Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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The current review focuses on the forward genetic approaches that have been used to dissect innate immunity in the fruit fly and the mouse. For both animal models, forward genetics has been instrumental in the deciphering of innate immunity and has greatly improved our understanding of how we respond to invading pathogens.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Disease Models, Animal
MESH HEADINGS: Drosophila Proteins/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Drosophila melanogaster/genetics/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Immunity, Innate/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/genetics/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Inbred Strains
MESH HEADINGS: *Models, Animal
MESH HEADINGS: Mutagenesis
MESH HEADINGS: Pedigree eng

1160. Ryberg, Karen R; Vecchia, Aldo V; Martin, Jeffrey D; Gilliom, Robert J, and Ryberg, Karen R. Trends in Pesticide Concentrations in Urban Streams in the United States, 1992-2008. 2010.


Rec #: 44389
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticide concentration trends in streams dominated by urban land use were assessed using data from 27 urban streams sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The sites were divided into four regions, Northeast, South, Midwest, and West, to examine possible regional patterns. Three partially overlapping 9-year periods (1992-2000, 1996-2004, and 2000-2008) were examined for eight herbicides and one degradation product (simazine, prometon, atrazine, deethylatrazine, metolachlor, trifluralin, pendimethalin, tebuthiuron, and Dacthal), and five insecticides and two degradation products (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, fipronil, fipronil sulfide, desulfinylfipronil, and carbaryl). The data were analyzed for trends in concentration using a parametric regression model with seasonality, flow-related variability, and trend, called SEAWAVE-Q. The SEAWAVE-Q model also was used to generate estimated daily concentration percentiles for each analysis period to provide a summary of concentration magnitudes. For herbicides, the largest 90th percentiles of estimated concentrations for simazine were in the South, prometon at some sites in all of the regions, atrazine and deethylatrazine in the South and Midwest, metolachlor in the Midwest and a few sites in the South, pendimethalin at scattered sites in all of the regions, and tebuthiuron in the South and a few sites in the Midwest and West. For insecticides, the largest 90th percentiles of estimated concentrations for diazinon and carbaryl were distributed among various sites in all regions (especially during 1996-2004), and fipronil at isolated sites in all of the regions during 2000-2008. Trend analysis results for the herbicides indicated many significant trends, both upward and downward, with varying patterns depending on period, region, and herbicide. Overall, deethylatrazine showed the most consistent pattern of upward trends, especially in the Northeast (2000-2008), South (1996-2004 and 2000-2008), and Midwest (1996-2004 and 2000-2008). Other herbicides showed less consistent upward trends, including simazine in the South (1996-2004), prometon in the Midwest (2000-2008), and atrazine in the South (1996-2004). The most consistent downward trends were for simazine in the Northeast and Midwest (1996-2004), prometon in the Northeast and Midwest (1996-2004) and West (1996-2004 and 2000-2008), and tebuthiuron in the South (1996-2004 and 2000-2008) and West (2000-2008). Strong similarity existed between the trends for atrazine and deethylatrazine during 1996-2004. During 2000-2008, however, there were mixed upward and downward trends in atrazine and predominantly upward trends in deethylatrazine. Ten sites with a downward trend in atrazine were paired with an upward trend in deethylatrazine and for three of these sites (1 in the South and 2 in the Midwest) both opposing trends were significant. Opposing trends showing a decrease in atrazine and an increase in deethylatrazine may indicate that decreases in atrazine from surface runoff are being offset in some cases by increases in deethylatrazine from groundwater for the latter analysis period. Trend results for insecticides indicated widespread significant downward trends for chlorpyrifos (especially 1996-2004), diazinon (1996-2004 and 2000-2008), and malathion (especially 1996-2004); widespread significant upward trends for fipronil and its degradation products (2000-2008); and mostly nonsignificant trends for carbaryl (1996-2004 and 2000-2008). The downward trends for chlorpyrifos and diazinon were consistent with the regulatory phaseout of residential uses of these insecticides and the upward trends for fipronil and its degradation products were consistent with its introduction in 1996 and subsequent increasing use as a possible substitute for chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The downward trends in malathion may be caused by voluntary substitution of pyrethroids or fipronil for malathio
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: Seasonality
Keywords: Q1 01604:Stock assessment and management
Keywords: Resource management
Keywords: SW 3040:Wastewater treatment processes
Keywords: Triazine Pesticides
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Q5 01502:Methods and instruments
Keywords: Streams
Keywords: Sulphides
Keywords: USA
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; ASFA 1: Biological Sciences & Living Resources
Keywords: Atrazine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Geological surveys
Keywords: Degradation Products
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: Runoff
Date revised - 2011-11-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA
ProQuest ID - 904477976
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Seasonality; Sulphides; Resource management; Insecticides; Geological surveys; Pesticides; Herbicides; Streams; Runoff; Agricultural Chemicals; Triazine Pesticides; Atrazine; Degradation Products; Diazinon; USA
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Scientific Investigations Report. U.S. Geological Survey. no. 2010-5139, [np]. 2010.
Corporate institution author - Ryberg, Karen R; Vecchia, Aldo V; Martin, Jeffrey D; Gilliom, Robert J
DOI - 58c7d2fb-0d67-423d-99fdcsamfg201; 15957708; NO1100786 English

