Terrestrial
Keywords: quaternary
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1114-1120
ProQuest ID - 907260279
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Soil; sandy soils; Sorption; Desorption; loam; Adsorption; Metabolites; quaternary
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Sun, B-L; Zeng, X-B
DOI - OB-MD-0017451898; 15742835; 1672-2043 English

1323. Sun, F; Chen, H S, and Sun, F. Monitoring of Pesticide Chlorpyrifos Residue in Farmed Fish: Investigation of Possible Sources. 2008 May; 71, (10): 1866-1869.


Rec #: 42159
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos, a widely used organophosphorus insecticide having many urban and agricultural pest control uses, is one of the major pesticides detected in Taiwan fishery products. Whereas previous studies examined, this study explored possible sources of chlorpyrifos residue, particularly in farmed fish. Eight hundred fourteen samples of marketable fish were analyzed for chlorpyrifos residues. One hundred thirty-seven samples contained detectable residues, and farmed fish showed higher detection rates (23%) than wild fish. Based on the findings of all media of the eleven aquiculture farms, the existence of chlorpyrifos in the farmed fish were positively related to existence in fish feed. A study of indoor carp confirmed dietary accumulation of chlorpyrifos.
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Taiwan
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Freshwater fish
Keywords: Freshwater
Keywords: Aquaculture
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: farms
Keywords: Fish culture
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: Organophosphorus compounds
Keywords: Q3 01582:Fish culture
Keywords: Feed
Keywords: Residues
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; ASFA 1: Biological Sciences & Living Resources; ASFA Aquaculture Abstracts
Keywords: Fish Farming
Keywords: Pest control
Keywords: Q1 01582:Fish culture
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Carp
Keywords: Bioaccumulation
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Fish
Keywords: Fish Populations
Keywords: Monitoring
Keywords: Fishery products
Keywords: Feeds
Date revised - 2008-07-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Taiwan
Pages - 1866-1869
ProQuest ID - 19305231
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Insecticides; Bioaccumulation; Feed; Pesticides; Pest control; Freshwater fish; Fish culture; Fishery products; Diets; Chlorpyrifos; Organophosphorus compounds; Residues; farms; Aquaculture; Feeds; Carp; Agricultural Chemicals; Fish Farming; Fish; Fish Populations; Monitoring; Taiwan; Freshwater
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Chemosphere [Chemosphere]. Vol. 71, no. 10, pp. 1866-1869. May 2008.
Corporate institution author - Sun, F; Chen, H S
DOI - MD-0008221348; 8291344; CS0839779; 0045-6535 English

1324. Sun, H.; Si, C. Z.; Bian, Q.; Chen, X. D.; Chen, L. S., and Wang, X. R. Developing in vitro reporter gene assays to assess the hormone receptor activities of chemicals frequently detected in drinking water. 2012; 32, (8): 635-641.


Rec #: 70059
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The present study intended to develop receptor-mediated luciferase reporter gene assays to evaluate and compare the estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) activities of target chemicals. Di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP), chlorpyrifos (CPF), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and bisphenol A (BPA) are some of the most common contaminants in drinking water and are frequently detected in China and worldwide. The chemicals were tested at concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 times their maximum contaminant level in drinking water. The results showed that BPA possessed various activities on ER, AR and TR. DEHP and CPF could suppress 17 beta-estradiol or testosterone activity with different potencies, and DEHP possessed weaker anti-thyroid hormone activity. 2,4-D showed no agonist or antagonist activity against these hormone receptors, but it significantly enhanced the activity of testosterone through AR. Furthermore, the mixture of DEHP and CPF exhibited stronger ER and AR antagonist activities than each single component alone, but their combined effects were less than the expected effects based on the additive model. These results implied that the transcription activation mediated by hormone receptors was the potential endocrine-disrupting mechanism of the test chemicals. Our study also provided useful tools for evaluation of their endocrine disrupting activity. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keywords: di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate, chlorpyrifos, 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic
ISI Document Delivery No.: 963EO

1325. Sun, J. F. ; Guo, L.; Bao, Y., and Xie, J. W. A simple, label-free AuNPs-based colorimetric ultra sensitive detection of nerve agents and highly toxic organophosphate pesticide. 2011; 28, (1): 152-157.


Rec #: 70069
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Here, a simple label-free colorimetric sensing method for organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticide based on catalytic reaction of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and the aggregation of lipoic acid (LA) capped AuNPs has been established, which is highly sensitive with a limit of detection (LOD) lowered to pM level. In this method, only the AChE hydrolysis product of acetylthiocholine (ATCh), i.e., cationic thiocholine (TCh) can induce the aggregation of LA capped AuNPs along with a distinct color change from red to steel-blue. When OPs as enzyme inhibitors exist, the generation of TCh can be suppressed and the color change of LA capped AuNPs is gradually diminished according to different concentrations of OPs. The feasibility of this method has been demonstrated by sensitive measurement of OP nerve agents and pesticide in a spiked fruit sample with reliable results. This distinct and rapid colorimetric response enables us to readily probe OPs without more technical demand. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Gold nanoparticles, Organophosphates, Acetylcholine esterase, Lipoic
ISI Document Delivery No.: 830MS

1326. Sun, Lina. Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides and Their Degradation Products in Atmospheric Samples in Western Canada by Lc/Esi+ Ms/Ms. 2009: (UMI# MR65725 ).


