Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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In 2009, minnows were exposed to sediment and/or water collected from the two Bow Creek sites (East Bow Creek and the Confluence) in the laboratory, while in 2010, minnows were exposed to sediment and/or water from East Bow Creek, the Confluence and the Elkhorn River. Following the 7-day exposure period, the hepatic mRNA expression of two-estrogen responsive genes, estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha ) and vitellogenin (Vtg) was determined. In 2009, females exposed to Confluence sediments, in the presence of laboratory water or Confluence water, experienced significant reductions in ER alpha expression relative to unexposed and Confluence water-exposed females. The defeminization of these females suggests the presence of a biologically available anti-estrogenic compound in sediments collected from this site. In 2010, sediments were assessed for anti-estrogenic activity on days 0 and 7 of the exposure period using a 4-h yeast estrogen screen. Lipophilic extracts (LEs) of day 0 sediments collected from the Confluence and the Elkhorn River induced significant reductions in the estrogenic reporter activity of treated yeast cultures suggesting the presence of a lipophilic anti-estrogenic compound in these extracts. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of a variety of steroid hormones, including those associated with the production of beef cattle (i.e. beta -trenbolone, alpha -zearalanol and alpha -zearalenol), in sediments indicating that compounds utilized by local beef cattle operations are capable of entering nearby watersheds. Overall, the results of this study indicate that an environmentally relevant anti-estrogenic compound is present in sediments from agriculturally intense watersheds and that this compound is bioavailable to fish. Furthermore, the presence of steroid hormones in sediments from these watersheds provides evidence indicating that steroids are capable of sorbing to sediments.
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Keywords: Environmental Studies--Toxicology And Environmental Safety
Keywords: Freshwater
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 189-198
ProQuest ID - 886010585
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Freshwater
Last updated - 2012-01-05
Corporate institution author - Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K; Conoan, Nicholas H; Cox, Marc B; Sangster, Jodi L; Balsiger, Heather A; Bridges, Andrew A; Cowman, Tim; Knight, Lindsey A; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Kolok, Alan S
DOI - OB-e10f9426-fe0a-4c95-b11dcsaobj201; 15378914; CS1149752; 0166-445X English

1208. Seralini, G. E.; de Vendomois, J. S.; Cellier, D.; Sultan, C.; Buiatti, M.; Gallagher, L.; Antoniou, M., and Dronamraju, K. R. How Subchronic and Chronic Health Effects can be Neglected for GMOs, Pesticides or Chemicals. 2009; 5, (5): 438-443.

Rec #: 68579
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chronic health effects are increasing in the world such as cancers, hormonal, reproductive, nervous, or immune diseases, even in young people. During regulatory toxicological subchronic tests to prevent these on mammalian health, prior commercialization of chemicals, including pesticides and drugs, or GMOs, some statistically significant findings may be revealed. This discussion is about the need to investigate the relevant criteria to consider those as biologically significant. The sex differences and the non linear dose or time related effects should be considered in contrast to the claims of a Monsanto-supported expert panel about a GMO, the MON 863 Bt maize, but also for pesticides or drugs, in particular to reveal hormone-dependent diseases and first signs of toxicities.
Keywords: Pesticides, GMO, MON 863, side effects, toxicological tests
ISI Document Delivery No.: 468TG

1209. Sergent, Th+ r+ se; Ribonnet, Laurence; Kolosova, Anna; Garsou, Serge; Schaut, Annelore; De Saeger, Sarah; Van Peteghem, Carlos; Larondelle, Yvan; Pussemier, Luc, and Schneider, Yves-Jacques. Molecular and cellular effects of food contaminants and secondary plant components and their plausible interactions at the intestinal level. 2008 Mar; 46, (3): 813-841.