1161. Sachana, M ; Flaskos, J; Sidiropoulou, E; Yavari, Ca; Hargreaves, a J, and Sachana, M. Inhibition of Extension Outgrowth in Differentiating Rat C6 Glioma Cells by Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos Oxon: Effects on Microtubule Proteins. 2008 Aug; 22, (5): 1387-1391.


Rec #: 42049
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The aim of this work was to assess the toxic effects of the phosphorothionate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its major in vivo metabolite chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) on differentiating rat C6 glioma cells. At sublethal concentrations (1-10 mu M), both compounds were able to inhibit the development of extensions from C6 cells induced to differentiate by sodium butyrate. Western blot analysis of C6 cell lysates revealed that 4h exposure to CPF was associated with decreased levels of the cytoskeletal protein MAP1B compared to controls, whereas the levels of the cytoskeletal proteins tubulin and MAP2c were not significantly affected. Western blot analysis of extracts of cells treated with CPO showed a significant, concentration-dependent decrease in the levels of tubulin after 24h. MAP-1B levels were also significantly decreased. The above changes were not temporally related to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. These results suggest that both CPF and CPO can exert toxic effects directly on glial cell differentiation and that the latter compound has a potent effect on the microtubule network.
Keywords: Western blotting
Keywords: Microtubules
Keywords: Microtubule-associated protein 1
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Glial cells
Keywords: N3 11028:Neuropharmacology & toxicology
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; CSA Neurosciences Abstracts
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Cytoskeleton
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Differentiation
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Sodium butyrate
Keywords: Glioma cells
Keywords: Tubulin
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Date revised - 2008-07-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1387-1391
ProQuest ID - 20728201
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Glioma cells; Tubulin; Western blotting; Cytoskeleton; Microtubules; Acetylcholinesterase; Glial cells; Microtubule-associated protein 1; Sodium butyrate; Differentiation; Metabolites; Insecticides
Last updated - 2011-12-13
British nursing index edition - Toxicology In Vitro [Toxicol. In Vitro]. Vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1387-1391. Aug 2008.
Corporate institution author - Sachana, M; Flaskos, J; Sidiropoulou, E; Yavari, CA; Hargreaves, A J
DOI - MD-0008229220; 8299216; 0887-2333 English

1162. Sadashiva Murthy, Bm; Ramesh, H S; Mahadevaswamy, M, and Sadashiva Murthy, BM. Pollution Migration Study in Subsurface Environment. 2009; 3, (4): 545-556.


