Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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Here we have described the fungal symbioses, fungal symbionts and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. A putative mechanism of stress tolerance by symbionts has also been covered.
MESH HEADINGS: *Adaptation, Physiological
MESH HEADINGS: Mycorrhizae/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Plants/metabolism/*microbiology
MESH HEADINGS: *Stress, Physiological
MESH HEADINGS: *Symbiosis eng

1246. Singh, N; Srivastava, a; Srivastava, P C; Srivastava, N, and Singh, N. Adsorption-Desorption Kinetics of Chlorpyrifos Insecticide in Mollisols. 2011; 20, (4): 847-852.


Rec #: 40099
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The kinetics of adsorption and desorption of chlorpyrifos in soils of Himalayan tarai (mollisols) were studied using the miscible displacement technique under the laboratory conditions. The adsorption data of chlorpyrifos conformed to the first order kinetics and the computed values of adsorption rate constant (k sub(ads.)) increased with depth and had a significant negative correlation with soil E.C.. The desorption data of chlorpyrifos also fitted well to two phase first order kinetics. However, no soil property individually showed any significant simple correlation with the desorption rate constant of chlorpyrifos (k sub(1 des.)). Adsorption rate constant (kads. could be successfully predicted on the basis of soil sand; clay; organic C; and free iron oxide contents contents and soil E.C.. The faster desorption rate constant (k sub(1 des.)) of chlorpyrifos could be predicted on the basis of soil sand; clay; and organic C contents and soil pH and E.C. while the slower desorption rate constant (k sub(2 des.)) could be estimated using sand; organic C; and free iron oxide contents and soil pH and E.C.
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: sandy soils
Keywords: Desorption
Keywords: Kinetics
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Adsorption
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Keywords: ENA 15:Renewable Resources-Terrestrial
Keywords: Iron
Keywords: pH
Date revised - 2011-07-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 847-852
ProQuest ID - 886171765
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Soil; Chlorpyrifos; sandy soils; Desorption; Kinetics; Pesticides; Adsorption; Iron; pH
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Singh, N; Srivastava, A; Srivastava, P C; Srivastava, N
DOI - OB-MD-0016020667; 14806208; 1018-4619 English

1247. Singh, P. B.; Sharma, S.; Saini, H. S., and Chadha, B. S. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas sp. and its role in aqueous phase partitioning and biodegradation of chlorpyrifos. 2009; 49, (3): 378-383.


Rec #: 54379
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: To study the effect of biosurfactant on aqueous phase solubility and biodegradation of chlorpyrifos. A Pseudomonas sp. (ChlD), isolated from agricultural soil by enrichment culture technique in the presence of chlorpyrifos, was capable of producing biosurfactant (rhamnolipids) and degrading chlorpyrifos (0·01 g l⁻¹). The partially purified rhamnolipid biosurfactant preparation, having a CMC of 0·2 g l⁻¹, was evaluated for its ability to enhance aqueous phase partitioning and degradation of chlorpyrifos (0·01 g l⁻¹) by ChlD strain. The best degradation efficiency was observed at 0·1 g l⁻¹ supplement of biosurfactant, as validated by GC and HPLC studies. The addition of biosurfactant at 0·1 g l⁻¹ resulted in more than 98% degradation of chlorpyrifos when compared to 84% in the absence of biosurfactant after 120-h incubation. This first report, to the best of our knowledge, on enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos in the presence of biosurfactant(s), would help in developing bioremediation protocols to counter accumulation of organophosphates to toxic/carcinogenic levels in environment.
Keywords: aqueous phase partitioning
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd

1248. Singh, S.; Kumar, V.; Singh, P.; Banerjee, B. D.; Rautela, R. S.; Grover, S. S.; Rawat, D. S.; Pasha, S. T.; Jain, S. K., and Rai, A. Influence of CYP2C9, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides. 2012; 741, (1-2): 101-108.


