Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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To determine population risk, I use existing GIS information, specifically a USDA aerial photograph taken when crops were at full leaf, US Bureau of the Census data from 2000, and data regarding pesticide usage and crop growth gathered by myself to analyze, compare, and assess possible health risks from living, or attending school, near farm fields. I focus on five pesticides commonly used on local crops (e.g., cotton, pecans, and chiles) and the level of danger that they present to the surrounding population. In regards to the defoliant Defol 750 used on chile, the populations that are mostly at risk are Hispanics and people who are 65 years of age and over. When looking at the insecticides Lorsban 4E and Whirlwind, the populations that are most affected are non Hispanic Whites, renters, and adults 18 to 64 years of age. In regards to Roundup ProMax herbicide and Trimax Pro insecticides, the populations that are most at risk are non Hispanic Whites, renters, and adults 18 to 64 years of age. In terms of schools, nine schools are located within 300 feet of the nearest farm field, putting students and school staff at risk. We can see that there is an overall significant pattern of increased risk in regards to populations that are non Hispanic Whites, adults, and renters, as well as to schools that surround farmlands. In sum, there are a substantial amount of people at risk due to the proximity of farms that use pesticides to homes and schools in the Lower Valley.
Start Page: 52
ISSN/ISBN: 9781124063751
Keywords: 0768:Environmental science
Keywords: Pestecide
Keywords: El Paso County
Keywords: 0700:Social structure
Keywords: Exposure
Keywords: 0473:Agriculture
Keywords: Texas
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Keywords: Lower Valley
Keywords: Geography
Keywords: Biological sciences
Keywords: Social sciences
Pestecide
2009
El Paso County
Texas
66569
Lower Valley
n/a
Social sciences
English
0473: Agriculture
1477827
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2009
53267501
Sanchez, Critina Solis
0700: Social structure
Exposure
0768: Environmental science
9781124063751
Health and environmental sciences
Geography
604663280
Biological sciences
2076885071
2010-07-22 English

1177. Sanchez-Sanchez, L.; Roman, R., and Vazquez-Duhalt, R. Pesticide transformation by a variant of CYPBM3 with improved peroxygenase activity. 2012; 102, (2): 169-174.


Rec #: 68229
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The activity of the mutant CYPBM3 "21B3", which is able to use hydrogen peroxide as the final electron acceptor, was evaluated against two major environmental pollutants; organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. This evolved CYP from Bacillus megaterium is able to transform a variety of structurally different pesticides. The catalytic parameters for two organochlorine; dichlorophen (k(cat) = 9.2 min(-1), K(M) = 64.1 mu M) and linuron (k(cat) = 226.5 min(-1), K(M) = 468.2 mu M), and two organophosphorus compounds; parathion (k(cat) = 10.9 min(-1), K(M) = 59.3 mu M) and chlorpyrifos (k(cat) = 9.2 min(-1), K(M) = 226.5 mu M) were determined giving catalytic efficiencies between 0.143 and 1.107 min(-1) mu M(-1). CYPBM3 "21B3" has the ability to both activate and detoxify organophosphorus pesticides, as demonstrated by the chemical nature of the reaction products. The capacity to transform structurally diverse compounds together with the great stability, easy production and relatively inexpensive cofactors needed, makes CYPBM3 "21B3" an enzyme with a potential use on the environmental field. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: CYP variant, Organophosphorus, Organochlorine, Pesticides,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 904QE

1178. Sandal, Suleyman; Yilmaz, Bayram, and Sandal, Suleyman. Genotoxic Effects of Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin, Endosulfan and 2,4-D on Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Cultured From Smokers and Nonsmokers. 2011 Oct; 26, (5): 433-442.