Rec #: 45219
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The sources of groundwater pollution such as, industrial effluents, sewage and extensive farming have lead to agrochemical pollution. Mathematical modeling helps to analyze the existing situation, allows forecasting, and to evaluate the effects of changes in the surrounding water quality. The present research has been focused mainly towards understanding the various processes affecting the transport of chemicals in soils. Dispersion coefficient for the sandy loam soil was found to be 0247 m super(2)/d, 0.150 m super(2)/d and 0.01 m super(2)/d for nitrates, phosphates and Chlorpyriphos through column, and 0.337m super(2)/d, 0.217 m super(2)/d and 0.077 m super(2)/d for nitrate, phosphates and Chlorpyriphos through channel studies, respectively. For similar analysis of the breakthrough curves, dispersion coefficient for the clay soil was found to be 0.0835 m super(2)/d, 0.0632 m super(2)/d and 0.008 m super(2)/d for nitrates, phosphates and Chlorpyriphos through column and 0.147 m super(2)/d, 0.0848 m super(2)/d and 0.022 m super(2)/d for nitrates, phosphates and Chlorpyriphos through channel studies, respectively. The one-dimensional analytical model has been used and validated with the experimental data obtained from column and channel studies in sandy loam and clay soils and compared with model output (in which total elimination rate "K" is considered as zero). From this a variation of about 40-60 percent in the leaching characteristics of pollutants was being observed (nitrates, phosphates and chlorpyriphos).
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: water quality
Keywords: M3 1010:Issues in Sustainable Development
Keywords: Pollution dispersion
Keywords: EE 30:Soil Pollution: Monitoring, Control & Remediation
Keywords: Groundwater Pollution
Keywords: Loam
Keywords: Clays
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: sandy soils
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: J3G
Keywords: Sustainability Science Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts
Keywords: migration
Keywords: groundwater recharge
Keywords: Leaching
Keywords: Clay
Keywords: Industrial effluents
Keywords: Nitrates
Keywords: Industrial Wastewater
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: J3T
Keywords: J3P
Keywords: Model Studies
Keywords: Channels
Keywords: ENA 06:Food & Drugs
Keywords: AQ 00007:Industrial Effluents
Keywords: loam
Keywords: Phosphates
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Location - J3G
Pages - 545-556
ProQuest ID - 294035038
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - J3T; J3G; Phosphates; Nitrates; Channels; Model Studies; Industrial Wastewater; Groundwater Pollution; Loam; Clays; Agricultural Chemicals; Soil; Pollution dispersion; Clay; water quality; Leaching; Chemicals; groundwater recharge; loam; Industrial effluents; migration; sandy soils; J3P
Last updated - 2011-10-26
Corporate institution author - Sadashiva Murthy, BM; Ramesh, H S; Mahadevaswamy, M
DOI - OB-MD-0010891162; 11147739; 1735-6865 English

1163. Sadlo, S.; Szpyrka, E.; Jazwa, A., and Zawislak, A. Pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables from southeastern Poland, 2004-05. 2007; 16, (2): 313-319.


Rec #: 68079
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Our paper presents results from surveillance of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables carried out in 2004-05. 747 samples of 39 different types of fresh fruit and vegetables were analyzed for their pesticide residue contents. The highest resides found were: bupirimate residues (2.19 mg/kg), captan residues (1.82 mg/kg), ethylenebisdithiocarbamate residues (1.6 mg/kg), tolylfluanid residues (1.44 mg/kg), procymidone residues (1.19 mg/kg) and chlorpyrifos residues (1.01 mg/kg). In 27 samples (3.6%) residues exceeded national MRLs. Comparisons of the highest residues to ADI levels indicate that fresh fruit and vegetables from southeastern Poland seem to be quite safe for toddlers and adults.
Keywords: southeastern Poland, fresh fruits and vegetables, pesticide residues,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 155KI

1164. Saison, C. ; Waller, N. J.; Kumar, A., and Kookana, R. S. Effects of thiobencarb in combinations with molinate and chlorpyrifos on selected soil microbial processes. 2009; 44, (3): 226-234.