Rec #: 3380
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The intestinal mucosa is not simply a barrier allowing entry of compounds such as nutrients or chemicals, and restricting that of others. Intestinal cells and activities perform selective absorption, biotransformations and efflux back to the lumen. Furthermore, food substances affect both bioavailability and intestinal function. Some are able to act as transcriptional regulators and enzyme modulators. Biotransformation/ Efflux/ Cytochrome P450/ Food contaminants/ Intestinal barrier/ Intestinal interactions

1210. Serra-Bonvehi, Josep; Orantes-Bermejo, Jose, and Serra-Bonvehi, Josep. Acaricides and Their Residues in Spanish Commercial Beeswax. 2010 Nov; 66, (11): 1230-1235.

Rec #: 43809
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to determine residues of acaricides in recycled Spanish beeswax. RESULTS: Chlorfenvinphos, fluvalinate, amitraz, bromopropylate, acrinathrin, flumethrin, coumaphos, chlorpyrifos, chlordimeform, endosulfan and malathion residues were determined by GC-?ECD/NPD/MS detection. Owing to the extreme instability of amitraz, this analyte was transformed into the stable end-metabolite 2,4-dimethylaniline, later derivatised with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and determined by GC- mu ECD/MS. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 86 to 108%, while quantification limits varied from 0.10 to 0.30 mg kg-1 using GC- mu ECD/NPD, and from 12 to 85 mu g kg-1 by GC-MSD. Of a total of 197 samples analysed, only eight samples (4%) were free of residues of chlorfenvinphos (0.019-10.6 mg kg-1), fluvalinate was present in 93.6% of samples analysed (0.027 -88.7 mg kg-1), while coumaphos was confirmed in only five of the 134 samples analysed at concentrations of less than 195 mu g kg-1. The remaining acaricides were identified with different levels of incidence at concentrations from 12 to 231 mu g kg-1. CONCLUSIONS: Residues of acaricides were found in an extensive number of beeswax samples. The contamination with chlorfenvinphos and tau-fluvalinate was very relevant, particularly as chlorfenvinphos is not legally authorised for use in beekeeping. The possible impacts of the main acaricides detected on larval and adult honey bees are discussed.
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Residues
Keywords: Beeswax
Keywords: Z 05350:Medical, Veterinary, and Agricultural Entomology
Keywords: Larvae
Keywords: Apis mellifera
Keywords: Chlorfenvinphos
Keywords: Pest control
Keywords: Entomology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: acaricides
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: fluvalinate
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Coumaphos
Keywords: Acaricides
Date revised - 2012-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1230-1235
ProQuest ID - 1017972503
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; fluvalinate; Contamination; Beeswax; Coumaphos; Pest control; Chlorfenvinphos; Acaricides; Malathion; Endosulfan; Residues; Pesticides; Larvae; acaricides; Apis mellifera
Last updated - 2012-08-24
British nursing index edition - Pest Management Science [Pest Manage. Sci.]. Vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1230-1235. Nov 2010.
Corporate institution author - Serra-Bonvehi, Josep; Orantes-Bermejo, Jose
DOI - cdf28ca0-85e3-4b82-8826csamfg201; 16710337; 1526-4998 English

1211. Serrano, L. and DeLorenzo, M. E. Water quality and restoration in a coastal subdivision stormwater pond. 2008; 88, (1): 43-52.

Rec #: 68599
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to a number of water quality problems including high nutrient, chemical contaminant, and bacterial levels. This study examined the interaction between land use and coastal pond water quality in a South Carolina residential subdivision pond. Eutrophic levels of chlorophyll and phosphorus were present in all seasons. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms were prevalent during the summer months. Microcystin toxin and fecal coliform bacteria levels were measured that exceeded health and safety standards. Low concentrations of herbicides (atrazine and 2,4-D) were also detected during summer months. Drainage from the stormwater pond may transport contaminants into the adjacent tidal creek and estuary. A survey of residents within the pond's watershed indicated poor pet waste management and frequent use of fertilizers and pesticides as possible contamination sources. Educational and outreach activities were provided to community members to create an awareness of the water quality conditions in the pond. Pond management strategies were then recommended, and selected mitigation actions were implemented. Water quality problems identified in this study have been observed in other coastal stormwater ponds of varying size and salinity, leading this project to serve as a potential model for coastal stormwater pond management. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: stormwater pond, coastal water quality, public outreach, management
ISI Document Delivery No.: 305VS