Rec #: 69009
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Previous studies have revealed that organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticides-exposed workers. Present study was designed to determine the influence of CYP2C9, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 268 subjects including 134 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using individual polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase activity were found to be significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects which were analyzed as biomarkers of toxicity due to OPs exposure (p < 0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA tail moment (TM) compared to control subjects (14.32 +/- 2.17 vs. 6.24 +/- 1.37 tail % DNA, p < 0.001). GSTM1 null genotype was found to influence DNA TM in workers (p < 0.05). DNA TM was also found to be increased with concomitant presence of NAT2 slow acetylation and CYP2C9*3/*3 or GSTM1 null genotypes (p < 0.05). DNA TM was found increased in NAT2 slow acetylators with mild and heavy smoking habits in control subjects and workers, respectively (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that GSTM1 null genotypes, and an association of NAT2 slow acetylation genotypes with CYP2C9*3/*3 or GSTM1 null genotypes may modulate DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Organophosphates, Cytochrome P-450s, Glutathione 5-transferases, NAT2,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 898MP

1249. Singh, S.; Kumar, V.; Singh, P.; Thakur, S.; Banerjee, B. D.; Rautela, R. S.; Grover, S. S.; Rawat, D. S.; Pasha, S. T.; Jain, S. K., and Rai, A. Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides. 2011; 725, (1-2): 36-42.


Rec #: 69019
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: GSTM1, T1 and P1 are important enzymes of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), involved in the metabolism of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Individual genetic variation in these metabolizing enzymes may influence the metabolism of their substrates. The present study was designed to determine the genotoxic effects using DNA damage and its association with GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) genetic polymorphisms in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides (OPs). We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using individual PCR or PCR-RFLP. Significantly higher DNA tail moment (TM) was observed in workers as compared to control subjects (14.41 +/- 2.25 vs. 6.36 +/- 1.41 tail % DNA, p < 0.001). The results revealed significantly higher DNA TM in workers with GSTM1 null genotype than those with GSTM1 positive (15.18 vs. 14.15 tail % DNA, p = 0.03). A significantly higher DNA TM was also observed in workers with homozygous Ile-Ile GSTP1 genotype than heterozygous (Ile-Val) and mutant (Val-Val) GSTP1 genotype (p = 0.02). In conclusion, the results show that null deletion of GSTM1 and homozygote wild GSTP1 genotype could be related to inter-individual differences in DNA damage arises from the gene-environment interactions in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Organophosphate pesticides, DNA damage, Genetic polymorphisms,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 827NT

1250. Singh, S. B.; Mukherjee, I.; Maisnam, J.; Kumar, P.; Gopal, M., and Kulshrestha, G. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Integrated Pest Management and Nonintegrated Pest Management Samples of Apple (Malus pumila Mill.). 2009; 57, (23): 11277-11283.


Rec #: 69049
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Studies were undertaken to analyze the residues of commonly used pesticides viz. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, propargite, malathion, phorate, carbendazim, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, and mancozeb in apple of integrated pest management (IPM) and non-IPM samples collected from the IPM and non-IPM fields of Shimla. We also present a method for the determination of these pesticides in apple samples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and propargite were analyzed by gas chromatography, while residues of carbendazim, carbosulfan, and thiamethoxam were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues of mancozeb were determined by a colorimetric method. Recoveries of all of the pesticides ranged from 61.30 to 95.46% at 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 mu g g(-1) levels of fortification with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.8 and 8.7. Apples from IPM and non-IPM orchards were analyzed for these pesticides using a developed method. Except for carbendazim and chlorpyrifos, the residues of all of the pesticides analyzed were below detectable limits. Although residues of carbendazim and chlorpyrifos were below the prescribed limits of maximum residue levels in both IPM and non-IPM orchards, residues were lower in apples from IPM orchards.
Keywords: Apple, IPM, non-IPM, pesticide residues, MRL
ISI Document Delivery No.: 525BO

1251. Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Chandna, Sudhir; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal; Rai, Arvind, and Jain, Sudhir Kumar. Dna Damage and Cholinesterase Activity in Occupational Workers Exposed to Pesticides. 2011 Mar; 31, (2): 278-285.