Rec #: 68099
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The impact of pesticides, namely thiobencarb (TBC), molinate (MOL) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), on soil microbial processes was studied in two Australian soils. Substrate induced respiration (SIR), substrate induced nitrification (SIN) and phosphatases and chitinase enzymatic activities were assessed during a 30-day microcosm study. The pesticides were applied to soils at recommended rates either alone, or as binary mixtures with TBC. Soil samples were sampled at 5, 15 and 30 days after pesticide treatments. Substrate induced respiration was only transiently affected by pesticides in both soils. In contrast, the process of indigenous nitrification was affected by the presence of pesticides in both soils, especially when the pesticides were applied as binary mixtures. Substrate induced nitrification increased with pesticides in the Griffith soil (except with MOL+TBC after 5 days) whereas SIN values were non-significantly different to the control on the Coleambally soil. The binary mixtures of pesticides with TBC resulted in a decrease in SIN in both soils, but the effects disappeared within 30 days. The enzymatic activities were not consistently affected by pesticides, and varied with the soil and pesticides studied. This study showed that, when applied at recommended application rates, TBC, MOL, and CPF (individually or as binary mixtures), had little or only transitory effects on the functional endpoints studied. However, further investigations are needed to assess the effect on microbial densities and community structure despite the low disturbance to the functions noted in this work.
Keywords: Enzyme activities, microcosms, nitrification, respiration, pesticides,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 417XV

1165. Saito, Y.; Murata-Kamiya, N.; Hirayama, T.; Ohba, Y., and Hatakeyama, M. Conversion of Helicobacter Pylori Caga From Senescence Inducer to Oncogenic Driver Through Polarity-Dependent Regulation of P21.


Rec #: 50449
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: The Helicobacter pylori CagA bacterial oncoprotein plays a critical role in gastric carcinogenesis. Upon delivery into epithelial cells, CagA causes loss of polarity and activates aberrant Erk signaling. We show that CagA-induced Erk activation results in senescence and mitogenesis in nonpolarized and polarized epithelial cells, respectively. In nonpolarized epithelial cells, Erk activation results in oncogenic stress, up-regulation of the p21(Waf1/Cip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and induction of senescence. In polarized epithelial cells, CagA-driven Erk signals prevent p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression by activating a guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1-RhoA-RhoA-associated kinase-c-Myc pathway. The microRNAs miR-17 and miR-20a, induced by c-Myc, are needed to suppress p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression. CagA also drives an epithelial-mesenchymal transition in polarized epithelial cells. These findings suggest that CagA exploits a polarity-signaling pathway to induce oncogenesis.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Antigens, Bacterial/biosynthesis/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Aging/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Line
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Polarity/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Cercopithecus aethiops
MESH HEADINGS: Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21/antagonists &
MESH HEADINGS: inhibitors/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Dogs
MESH HEADINGS: *Epithelial Cells/metabolism/microbiology/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Genes, myc
MESH HEADINGS: Helicobacter Infections/metabolism/microbiology/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Helicobacter pylori/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: MicroRNAs
MESH HEADINGS: Signal Transduction/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Up-Regulation eng

1166. Sakai, M. Acute Toxic Tests of Rainwater Samples Using Daphnia magna. 2006; 64, 215-220.


Rec #: 2300
Keywords: MIXTURE
Call Number: NO MIXTURE (1Major ions,ATZ,CLNB,CPY,CTN,CaCl2,DDVP,DS,DZ,ES1,ES2,FNT,FTL,Halides,MLN,MLO,MLT,MP,NaNO3,PDM,PNB,PZM,SA2Na,SZ,TBC,TFN)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ATZ,BTC,CLNB,CPY,CTN,CaCl2,DDVP,DS,DZ,EPRN,ES1,ES2,FNT,FNTH,FTL,HCCH,Halides,KCl,MLN,MLO,MLT,MP,MgSO4,NPP,NaNO3,ODZ,PDM,PNB,PPCP,PRN,PZM,SA2Na,SZ,TBC,TCM,TFN

1167. Sakurai, M.; Stamler, J.; Miura, K.; Brown, I. J.; Nakagawa, H.; Elliott, P.; Ueshima, H.; Chan, Q.; Tzoulaki, I.; Dyer, A. R.; Okayama, A.; Zhao, L., and Intermap Research Group. Relationship of Dietary Cholesterol to Blood Pressure: the Intermap Study.