1212. Serrano, Roque; Portol+_s, Tania; Blanes, Miguel A.; Hern+índez, F+ lix; Navarro, Juan C.; Var+¦, Inmaculada, and Amat, Francisco. Characterization of the organic contamination pattern of a hyper-saline ecosystem by rapid screening using gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. 2012 Sep 1-; 433, (0): 161-168.

Rec #: 5270
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: In this paper, gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCÇôTOF MS) has been applied to evaluate organic pollution in a hyper-saline aquatic environment. Firstly, a target screening was made for a list of 150 GC-amenable organic micro-contaminants, including PAHs, octyl/nonyl phenols, PCBs, PBDEs, and a notable number of pesticides, such us insecticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids), herbicides (triazines and chloroacetanilides), fungicides and several transformation products. This methodology was applied to brine samples, with a salt content from 112 g/L to saturation, and to samples from Artemia populations (crustacean Anostraca) collected during 1 year from three sampling stations in saltworks bodies sited in the Ebro river delta. Around 50 target contaminants, belong to chemical families included in the list of priority substances within the framework on European water policy. Gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry/ Time-of-flight/ Screening/ Hyper-saline ecosystem/ Organic contaminants

1213. Sethunathan, N. Microbial Degradation of Insecticides in Flooded Soil and in Anaerobic Cultures. 1973; 47, 143-166.

Rec #: 1910

1214. Sethunathan, N. and Pathak, M. D. Increased Biological Hydrolysis of Diazinon After Repeated Application in Rice Paddies. 1972; 20, (3): 586-589.

Rec #: 1860
Keywords: FATE
Call Number: NO FATE (CBF,CPY,DZ)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CBF,CPY,DZ,EPRN,HCCH,PPCP,PRN

1215. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Evaluation of Malonaldialdehyde as an Index of Chlorpyriphos Insecticide Exposure in Apis mellifora: Ameliorating Role of Melatonin and alpha-Tocopherol Against Oxidative Stress. 2009; 91, (6): 1135-1148.

Rec #: 300
Keywords: IN VITRO
Call Number: NO IN VITRO (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1216. Shah, A. A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, S.; Lindstrom, R. W., and Wolf, K. E. Prevalence of at-Risk Drinking Among a National Sample of Medical Students.

Rec #: 50909
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: As limited research exists on medical students' substance use patterns, including over-consumption of alcohol, the objective of this study was to determine prevalence and correlates of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students, using a cross-sectional, anonymous, Web-based survey. A total of 2710 medical students from 36 U.S. medical schools (1st to 4th year) completed the survey. Included in the instruments was a 10-item scale (AUDIT) to assess at-risk drinking behaviors within the last 12 months. Over 15% of the subjects (n = 412) scored positive for at-risk drinking (>/= 8). Multivariate analysis of the data revealed the following independent predictors were statistically significant (P < /= 0.05) for at-risk drinking: being of younger age, male, unmarried, using illicit drugs, smoking tobacco products within the last 30 days, having low perception of risk, showing impulsive behavior, being depressed, and having gambling problems. Findings from this study provides initial data for investigating further associations between risky drinking behavior, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors, as well as effectiveness of curriculum or campus-wide policy interventions to reduce over-consumption of drinking among this population.
MESH HEADINGS: Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology/psychology
MESH HEADINGS: Alcoholism/*epidemiology/psychology
MESH HEADINGS: Attitude to Health
MESH HEADINGS: Comorbidity
MESH HEADINGS: Cross-Sectional Studies
MESH HEADINGS: Depression/epidemiology/psychology
MESH HEADINGS: Gambling/psychology
MESH HEADINGS: Impulsive Behavior/epidemiology/psychology
MESH HEADINGS: Smoking/epidemiology
MESH HEADINGS: Students, Medical/psychology/*statistics &
MESH HEADINGS: numerical data
MESH HEADINGS: Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology/psychology
MESH HEADINGS: Young Adult eng

1217. Shailaja, S.; Mohan, S. V.; Krishna, M. R., and Sarma, P. N. Degradation of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in bioslurry phase reactor and identification of metabolites by HPLC and MS. 2008; 62, (2): 143-152.