Rec #: 43529
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate genotoxicity, acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity, hepatic and renal toxicity in occupational workers exposed to mixture of pesticides (n =70) with same number of healthy subjects as controls. The mean comet tail DNA % (TD %) and tail moment (TM) were used to measure DNA damage, while AChE activity and other biochemical parameters such as markers of nephrotoxicity (urea and creatinine) and hepatotoxicity (AST, ALT and ALP) were measured as biomarkers for toxicity due to exposure of pesticides. The occupational workers were continuously exposed to mixture of pirimiphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, temephos and malathion on a regular interval as per usage and activity. The comet assay using lymphocytes of exposed workers showed significantly higher TD percentage value (60.43% vs. 31.86%, p <0.001) and TM value (14.48 mu m vs. 6.42 mu m, p <0.001) in occupational workers as compared to controls. AChE activity in erythrocytes was found to be decreased (3.45KAU/L vs. 9.55KAU/L in controls, p <0.001) and associated with the duration of exposure to pesticides used by the workers. Enzyme levels for hepatic and renal functions were also found significantly different in occupational workers than healthy controls (p <0.001). These results suggest that the exposure to mixture of pirimiphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, temephos and malathion may induce DNA damage, decrease in AChE activity, hepatotoxicity as well as nephrotoxicity. Periodic biomonitoring of these biomarkers along with imparting education and training to occupational workers for safe application of pesticides is recommended for its potential hazards.
Keywords: Erythrocytes
Keywords: Urea
Keywords: Lymphocytes
Keywords: Cholinesterase
Keywords: P 6000:TOXICOLOGY AND HEALTH
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Workers
Keywords: Renal function
Keywords: biomonitoring
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Tails
Keywords: Genotoxicity
Keywords: N 14820:DNA Metabolism & Structure
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: H 1000:Occupational Safety and Health
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: hepatotoxicity
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Biochemistry Abstracts 2: Nucleic Acids; Environment Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: DNA damage
Keywords: Creatinine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: DNA
Keywords: Liver
Keywords: Comet assay
Date revised - 2011-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 278-285
ProQuest ID - 864962338
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Tails; Genotoxicity; Erythrocytes; Enzymes; Urea; Lymphocytes; Cholinesterase; biomarkers; Malathion; hepatotoxicity; Chlorpyrifos; DNA damage; Workers; Creatinine; Renal function; Pesticides; Liver; biomonitoring; Comet assay; Occupational exposure; Bioindicators; DNA; Toxicity
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology [Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.]. Vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 278-285. Mar 2011.
Corporate institution author - Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Chandna, Sudhir; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal; Rai, Arvind
DOI - 3e6d152b-1374-40d7-8942csamfg201; 14514014; 1382-6689 English

1252. Sinha, S. N.; Rao, M. V. V., and Vasudev, K. Distribution of pesticides in different commonly used vegetables from Hyderabad, India. 2012; 45, (1): 161-169.


Rec #: 69069
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In this study, we assessed the exposure of urban populations to different classes of organophosphate pesticides due to the consumption of different types of vegetables. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for quantification, while the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method was used to isolate eighteen organophosphate pesticides found in vegetable samples (eggplant, ladyfinger, cauliflower, cabbage, tomato and chili) at concentration of mu g/kg. This method was accurate (>= 99.5%) and possessed a limit of detection and quantification in the range of 0.002-0.099 and 0.009-0.337 mu g/kg respectively. The coefficients of variation (>= 0.9999) were less than 2% at the low end of the linear range of the method. The mean recovery ranged between 94 and 103%, and the % relative standard deviation (RSD) was generally below 10%. These results demonstrate that the methodology is both highly efficient and robust. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of vegetable samples collected from different government farmer markets and street shops in urban areas. The mean concentration of chlorpyrifos in eggplant (24.02 mu g/kg), cabbage (10.55 mu g/kg), cauliflower (2.85 mu g/kg), tomato (178.87 mu g/kg) and ladyfinger (2.49 mu g/kg) differed significantly ( p < 0.002). Similarly, the mean concentration of triazophos in eggplant (0.863 mu g/kg), cabbage (2.21 mu g/kg), cauliflower (0.491 mu g/kg), tomato (3.01 mu g/kg) and ladyfinger (2.49 mu g/kg) differed significantly (p < 0.007). A similar trend was observed for acephate, fenitrothion and phosalone. This study may be helpful in developing a regional exposure database and in facilitating assessment of health risks from pesticide exposure in our day-to-day lives. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pesticides, Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, Vegetables,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 898ME