Rec #: 39359
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticides often cause environmental pollution and adverse effects on human health. We have chosen four structurally different pesticides (endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide; chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide; cypermethrin, type II pyrethroid insecticide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon acid pesticide) to examine and compare their effects on DNA damage in acutely cultured human lymphocytes by the comet assay. In addition, possible differences in response between smoking and nonsmoking subjects were also investigated. Venous blood samples were obtained from healthy male nonsmoker (n = 7) and smoker (n = 8) donors. Primary cultures of lymphocytes were prepared and test groups were treated with three different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 Delta *mM) of endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, cypermehrin, and 2,4-D. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay. We determined an increase in the ratio of DNA migration in human lymphocyte cell cultures as a result of treatment with cypermethrin, 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos at high concentration. Endosulfan had no significant genotoxic effect even at 10 Delta *mM concentration. We suggest that chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin are more potentially genotoxic than endosulfan and 2,4-D. Our findings also indicate that the only significant DNA damage between smokers and nonsmokers was observed in the 2,4-D-treated group. ? 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2010.
Keywords: 2,4-D
Keywords: Cell culture
Keywords: Lymphocytes
Keywords: P 6000:TOXICOLOGY AND HEALTH
Keywords: Leukocyte migration
Keywords: Smoking
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: X 24380:Social Poisons & Drug Abuse
Keywords: Aromatic hydrocarbons
Keywords: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Keywords: Pyrethroids
Keywords: Pollution
Keywords: Cypermethrin
Keywords: Genotoxicity
Keywords: Pesticides (organochlorine)
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: DNA damage
Keywords: cypermethrin
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: DNA
Keywords: Comet assay
Keywords: Side effects
Date revised - 2012-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 433-442
ProQuest ID - 1017978641
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - 2,4-D; Cypermethrin; Genotoxicity; Pesticides (organochlorine); Cell culture; organophosphates; Lymphocytes; Endosulfan; Chlorpyrifos; Leukocyte migration; Smoking; DNA damage; Insecticides; Aromatic hydrocarbons; Comet assay; Pyrethroids; Side effects; Pollution; cypermethrin; Pesticides; DNA; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Last updated - 2012-09-10
British nursing index edition - Environmental Toxicology [Environ. Toxicol.]. Vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 433-442. Oct 2011.
Corporate institution author - Sandal, Suleyman; Yilmaz, Bayram
DOI - 310ddbbe-ae91-4c14-8907csamfg201; 16709987; 1522-7278 English

1179. Sanders, W. R.; Mankin, R. W.; Liburd, O. E., and Stelinski, L. L. ACOUSTIC DETECTION OF ARTHROPOD INFESTATION OF GRAPE ROOTS: SCOUTING FOR GRAPE ROOT BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: SESIIDAE). 2011; 94, (2): 296-302.


Rec #: 68259
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, is the principal pest of grapes (Vitis spp. L.) in Florida where chlorpyrifos is 1 of the few chemicals registered for its control. However, chlorpyrifos is not an ideal treatment because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees. Also, the recommended timing of application conflicts with harvest dates. There is an effective cultural control method, known as mounding, but this method is currently cost prohibitive for commercial production and is not widely used. If mounding could be applied only to infested plants, the cost of this method would be reduced considerably. This study evaluated the potential of acoustics for detecting the larvae in-situ. Human listeners assessed likelihood of arthropod infestation for each site based on live acoustic samples as they were being recorded. Computer software later constructed acoustic indicators from these recordings that were used for computer assessment of infestation likelihood. After recording, the roots of sampled vines were excavated to determine infestation levels. Infestation likelihood predictions of both human listeners and computer software largely reflected infestation condition of tested sites. Consequently, acoustic methods could be developed as tools for growers to employ mounding only at sites most likely to be infested, and thus enable more cost-effective use of this cultural control tactic.
Keywords: IPM, monitoring, mounding, grape pest, Vitis spp.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 787WH

1180. Sangchan, W.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Ingwersen, J.; Schwadorf, K.; Thavornyutikarn, P.; Pansombat, K., and Streck, T. Short-term dynamics of pesticide concentrations and loads in a river of an agricultural watershed in the outer tropics. 2012 Sep 1-; 158, (0): 1-14.


Rec #: 3090
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The intensification of agriculture in the mountainous regions of northern Thailand has led to an increased input of agrochemicals, which may be lost to streams and contaminate the surface water of the lowlands. The present study quantifies the dynamics of pesticide loads in a tropical river during three runoff events. To elucidate the processes involved in pesticide transport from agricultural fields to the stream water we used a high temporal resolution of sampling (1 h) and applied a time series analysis. Water samples were analyzed for seven pesticides (atrazine, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dichlorvos, +_- and +_-endosulfan). Six of the seven pesticides were detected in the river water. Only dichlorvos was below the detection limit in all samples. In particular, pesticides with low Koc value such as atrazine and dimethoate were transported during the runoff peaks. In case of chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, +_- and +_-endosulfan and cypermethrin, short concentration peaks lasting about 1 h were detected during the falling limbs of the runoff peaks, indicating that a fast and sporadic sub-surface flow component (e.g., preferential interflow) plays an important role as a transport pathway. Our study demonstrates that in tropical areas sampling schemes with a high temporal resolution are needed to adequately assess the pesticide contamination of rivers. Otherwise, extreme situations may remain unsampled. Atrazine/ Dimethoate/ Chlorothalonil/ Chlorpyrifos/ +_-Endosulfan/ +_-Endosulfan/ Cypermethrin/ Pesticides in surface water/ Pesticide load/ Sub-surface transport/ Mountainous watershed/ Thailand

1181. Sanjuan-Herraez, Daniel; Rodriguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Juan-Peiro, Luis; Pastor, Agustin; De La Guardia, Miguel, and Sanjuan-Herraez, Daniel. Determination of Indoor Air Quality of a Phytosanitary Plant. 2011 May 23; 694, (1-2): 67-74.