Rec #: 68619
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) belongs to the class of phthalate esters and is used as an additive in many products including plastics, paints and inks or as a solvent in industrial formulations. However, it is used mostly for its plasticizing ability in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, in which it is often added in concentrations exceeding 40% by mass. DEHP is one of the more recalcitrant phthalate esters, which has xeno-estrogenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Five different bioslurry reactors were operated under different conditions to study the degradation of DEHP (1 mg g(-1) soil) in soil. The process performance was assessed by monitoring DEHP concentration periodically using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ongoing biological process was monitored by analyzing pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen (DO), oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and colony forming units (CFU) for every 24 h. More than 90% degradation was observed within 12 days of the cycle period in the augmented reactors. Metabolites formed during the degradation of DEHP in the slurry phase reactor were identified and the pathway was also established. The degradation process was found to follow zero-order kinetic model. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: phthalate, bioaugmentation, kinetics, metabolites, soil bioremediation
ISI Document Delivery No.: 349XP

1218. Shankaran, S.; Bann, C. M.; Bauer, C. R.; Lester, B. M.; Bada, H. S.; Das, A.; Higgins, R. D.; Poole, W. K.; Lagasse, L. L.; Hammond, J., and Woldt, E. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Bmi and Blood Pressure at 9 Years of Age.

Rec #: 51549
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to intrauterine growth retardation and poor birth outcomes; little is known about the effects on longer-term medical outcomes, such as overweight status and hypertension in childhood. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and BMI and blood pressure at 9 years of age among children followed prospectively in a multisite longitudinal study evaluating the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on childhood outcome.
ABSTRACT: DESIGN/METHODS: This analysis includes 880 children (277 cocaine exposed and 603 with no cocaine exposure) with blood pressure, height, and weight measurements at 9 years of age. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and BMI and blood pressure at 9 years of age after controlling for demographics, other drug exposure, birthweight, maternal weight, infant postnatal weight gain, and childhood television viewing, exercise, and dietary habits at 9 years. Path analyses were used to further explore these relationships.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: At 9 years of age, 15% of the children were prehypertensive and 19% were hypertensive; 16% were at risk for overweight status and 21% were overweight. A small percentage of women were exposed to high levels of prenatal cocaine throughout pregnancy. A higher BMI was noted in children born to these women. Path analysis suggested that high cocaine exposure has an indirect effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressures that is mediated through its effect on BMI.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: High levels of in-utero cocaine exposure are a marker for elevated BMI and blood pressure among children born full term.
MESH HEADINGS: *Blood Pressure
MESH HEADINGS: *Body Mass Index
MESH HEADINGS: Cocaine/*administration &
MESH HEADINGS: Energy Intake
MESH HEADINGS: Longitudinal Studies
MESH HEADINGS: *Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects eng

1219. Sharma, G. and Vijayaraghavan, S. Nicotinic Receptors Containing the Alpha7 Subunit: a Model for Rational Drug Design.