Rec #: 50349
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Comment in: J Hypertens. 2011 Feb;29(2):194-7 (medline /21191277)
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: A direct relationship of dietary cholesterol to blood pressure of men has been reported in a few observational studies from the USA. It is not clear whether this association prevails consistently, for example, in populations with varied dietary habits, across ethnic groups, and sexes. Cross-sectional data from the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) were used to assess relations of dietary cholesterol intake to blood pressure in men and women from four countries.
ABSTRACT: METHODS: Data include 83 nutrients from four multipass 24-h dietary recalls and two-timed 24-h urine collections; eight blood pressure readings, and questionnaire data, for 4680 participants ages 40-59 years from 17 population samples in Japan, People's Republic of China, UK, and USA.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: With sequential models to control for multiple possible confounders (dietary, other), linear regression analyses showed that dietary cholesterol was directly related to SBP for all participants and for nonhypertensive individuals, but not to DBP. With adjustment for 12 variables, estimated SBP differences with 2SD for higher cholesterol intake (131.0 mg/1000 kcal) were 0.9 mmHg (P < 0.05) for all participants and 1.1 mmHg (P < 0.01) for nonhypertensive individuals, findings attenuated with addition of height and weight to the model.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: INTERMAP found a low-order, positive relationship of dietary cholesterol intake to SBP with control for multiple possible confounders. Reduction of dietary cholesterol intake may contribute to prevention and control of adverse blood pressure levels in general populations.
MESH HEADINGS: Adult
MESH HEADINGS: Blood Pressure/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Cholesterol, Dietary/*administration &
MESH HEADINGS: dosage/*adverse effects
MESH HEADINGS: Cross-Sectional Studies
MESH HEADINGS: Diet
MESH HEADINGS: Female
MESH HEADINGS: Food
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Hypertension/*etiology/physiopathology/prevention &
MESH HEADINGS: control
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Middle Aged
MESH HEADINGS: Regression Analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Risk Factors eng

1168. Sala, Serenella; Migliorati, Sonia; Monti, Gianna S; Vighi, Marco, and Sala, Serenella. Ssd-Based Rating System for the Classification of Pesticide Risk on Biodiversity. 2012 May; 21, (4): 1050-1062.


Rec #: 46749
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A novel approach, based on Species sensitivity distribution (SSD), is proposed for the development of an index for classifying ecotoxicological pesticide risk in surface waters. In this approach, the concept of TER (Toxicity Exposure Ratio), commonly used in traditional risk indices, is substituted by the concept of PAF (Potentially Affected Fraction), which takes into account several species within the biological community of interest, rather than just a small number of indicator species assumed as being representative of the ecosystem. The procedure represents a probabilistic tool to quantitatively assess the ecotoxicological risk on biodiversity considering the distribution of toxicological sensitivity. It can be applied to assess chemical risk on generic aquatic and terrestrial communities as well as on site-specific natural communities. Examples of its application are shown for some pesticides in freshwater ecosystems. In order to overcome the problem of insufficient reliable ecotoxicological data, a methodology and related algorithms are proposed for predicting SSD curves for chemicals that do not have sufficient available data. The methodology is applicable within congeneric classes of chemicals and has been tested and statistically validated on a group of organophosphorus insecticides. Values and limitations of the approach are discussed.
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Ecology Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Algorithms
Keywords: Biodiversity
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Platelet-activating factor
Keywords: Freshwater ecosystems
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Classification
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Indicator species
Date revised - 2012-06-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1050-1062
ProQuest ID - 1018918464
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Platelet-activating factor; Insecticides; Freshwater ecosystems; Data processing; Classification; Surface water; Pesticides; Algorithms; Biodiversity; Toxicity; Indicator species
Last updated - 2012-06-07
Corporate institution author - Sala, Serenella; Migliorati, Sonia; Monti, Gianna S; Vighi, Marco
DOI - OB-db6c76ce-db61-4d26-b184mfgefd101; 16761616; 0963-9292; 1573-3017 English

1169. Salazar, J. G.; Revert+_, I.; Cabr+_, M.; S+ínchez-Santed, F.; Domingo, J. L., and Colomina, M. T. Neurotoxicity effects 2 months after exposure to repeated doses of chlorpyrifos in an animal model (TG2576) of Alzheimer's disease: Abstracts of the XII International Congress of Toxicology. 2010 Jul 17-; 196, Supplement, (0): S224.