1253. Sinha, Sukesh Narayan; Bhatnagar, V. K.; Doctor, Pankaj; Toteja, G. S.; Agnihotri, N. P., and Kalra, R. L. A novel method for pesticide analysis in refined sugar samples using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS) and simple solvent extraction method. 2011; 126, (1): 379-386.


Rec #: 54399
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A sensitive method for the quantification of 11 pesticides in sugar samples to the μgkg⁻¹ level has been developed. These pesticides are often used in an agricultural context. A simple solvent extraction followed by selective analysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method was used. This method was accurate (⩾99%) as it possesses limits of detection in the 0.1-μgkg⁻¹ range, and the coefficients of variations are less than 15% at the low μgkg⁻¹ end of the method's linear range. The percent recovery of all the pesticides at the lowest levels of detection ranges from 82% to 104%. This method was used for the quantification of pesticides in sugar samples collected from different factory outlets from different parts of India. In this study, 27 refined sugar samples were analysed in which one sample showed a detectable level of the chlorpyrifos pesticide. This study showed that Indian sugar is free from the commonly-used pesticides at the low μgkg⁻¹ levels.
Keywords: simple solvent extraction method
[Amsterdam]: Elsevier Science

1254. Sirisha, K.; Mallipattu, S., and Reddy, S. R. J. Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of chlorpyrifos at a sepiolite modified carbon paste electrode. 2007; 40, (10): 1939-1950.


Rec #: 69079
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) method for the determination of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos at a bare carbon paste electrode (CPE) and clay modified carbon paste electrode (CMCPE) was developed. A systematic study of various experimental conditions, such as the pH, accumulation variables and composition of a modifier on the adsorptive stripping response, were examined by using differential pulse voltammetry. A significant improvement was observed in the sensitivity by using the present method with CMCPE. When CMCPE was used, a linear response was obtained over the concentration range 0.0001-2.0 ppm with lower detection limit of 0.00008 ppm, at an accumulation time of 80 s. The interference from other herbicides and ions on the stripping signal of the compound was also evaluated. The described method was applied to estimate the chlorpyrifos in environmental samples.
Keywords: chlorpyrifos, DPAdSV, carbon paste electrode, clay modified carbon paste
ISI Document Delivery No.: 201WR

1255. Slager, R. E.; Simpson, S. L.; LeVan, T. D.; Poole, J. A.; Sandler, D. P., and Hoppin, J. A. Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. 2010; 73, (20): 1382-1393.


Rec #: 69099
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993-1997, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven percent of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported 3 or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.05-1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, four organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl, and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09-1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, use of malathion, use of permethrin, and use of the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings.
Keywords: RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS, ALLERGIC RHINITIS, OCCUPATIONAL RHINITIS, ANIMAL
ISI Document Delivery No.: 647GM

1256. Sledge, D.; Yen, J.; Morton, T.; Dishaw, L.; Shuler, K.; Donerly, S.; Linney, E., and Levin, E. A Zebrafish Model of the Persisting Neurobehavioral Impairment Caused by Developmental Chlorpyrifos Exposure. 2009; 31, (4): 242-(ABS) (NBTS21).


Rec #: 1350
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Call Number: NO ABSTRACT (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1257. Sledge, Damiyon; Petro, Ann; Yen, Jerry; Donerly, Susan; Linney, Elwood, and Levin, Edward. Early developmental chlorpyrifos causes persisting behavioral and neurochemical changes in zebrafish. 2010; 32, (4): 498.