Rec #: 51029
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: The neuronal nicotinic receptor has gained considerable recognition as a target, not just for combating drug addiction but also for treating a number of illnesses ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. This recognition has led to a burgeoning field examining the receptor at all levels. A class of nicotinic receptors that contains the alpha7 gene product, apparently as a homomer, illustrates this multidisciplinary approach. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of this class of receptors based on data from molecular, structural, physiological and patho-physiological studies. These studies have set the stage for rational drug design to combat disorders of the central nervous system. The studies also exemplify the cautious approach needed in developing CNS therapies and the importance of physiology in tempering drug design.
MESH HEADINGS: Allosteric Site
MESH HEADINGS: Central Nervous System Diseases/*drug therapy
MESH HEADINGS: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Biological
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Chemical
MESH HEADINGS: Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Binding
MESH HEADINGS: Receptors, Nicotinic/*chemistry/*genetics/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Signal Transduction
MESH HEADINGS: Smoking eng

1220. Sharma, N; Prakash, a, and Sharma, N. Determination of Persistent Pesticide Residues Water of Agra Region Using Solid Phase Gas Chromatography. 2008; 5, (1): 91-94.

Rec #: 49809
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Water samples collected from ground water of Agra region were analyzed for pesticide residues using solid phase extraction and gas chromatographic techniques, organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides viz., malathion, chloropyriphos, gamma -HC alpha -HCH, endosulfan ( alpha and beta isomers) and isomers of DDT (p'-DDE and p'-DDT) were in concentrations much above the prescribed limits. Seasonal variations were observed level of pesticide residues.
Keywords: Organochlorine compounds
Keywords: Water sampling
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: Pesticide Residues
Keywords: Solids
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Agra
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Analytical Methods
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: DDT
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Organic Compounds
Keywords: Groundwater
Keywords: Seasonal variations
Keywords: India, Uttar Pradesh, Agra Dist., Agra
Date revised - 2009-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - India, Uttar Pradesh, Agra Dist., Agra
Pages - 91-94
ProQuest ID - 20260367
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Organochlorine compounds; Insecticides; Water sampling; Gas chromatography; Pesticide residues; DDT; Groundwater; Seasonal variations; Malathion; Endosulfan; Agricultural Chemicals; Analytical Methods; Pesticides; Pesticide Residues; Solids; Organic Compounds; Agra; India, Uttar Pradesh, Agra Dist., Agra
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution [Asian J. Water Environ. Pollut.]. Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 91-94. 2008.
Corporate institution author - Sharma, N; Prakash, A
DOI - MD-0009229769; 8899407; 0972-9860 English

1221. Sheffield, S. R. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of the OP Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Larval Amphibians. 2000: (ABS).

Rec #: 2380
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1222. Sheftall, William II. New Information on Pesticides in Aquatic Systems. 2008; 32, (10): 3-4.

Rec #: 54309
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Keywords: Internet resource
Includes references 1022983745

1223. Shelton, J. F.; Hertz-Picciotto, I., and Pessah, I. N. Tipping the Balance of Autism Risk: Potential Mechanisms Linking Pesticides and Autism. 2012; 120, (7): 944-951.

Rec #: 68699
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been increasing in many parts of the world and a portion of cases are attributable to environmental exposures. Conclusive replicated findings have yet to appear on any specific exposure; however, mounting evidence suggests gestational pesticides exposures are strong candidates. Because multiple developmental processes are implicated in ASDs during gestation and early life, biological plausibility is more likely if these agents can be shown to affect core pathophysiological features. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine shared mechanisms between autism pathophysiology and the effects of pesticide exposures, focusing on neuroexcitability, oxidative stress, and immune functions and to outline the biological correlates between pesticide exposure and autism risk. METHODS: We review and discuss previous research related to autism risk, developmental effects of early pesticide exposure, and basic biological mechanisms by which pesticides may induce or exacerbate pathophysiological features of autism. DISCUSSION: On the basis of experimental and observational research, certain pesticides may be capable of inducing core features of autism, but little is known about the timing or dose, or which of various mechanisms is sufficient to induce this condition. CONCLUSIONS: In animal studies, we encourage more research on gene x environment interactions, as well as experimental exposure to mixtures of compounds. Similarly, epidemiologic studies in humans with exceptionally high exposures can identify which pesticide classes are of greatest concern, and studies focused on gene x environment are needed to determine if there are susceptible subpopulations at greater risk from pesticide exposures.
Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, carbamate, gene-environment interaction,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 969DG

1224. Shen, Yu-jia; Lu, Pen; Mei, Huan; Yu, Hao-jie; Hong, Qing, and Li, Shun-peng. Isolation of a methyl parathion-degrading strain Stenotrophomonas sp. SMSP-1 and cloning of the ophc2 gene. 2010; 21, (5): 785-792.