Rec #: 47279
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A new methodology has been developed to determine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides in ambient air using membrane based devices as passive samplers. Pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) after their microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) from the passive sampler and the required clean-up. On the other hand, VOCs were also caught with the same samplers and directly determined by head space (HS) coupled to GC-MS. The use of samplers filled with florisil and activated carbon allows us to catch with a simple device both, VOCs and pesticides, with a high vapor pressure. Results obtained in the deployment of samplers in different sites of a phytosanitary plant evidenced the presence of high quantities of chlorpyriphos at thousand ng m super(3) and also metalaxyl, oxyfluorphen and lindane at ng m super(3) together with carbon disulfide, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, ethylbenzene and xylene.
Keywords: catches
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Activated carbon
Keywords: Indoor air
Keywords: Mass spectrometry
Keywords: Volatile organic compound emission from vegetation
Keywords: Lindane
Keywords: Organic compounds in atmosphere
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts
Keywords: vapor pressure
Keywords: M2 551.510.42:Air Pollution (551.510.42)
Keywords: Xylene
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Volatile organic compound emission by motor vehicles
Keywords: Vapor pressure
Keywords: Volatile organic compounds
Keywords: ENA 01:Air Pollution
Date revised - 2011-06-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 67-74
ProQuest ID - 874190588
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Gas chromatography; Volatile organic compound emission by motor vehicles; Indoor air; Volatile organic compound emission from vegetation; Mass spectrometry; Organic compounds in atmosphere; Vapor pressure; vapor pressure; catches; Xylene; Activated carbon; Pesticides; Lindane; Volatile organic compounds
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Analytica Chimica Acta [Anal. Chim. Acta]. Vol. 694, no. 1-2, pp. 67-74. 23 May 2011.
Corporate institution author - Sanjuan-Herraez, Daniel; Rodriguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Juan-Peiro, Luis; Pastor, Agustin; De la Guardia, Miguel
DOI - 2a8baf49-ef18-4a1f-958dcsaobj201; 14977638; 0003-2670 English

1182. Santaguida, S.; Tighe, A.; D'alise, A. M.; Taylor, S. S., and Musacchio, A. Dissecting the Role of Mps1 in Chromosome Biorientation and the Spindle Checkpoint Through the Small Molecule Inhibitor Reversine.


Rec #: 50489
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: The catalytic activity of the MPS1 kinase is crucial for the spindle assembly checkpoint and for chromosome biorientation on the mitotic spindle. We report that the small molecule reversine is a potent mitotic inhibitor of MPS1. Reversine inhibits the spindle assembly checkpoint in a dose-dependent manner. Its addition to mitotic HeLa cells causes the ejection of Mad1 and the ROD-ZWILCH-ZW10 complex, both of which are important for the spindle checkpoint, from unattached kinetochores. By using reversine, we also demonstrate that MPS1 is required for the correction of improper chromosome-microtubule attachments. We provide evidence that MPS1 acts downstream from the AURORA B kinase, another crucial component of the error correction pathway. Our experiments describe a very useful tool to interfere with MPS1 activity in human cells. They also shed light on the relationship between the error correction pathway and the spindle checkpoint and suggest that these processes are coregulated and are likely to share at least a subset of their catalytic machinery.
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Chromosomes, Human/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
MESH HEADINGS: HeLa Cells
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Kinetochores/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Microtubules/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mitosis/*drug effects/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Mitotic Spindle Apparatus/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Morpholines/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Multiprotein Complexes/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
MESH HEADINGS: Purines/*pharmacology eng

1183. Santos, Mjg; Sousa, J P; Tiago, I; Verissimo, a; Lemos, Mfl, and Santos, MJG. Amplified Ribosomal Dna Restriction Analysis as a Routine Tool to Assess Toxicant Driven Changes in Hindgut Bacterial Populations of Porcellio Dilatatus (Crustacea: Isopoda). 2011 Aug; 13, (8): 2102-2104.


Rec #: 47189
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Changes in saprophytic organism's gut microbial communities may present a threat to organic matter breakdown which can ultimately lead to soil function impairment. In this study, Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) was evaluated as a potential simple molecular tool to assess shifts in bacterial community structure in hindgut populations of Porcellio dilatatus exposed to contaminated food. This prospective tool can also be used for a variety of purposes and samples prior to the use of more specific and sophisticated methods.
Keywords: Environmental monitoring
Keywords: Bacteria
Keywords: Toxicants
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: Crustacea
Keywords: Organic matter
Keywords: Microbial activity
Keywords: N 14810:Methods
Keywords: Biochemistry Abstracts 2: Nucleic Acids; Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Food contamination
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Porcellio dilatatus
Keywords: Isopoda
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Digestive tract
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