Rec #: 2450
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1258. Slotkin, T. A. Developmental Cholinotoxicants: Nicotine and Chlorpyrifos. 1999; 107, (1): 71-80.


Rec #: 2900
Keywords: IN VITRO
Call Number: NO IN VITRO (CPY,NCTN)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,NCTN

1259. ---. Does Early-Life Exposure to Organophosphate Insecticides Lead to Prediabetes and Obesity? Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Box 3813 DUMC, Duke University Medical Center, Room C162 LSRC Bldg., Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA, Elsevier Science, Box 882 New York NY 10159 USA//: 2011; 31, (3): 297-301.


Rec #: 2710
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Call Number: NO HUMAN HEALTH (CPY,DZ)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DZ,EPRN,PRN

1260. Slotkin, T. A.; Seidler, F. J., and Fumagalli, F. Unrelated developmental neurotoxicants elicit similar transcriptional profiles for effects on neurotrophic factors and their receptors in an in vitro model. 2010; 32, (1 ): 42-51.


Rec #: 69409
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Diverse developmental neurotoxicants can often produce similar functional and behavioral outcomes. We examined an organophosphate pesticide (diazinon), an organochlorine pesticide (dieldrin) and a metal (Ni(2+)) for effects on the expression of neurotrophic factors and their receptors and modulators in differentiating PC12 cells, an in vitro model of neuronal development. Each agent was introduced at 30 mu M for 24 or 72 h, treatments devoid of cytotoxicity. Using microarrays, we examined the mRNAs encoding members of the fibroblast growth factor (fgf) family, the neurotrophins (ntfs), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), nerve growth factor (ngf), the wnt and fzd gene families, and the receptors and modulators for each class. All three agents evoked highly concordant patterns of effects on genes encoding the fgf family, whereas the correlations were poor for the group comprising bdnf, ngf and their respective receptors. For wnt, fzd and their receptors/modulators, the relationships between diazinon and dieldrin were highly concordant, whereas the effect of Ni(2+) was less similar, albeit still significantly correlated with the others. Our results show that otherwise disparate developmental neurotoxicants converge on common sets of neurotrophic pathways known to control neuronal differentiation, likely contributing to similarities in functional outcomes. Further, cell culture models can provide a useful initial screen to identify members of a given class of compounds that may be greater or lesser risks for developmental neurotoxicity, or to provide an indication of agents in different classes that might produce similar effects. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Diazinon, Dieldrin, Fibroblast growth
ISI Document Delivery No.: 560DF

1261. Slotkin, T a; Seidler, F J, and Slotkin, T A. Developmental Neurotoxicants Target Neurodifferentiation Into the Serotonin Phenotype: Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dieldrin and Divalent Nickel. 2008 Dec 1; 233, (2): 211-219.