Rec #: 54319
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas sp. SMSP-1 was isolated from the sludge of a wastewater treating system of a pesticide manufacturer. Strain SMSP-1 could hydrolyze methyl parathion to p-nitrophenol (PNP) and dimethyl phosphorothioate but could not degrade PNP further. Strain SMSP-1 was able to hydrolyze other organophosphate pesticides, including fenitrothion, ethyl parathion, fenthion, and phoxim, but not chlorpyrifos. A 4395-bp DNA fragment, including an organophosphorus hydrolase encoding gene ophc2, was cloned from the chromosome of strain SMSP-1 using the shotgun technique. Its sequence analysis showed that ophc2 was associated with a typical mobile element ISPpu12 consisting of tnpA (encoding a transposase), lspA (encoding a lipoprotein signal peptidase), and orf1 (encoding a CDF family heavy metal/H⁺ antiporter). The ophc2 gene was effectively expressed in E. coli. This is the second report of cloning the ophc2 gene and the first report of this gene from the genus of Stenotrophomonas.
Keywords: ophc2
Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands

1225. Shenouda, J; Green, P; Sultatos, L, and Shenouda, J. An Evaluation of the Inhibition of Human Butyrylcholinesterase and Acetylcholinesterase by the Organophosphate Chlorpyrifos Oxon. 2009 Dec 1; 241, (2): 135-142.

Rec #: 40909
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Acetylcholinesterase (EC and butyrylcholinesterase (EC are enzymes that belong to the superfamily of a /b-hydrolase fold proteins. While they share many characteristics, they also possess many important differences. For example, whereas they have about 54% amino acid sequence identity, the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase is considerably smaller than that of butyrylcholinesterase. Moreover, both have been shown to display simple and complex kinetic mechanisms, depending on the particular substrate examined, the substrate concentration, and incubation conditions. In the current study, incubation of butyrylthiocholine in a concentration range of 0.005-3.0 mM, with 317 pM human butyrylcholinesterase in vitro, resulted in rates of production of thiocholine that were accurately described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a K sub(m) of 0.10 mM. Similarly, the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in vitro by the organophosphate chlorpyrifos oxon was described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a k sub(i) of 3048 nM super(-) super(1) h super(-) super(1), and a K sub(D) of 2.02 nM. In contrast to inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase, inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase by chlorpyrifos oxon in vitro followed concentration-dependent inhibition kinetics, with the k sub(i) increasing as the inhibitor concentration decreased. Chlorpyrifos oxon concentrations of 10 and 0.3 nM gave k sub(i)s of 1.2 and 19.3 nM super(-) super(1) h super(-) super(1), respectively. Although the mechanism of concentration-dependent inhibition kinetics is not known, the much smaller, more restrictive active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase almost certainly plays a role. Similarly, the much larger active site gorge of butyrylcholinesterase likely contributes to its much greater reactivity towards chlorpyrifos oxon, compared to acetylcholinesterase.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Kinetics
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Amino acid sequence
Date revised - 2009-11-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 135-142
ProQuest ID - 21215283
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Acetylcholinesterase; Kinetics; Enzymes; organophosphates; Amino acid sequence
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.]. Vol. 241, no. 2, pp. 135-142. 1 Dec 2009.
Corporate institution author - Shenouda, J; Green, P; Sultatos, L
DOI - MD-0010938349; 11187275; 0041-008X English

1226. Shi, Rongguang; Lv, Jungang; Feng, Jimin, and Lv, Jungang. Assessment of Pesticide Pollution in Suburban Soil in South Shenyang, China. 2011 Nov; 87, (5): 567-573.