Rec #: 51859
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This thesis describes a new analytical method for determination of organophosphorus pesticides along with their degradation products using liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring. Chromatography was performed on a Gemini C 6 -phenyl column with a gradient elution using a water-methanol with 0.1% formic acid, 2mM ammonium acetate mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min-1 . Method detection limits of 0.1-5 ÎĽg L-1 for selected organophosphorus pesticides, organophosphorus oxon degradation products and other degradation products, such as: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidol; and diethyl phosphate. Some organophosphorus pesticides such as fenchlorphos are less sensitive with method detection limits of 30 ÎĽg L -1 . A three-point identification approach was adopted with an area from the first selected reaction monitoring transition used for quantitative analysis, while a second selected reaction monitoring transition along with the ratio of areas obtained from the first to second transition are used for confirmation with sample tolerance established by the relative standard deviation of the ratio obtained from standards, which ranged from 3% to 11%. This new method permitted the first known detection of organophosphorus oxon degradation products including chlorpyrifos oxon in atmospheric samples from Bratt's Lake, Saskatchewan and diazinon oxon and malathion oxon from Abbotsford, British. Atmospheric detection limits typically ranged from 0.2-10 pg m -3 . High atmospheric concentrations were observed for chlorpyrifos at Bratt's Lake, diazinon at Abbotsford, and malathion at both sites, particularly in the spring or summer. These high atmospheric concentrations were partly attributed to volatilization of malathion at both sites. A significant amount of the variability in atmospheric concentrations could not be explained by local temperature variations, indicating the source contributions from both local/regional and long-range atmospheric transport were also important. Degradation products followed similar atmospheric trends to their parent active ingredients, indicating that in general higher concentrations of degradation products were observed with elevated concentrations of organophosphorus parent compounds. Additionally, the ratios between the atmospheric concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides and organophosphorus oxons provide an insight into the age of pesticides. Keywords: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; Currently used pesticides; Pesticide analysis; Long-range atmospheric transport; Organophosphorus oxon; Bratt's Lake, Saskatchewan; Abbotsford, British Columbia.
Start Page: 128
ISSN/ISBN: 9780494657256
Keywords: 0486:Analytical chemistry
Keywords: 0371:Atmospheric Chemistry
Keywords: Earth sciences
Keywords: Pure sciences
55025091
2009
Sun, Lina
0486: Analytical chemistry
759469623
66569
n/a
English
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2009
0371: Atmospheric Chemistry
2169298161
9780494657256
MR65725
2012-07-06
Pure sciences
Earth sciences English

1327. Sundaramurthy, V. T. and Chitra, K. Integrated Pest Management in Cotton. 1992; 20, (1): 1-17.


Rec #: 340
Keywords: REFS CHECKED,REVIEW
Call Number: NO REFS CHECKED (ADC,CBF,CBL,CPY,CYP,DCF,DM,DMT,DU,ES,FNV,NMO), NO REVIEW (ADC,CBF,CBL,CPY,CYP,DCF,DM,DMT,DU,ES,FNV,NMO)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ADC,CBF,CBL,CPY,CYP,DCF,DM,DMT,DU,ES,FNV,NMO,PHSL,PPHD

1328. Sungur, S. and Tunur, C. Investigation of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits grown in various regions of Hatay, Turkey. 2012; 5, (4): 265-267.


Rec #: 70079
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In this study, 175 pesticide residues in various vegetable and fruit samples grown in different regions of Hatay, Turkey, were investigated. Residue analyses were performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with the QuEChERS method. In tomato, plum and apricot samples, pesticide residues were below the limits of detection. In other samples, at least one pesticide residue was detected. Twelve pesticides (acetamiprid, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, fenarimol, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, imidacloprid, metalaxyl, pyridaben, pyriproxyfen, thiabendozole, triadimenol) were found at levels between 0.003 and 0.759 mg kg(-1). Only in cucumber samples, acetamiprid residues were found at levels greater than the maximum acceptable limit in Turkish Food Codex and European Union maximum residue limits (EU MRLs). In other samples, the detected residue amounts are less than the MRLs declared in the Turkish Food Codex and EU MRLs.
Keywords: pesticide, residue, fruit, vegetable, LC-MS/MS
ISI Document Delivery No.: 030UR

1329. Sunkaria, A.; Wani, W. Y.; Sharma, D. R., and Gill, K. D. Dichlorvos Exposure Results in Activation Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Primary Rat Microglia. 2012; 25, (8): 1762-1770.


Rec #: 70089
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Dichlorvos [2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate] is one of the most common in-use organophosphate (OP) in developing nations. Previous studies from our lab have shown chronic Dichlorvos exposure leads to neuronal cell death in rats. However, the extent of damage caused by Dichlorvos to other cells of the central nervous system (CNS) is still not clear. Microglial cells are the primary threat sensors of CNS which become activated in many pathological conditions. Activation of microglial cells results in reactive microgliosis, manifested by increased cellular damage in the affected regions.
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