Rec #: 41809
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Developmental exposure to organophosphates (OP) produces long-term changes in serotonin (5HT) synaptic function and associated behaviors, but there are disparities among the different OPs. We contrasted effects of chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as well as non-OP neurotoxicants (dieldrin, Ni super(2) super(+)) using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, a well-established neurodevelopmental model. Agents were introduced at 30 mu M for 24 or 72 h, treatments devoid of cytotoxicity, and we evaluated the mRNAs encoding the proteins for 5HT biosynthesis, storage and degradation, as well as 5HT receptors. Chlorpyrifos and diazinon both induced tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for 5HT biosynthesis, but chlorpyrifos had a greater effect, and both agents suppressed expression of 5HT transporter genes, effects that would tend to augment extracellular 5HT. However, whereas chlorpyrifos enhanced the expression of most 5HT receptor subtypes, diazinon evoked overall suppression. Dieldrin evoked even stronger induction of tryptophan hydroxylase, and displayed a pattern of receptor effects similar to that of diazinon, even though they come from different pesticide classes. In contrast, Ni super(2) super(+) had completely distinct actions, suppressing tryptophan hydroxylase and enhancing the vesicular monoamine transporter, while also reducing 5HT receptor gene expression, effects that would tend to lower net 5HT function. Our findings provide some of the first evidence connecting the direct, initial mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicant action on specific transmitter pathways with their long-term effects on synaptic function and behavior, while also providing support for in vitro test systems as tools for establishing mechanisms and outcomes of related and unrelated neurotoxicants.
Keywords: CSA Neurosciences Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Receptor mechanisms
Keywords: N3 11003:Developmental neuroscience
Keywords: Nickel
Keywords: Dieldrin
Keywords: tryptophan hydroxylase
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Serotonin
Keywords: Long-term effects
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Cytotoxicity
Keywords: Vesicular amine transporter
Keywords: Pheochromocytoma cells
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Diazinon
Date revised - 2008-12-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 211-219
ProQuest ID - 19564152
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Serotonin; Chlorpyrifos; Diazinon; tryptophan hydroxylase; Dieldrin; Receptor mechanisms; Nickel; organophosphates; Vesicular amine transporter; Pheochromocytoma cells; Pesticides; Enzymes; Long-term effects; Cytotoxicity
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.]. Vol. 233, no. 2, pp. 211-219. 1 Dec 2008.
Corporate institution author - Slotkin, T A; Seidler, F J
DOI - MD-0009001220; 8800546; 0041-008X English

1262. Slotkin, T a; Seidler, F J; Wu, C; Mackillop, E a; Linden, K G, and Slotkin, T A. Ultraviolet Photolysis of Chlorpyrifos: Developmental Neurotoxicity Modeled in Pc12 Cells. 2009 Mar; 117, (3): 338-343.


Rec #: 41389
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet photodegradation products from pesticides form both in the field and during water treatment. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the photolytic breakdown of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) in terms of both the chemical entities generated by low-pressure ultraviolet C irradiation and their potential as developmental neurotoxicants. METHODS: We separated by-products using high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized them by gas chtomatography/mass spectrometry. We assessed neurotoxicity in neuronotypic PC12 cells, both in the undifferentiated state and during differentiation. RESULTS: Photodegradation of CPF in methanol solution generated CPF oxon and trichloro-pyridinol, products known to retain developmental neurotoxicant actions, as well as a series of related organophosphate and phosphorothionate derivatives. Exposure conditions that led to 50% degradation of CPF thus did not reduce developmental neurotoxicity. The degradation mixture inhibited DNA synthesis in undifferentiated cells to the same extent as native CPF. In differentiating cells, the products likewise retained the full ability to elicit shortfalls in cell number and corresponding effects on cell growth and neurite formation. When the exposure was prolonged to the point where 70% of the CPF was degraded, the adverse effects on PC12 cells were no longer evident; however, these conditions were sufficiently severe to generate toxic products from the methanol vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that field conditions or remediation treatments that degrade a significant proportion of the CPF do not necessarily produce inactive products and, indeed, may elicit formation of even more toxic chemicals that are more water soluble and thus have greater field mobility than CPF itself.
Keywords: High-performance liquid chromatography
Keywords: Bioremediation
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: Mobility
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; CSA Neurosciences Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Methanol
Keywords: Byproducts
Keywords: Mass spectrometry
Keywords: Mass spectroscopy
Keywords: Differentiation
Keywords: U.V. radiation
Keywords: Pheochromocytoma cells
Keywords: Water treatment
Keywords: Axonogenesis
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Photolysis
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: DNA biosynthesis
Keywords: Cell number
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: N3 11028:Neuropharmacology & toxicology
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Photodegradation
Keywords: Liquid chromatography
Keywords: Irradiation
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Neurotoxicity
Keywords: DNA
Keywords: Side effects
Date revised - 2009-03-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 338-343
ProQuest ID - 20417556
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - High-performance liquid chromatography; Photolysis; Pesticides (organophosphorus); DNA biosynthesis; Cell number; Mobility; Methanol; organophosphates; Mass spectroscopy; Chlorpyrifos; Differentiation; U.V. radiation; Pheochromocytoma cells; Water treatment; Photodegradation; Neurotoxicity; Axonogenesis; Side effects; Bioremediation; Degradation; Organophosphates; Byproducts; Mass spectrometry; Liquid chromatography; Irradiation; Pesticides; DNA
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Environmental Health Perspectives [Environ. Health Perspect.]. Vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 338-343. Mar 2009.
Corporate institution author - Slotkin, T A; Seidler, F J; MacKillop, E A; Linden, K G
DOI - MD-0009439445; 9089313; 0091-6765 English