Rec #: 47039
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In this study, 35 representative farmland soil samples from suburban areas in south Shenyang, the capital city in Liaoning province, China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 114 pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested pesticides in the area ranged in 0-51.32 ng/g and the average of concentrations was 6.86 ng/g. Six pesticides, including butachlor(with detect frequency 71.4%), p,p'-DDE (88.6%), p,p'-DDT (77.1%), o,p'-DDD (82.9%), hexachlorobenzene (88.6%) and delta -HCB (77.1%), were detected most frequently. It indicated that DDTs (N.D.-40.25 ng/g) and HCHs (N.D.-42.79 ng/g) were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil because of their long term persistence. On the contrary, most of organophosphorus pesticides, pyrethroids and carbamates were not detected. Spatial variation of six pesticides with high detection frequency (>70%) in soil was illustrated. Pollution levels, characteristics and the possible sources were also discussed. The data were helpful to figure out the pollution of the pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with food safety.
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: Food
Keywords: Mass spectroscopy
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: spatial distribution
Keywords: spatial variations
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: Pesticide pollution
Keywords: Pyrethroids
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: pollution levels
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Pollution levels
Keywords: agricultural land
Keywords: Pesticides (carbamates)
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Spectrometry
Keywords: Ultrasonics
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: hexachlorocyclohexane
Keywords: DDT
Keywords: China, People's Rep., Liaoning Prov.
Keywords: Hexachlorobenzene
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Location - China, People's Rep., Liaoning Prov.
Pages - 567-573
ProQuest ID - 908843631
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Pesticides (organophosphorus); Data processing; Food; Pollution levels; Pesticides (carbamates); Mass spectroscopy; Soil; spatial variations; Pollutants; Ultrasonics; Gas chromatography; Pesticide pollution; DDT; Pyrethroids; Hexachlorobenzene; Risk assessment; spatial distribution; pollution levels; hexachlorocyclohexane; Pesticides; agricultural land; Spectrometry; China, People's Rep., Liaoning Prov.
Last updated - 2012-01-26
Corporate institution author - Shi, Rongguang; Lv, Jungang; Feng, Jimin
DOI - OB-37556e2d-92e7-4b8e-9a0fmfgefd107; 15838306; 0007-4861; 1432-0800 English

1227. Shim, J. C.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, C. L.; Lee, W. J.; Lee, B. I., and Kim, S. C. Integrated Control of Vector Mosquitoes in Rice Fields. 1987; 17, (2): 83-91(KOR) (ENG ABS).

Rec #: 1320
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1228. Shim, J. Y.; Kim, Y. A.; Lee, E. H.; Lee, Y. T., and Lee, H. S. Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Organophosphorus Insecticide EPN. 2008; 56, (24): 11551-11559.

Rec #: 68739
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in indirect and direct format were developed for the quantitative detection of the organophosphorus insecticide EPN. Five EPN derivatives (haptens) were synthesized and coupled to carrier proteins to use as an immunogen or as a competitor. Rabbits were immunized with two of the five haptens coupled to KLH for production of polyclonal antibodies, and the sera were screened against one of the haptens coupled to ovalbumin (OVA). Using the serum with the highest specificity and a coating antigen (hapten-OVA conjugate), an indirect (antigen-coated) ELISA was developed, which showed an IC(50) of 5.6 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.2 ng/mL (20% inhibition). A direct (anti body-coated) ELISA using an enzyme tracer (hapten-enzyme conjugate) was also developed, which showed an IC(50) of 8.4 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.9 ng/mL (20% inhibition). The antibodies showed negligible cross-reactivity with other organophosphorus pesticides except with the insecticide parathion-ethyl only in the direct ELISA. The recoveries of EPN from spiked samples determined by the indirect ELISAs were between 37 and 164%.
Keywords: EPN, insecticide, immunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA
ISI Document Delivery No.: 385GJ

1229. Shin, H. M.; McKone, T. E., and Bennett, D. H. Intake Fraction for the Indoor Environment: A Tool for Prioritizing Indoor Chemical Sources. 2012; 46, (18): 10063-10072.