1263. Slotkin, Theodore and Seidler, Frederic. Transcriptional Profiles Reveal Similarities and Differences in the Effects of Developmental Neurotoxicants on Differentiation Into Neurotransmitter Phenotypes in Pc12 Cells. 2009 Mar 16; 78, (4-5): 211-225.


Rec #: 44939
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Unrelated developmental neurotoxicants nevertheless converge on common functional and behavioral outcomes. We used PC12 cells, a model of neuronal development, to explore similarities and differences for organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), an organochlorine pesticide (dieldrin) and a metal (Ni(2+)), focusing on transcriptional profiles related to differentiation into acetylcholine, dopamine and norepinephrine phenotypes. Agents were introduced at 30 microM for 24 or 72 h, treatments devoid of cytotoxicity. Using microarrays, we examined the mRNAs encoding the proteins involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis, storage, and degradation, along with the complete panoply of receptors for each transmitter. All three pesticides evoked concordant patterns of effects on genes involved in neural growth and neurite extension, with a distinctly different pattern for Ni(2+). All four toxicants promoted differentiation into the dopamine phenotype at the expense of the acetylcholine phenotype, involving separable effects of each agent on the various gene families; however, there were major differences in the ability of each to promote or repress the norepinephrine phenotype. Chlorpyrifos and diazinon, although displaying many similarities in their transcriptional profiles, also showed major disparities in keeping with their known differences in synaptic and behavioral outcomes after neonatal exposures to these agents in vivo. Surprisingly, there were closer similarities among diazinon, dieldrin and Ni(2+) than for each agent to chlorpyrifos. Our results illustrate how cell culture systems, combined with microarray technology, can screen for developmental neurotoxicants, serving as a model for alternative approaches to the detection and characterization of the impact of exogenous chemicals on brain development.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: 51-41-2
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Neurotransmitter Agents
Keywords: Analysis of Variance
Keywords: Transcription, Genetic -- drug effects
Keywords: Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Keywords: Neurons -- drug effects
Keywords: Nickel
Keywords: RNA, Messenger -- genetics
Keywords: 60-57-1
Keywords: Rats
Keywords: Acetylcholine -- metabolism
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds
Keywords: Neurotransmitter Agents -- metabolism
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Norepinephrine -- metabolism
Keywords: Dieldrin -- toxicity
Keywords: Trace Elements -- toxicity
Keywords: 333-41-5
Keywords: 7440-02-0
Keywords: Cell Differentiation -- drug effects
Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental -- drug effects
Keywords: 51-84-3
Keywords: Insecticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Neurons -- metabolism
Keywords: Diazinon -- toxicity
Keywords: Dieldrin
Keywords: Dopamine -- metabolism
Keywords: Trace Elements
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: RNA, Messenger
Keywords: Gene Expression Profiling
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Cell Differentiation -- physiology
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: RNA, Messenger -- metabolism
Keywords: Neurons -- cytology
Keywords: Norepinephrine
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds -- toxicity
Keywords: Nickel -- toxicity
Keywords: Acetylcholine
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: PC12 Cells
Date completed - 2009-03-06
Date created - 2009-01-26
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 211-225
ProQuest ID - 66850831
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Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Brain research bulletin, March 16, 2009, 78(4-5):211-225
Corporate institution author - Slotkin, Theodore; Seidler, Frederic
DOI - MEDL-18812211; 18812211; NIHMS95214; PMC2649705; 1873-2747 eng

1264. Slotkin, Theodore A.; Card, Jennifer; Infante, Alice, and Seidler, Frederic J. BDE99 (2,2,4,4,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether) suppresses differentiation into neurotransmitter phenotypes in PC12 cells. (0).


Rec #: 3820
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract Acetylcholine/ BDE99/ Brominated flame retardants/ Dopamine/ Neurodifferentiation/ PC12 cells

1265. ---. Prenatal dexamethasone augments the sex-selective developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos: Implications for vulnerability after pharmacotherapy for preterm labor . (0).


Rec #: 1520
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract Chlorpyrifos/ Cholinergic neurotransmission/ Dexamethasone/ Glucocorticoids/ Organophosphate pesticides/ Preterm delivery

1266. Slotkin, Theodore a; Card, Jennifer; Seidler, Frederic J, and Slotkin, Theodore A. Chlorpyrifos Developmental Neurotoxicity: Interaction With Glucocorticoids in Pc12 Cells. 2012 Sep; 34, (5): 505-512.


Rec #: 38579
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Prenatal coexposures to glucocorticoids and organophosphate pesticides are widespread. Glucocorticoids are elevated by maternal stress and are commonly given in preterm labor; organophosphate exposures are virtually ubiquitous. We used PC12 cells undergoing neurodifferentiation in order to assess whether dexamethasone enhances the developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, focusing on models relevant to human exposures. By themselves, each agent reduced the number of cells and the combined exposure elicited a correspondingly greater effect than with either agent alone. There was no general cytotoxicity, as cell growth was actually enhanced, and again, the combined treatment evoked greater cellular hypertrophy than with the individual compounds. The effects on neurodifferentiation were more complex. Chlorpyrifos alone had a promotional effect on neuritogenesis whereas dexamethasone impaired it; combined treatment showed an overall impairment greater than that seen with dexamethasone alone. The effect of chlorpyrifos on differentiation into specific neurotransmitter phenotypes was shifted by dexamethasone. Either agent alone promoted differentiation into the dopaminergic phenotype at the expense of the cholinergic phenotype. However, in dexamethasone-primed cells, chlorpyrifos actually enhanced cholinergic neurodifferentiation instead of suppressing this phenotype. Our results indicate that developmental exposure to glucocorticoids, either in the context of stress or the therapy of preterm labor, could enhance the developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates and potentially of other neurotoxicants, as well as producing neurobehavioral outcomes distinct from those seen with either individual agent.
Keywords: CSA Neurosciences Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Dexamethasone
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: N3 11028:Neuropharmacology & toxicology
Keywords: Stress
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Glucocorticoids
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Differentiation
Keywords: Cytotoxicity
Keywords: Hypertrophy
Keywords: Dopamine
Keywords: Pheochromocytoma cells
Keywords: Neurotoxicity
Keywords: Axonogenesis
Keywords: Neurotransmitters
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Date revised - 2012-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 505-512
ProQuest ID - 1113218854
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Dexamethasone; Pesticides (organophosphorus); Stress; organophosphates; Glucocorticoids; Chlorpyrifos; Differentiation; Hypertrophy; Cytotoxicity; Pheochromocytoma cells; Dopamine; Neurotoxicity; Axonogenesis; Neurotransmitters
Last updated - 2012-11-20
British nursing index edition - Neurotoxicology and Teratology [Neurotoxicol. Teratol.]. Vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 505-512. Sep 2012.
Corporate institution author - Slotkin, Theodore A; Card, Jennifer; Seidler, Frederic J
DOI - 6baee330-fc51-4c1b-a4d0csamfg201; 17214098; 0892-0362 English

1267. Slotkin, Theodore a; Lobner, Doug, and Seidler, Frederic J. Transcriptional Profiles for Glutamate Transporters Reveal Differences Between Organophosphates but Similarities With Unrelated Neurotoxicants. 2010 Aug 30; 83, (1-2): 76-83.


Rec #: 43899
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates involves mechanisms other than their shared property as cholinesterase inhibitors, among which are excitotoxicity and oxidative stress.
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