Rec #: 68759
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Reliable exposure-based chemical characterization tools are needed to evaluate and prioritize in a rapid and efficient manner the more than tens of thousands of chemicals in current use. This study applies intake fraction (iF), the integrated incremental intake of a chemical per unit of emission, for a suite of indoor released compounds. A fugacity-based indoor mass-balance model was used to simulate the fate and transport of chemicals for three release scenarios: direct emissions to room air and surface applications to carpet and vinyl. Exposure through inhalation, dermal uptake, and nondietary ingestion was estimated. To compute iF, cumulative intake was summed from all exposure pathways for 20 years based on a scenario with two adults and a 1-year-old child who ages through the simulation. Overall iFs vary by application modes: air release (3.1 x 10(-3) to 6.3 x 10(-3)), carpet application (3.8 x 10(-5) to 6.2 x 10(-3)), and vinyl application (9.0 x 10(-5) to 1.8 x 10(-2)). These iF values serve as initial estimates that offer important insights on variations among chemicals and the potential relative contribution of each pathway over a suite of compounds. The approach from this study is intended for exposure-based prioritization of chemicals released inside homes.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 005ZD

1230. Shoenfelt, J.; Mitkus, R. J.; Zeisler, R.; Spatz, R. O.; Powell, J.; Fenton, M. J.; Squibb, K. A., and Medvedev, A. E. Involvement of Tlr2 and Tlr4 in Inflammatory Immune Responses Induced by Fine and Coarse Ambient Air Particulate Matter.

Rec #: 50769
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Induction of proinflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient air particulate matter has been suggested to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and allergic diseases in the lungs. However, receptors and mechanisms underlying these responses have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether TLR2, TLR4, and the key adaptor protein, MyD88, mediate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fine and coarse PM. TLR2 deficiency blunted macrophage TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression in response to fine (PM2.5), while not affecting cytokine-inducing ability of coarse NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1648) particles. In contrast, TLR4(-/-) macrophages showed inhibited cytokine expression upon stimulation with NIST SRM 1648 but exhibited normal responses to PM2.5. Preincubation with polymyxin B markedly suppressed the capacity of NIST SRM 1648 to elicit TNF-alpha and IL-6, indicating endotoxin as a principal inducer of cytokine responses. Overexpression of TLR2 in TLR2/4-deficient human embryonic kidney 293 cells imparted PM2.5 sensitivity, as judged by IL-8 gene expression, whereas NIST SRM 1648, but not PM2.5 elicited IL-8 expression in 293/TLR4/MD-2 transfectants. Engagement of TLR4 by NIST SRM 1648 induced MyD88-independent expression of the chemokine RANTES, while TLR2-reactive NIST IRM PM2.5 failed to up-regulate this response. Consistent with the shared use of MyD88 by TLR2 and TLR4, cytokine responses of MyD88(-/-) macrophages to both types of air PM were significantly reduced. These data indicate differential utilization of TLR2 and TLR4 but shared use of MyD88 by fine and coarse air pollution particles.
MESH HEADINGS: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Cells, Cultured
MESH HEADINGS: Chemokine CCL5/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Hypersensitivity/immunology/physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Interleukin-6/metabolism/secretion
MESH HEADINGS: Interleukin-8/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Macrophages/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Knockout
MESH HEADINGS: Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Particulate Matter/*adverse effects
MESH HEADINGS: Pneumonia/genetics/*immunology/physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Polymyxin B/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Signal Transduction/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Toll-Like Receptor 2/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism/secretion eng

1231. Sidiropoulou, E.; Sachana, M.; Flaskos, J.; Harris, W.; Hargreaves, A. J., and Woldehiwet, Z. Diazinon oxon affects the differentiation of mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. 2009; 83, (4): 373-380.

Rec #: 68789
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the neurotoxicity of
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