Rec #: 2540
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1170. Salm, P.; Taylor, P. J.; Roberts, D., and de Silva, J. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of the organophosphorus pesticides dimethoate, fenthion, diazinon and chlorpyrifos in human blood. 2009; 877, (5-6): 568-574.


Rec #: 68139
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Simultaneous determination of the organophosphorus pesticides dimethoate, fenthion, diazinon and chlorpyrifos in human blood by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The pesticides were extracted by a simple one-step protein precipitation procedure. Chromatography was performed on a Luna C(18) (30 mm x 2.0 mm, 3 pm) column, using a step-gradient at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. The assay was linear from 0.5 to 100 ng/ml(r(2)>0.992, n=24) for all pesticides. The inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision for the method was 96.6-106.1% and <10%, respectively. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/ml. In conclusion, the method described displays analytical performance characteristics that are suitable for the quantification of these pesticides in cases of acute poisoning. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Organophosphorus pesticides, Dimethoate, Fenthion, Diazinon,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 411BX

1171. Samadi, S.; Sereshti, H., and Assadi, Y. Ultra-preconcentration and determination of thirteen organophosphorus pesticides in water samples using solid-phase extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. 2012; 1219, 61-65.


Rec #: 68149
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: An ultra-preconcentration technique composed of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) was used for determination of thirteen organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) including phorate, diazinon, disolfotane, methyl parathion, sumithion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, fenthion, profenphose, ethion, phosalone, azinphose-methyl and co-ral in aqueous samples. The analytes were collected from large volumes of aqueous solutions (100 mL) into 100 mg of a SPE C(18) sorbent. The effective variables of SPE including type and volume of elution solvent, volume and flow rate of sample solution, and salt concentration were investigated and optimized. Acetone was selected as eluent in SPE and disperser solvent in DLLME and chlorobenzene was used as extraction solvent. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors were between 15,160 and 21,000 and extraction recoveries were 75.8-105.0%. The linear range was 1-10,000 ng L(-1) and limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.2 and 1.5 ng L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 50 ng L(-1) of OPPs in water with and without an internal standard, were in the range of 1.4-7.9% (n = 5) and 4.0-11.6%. respectively. The relative recoveries of OPPs from well and farm water sat spiking levels of 25 and 250 ng L(-1) were 88-109%. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, Solid-phase extraction, Gas
ISI Document Delivery No.: 882TD

1172. Samet, Youssef; Agengui, Lamia, and Abdelh+_di, Ridha. Electrochemical degradation of chlorpyrifos pesticide in aqueous solutions by anodic oxidation at boron-doped diamond electrodes. 2010 Jul 1-; 161, (1Çô2): 167-172.


Rec #: 1200
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Laboratory experiments were carried out on the kinetic of the electrochemical degradation of aqueous solutions containing chlorpyrifos as model compounds of organophosphorus pesticides. The process was studied under galvanostatic polarization mode in acidic medium using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes and graphite carbon bar as cathode. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement during the processing permitted the evaluation of the kinetic of organic matter decay and the instantaneous current efficiency. The results showed that the degradation of this pesticide is dependent on its initial concentration, current density and temperature. COD decay follows a pseudo first-order kinetic and the process was under mass transport control within the range studied, regardless of the experimental conditions. The removal rate of COD increases with applied current density until 20 mA cmęĆ2 and decreases for higher values. The degradation rate increased significantly with increasing temperature and initial concentration of chlorpyrifos. The best obtained conditions for COD removal on the BDD anode to degrade chlorpyrifos solutions (COD(0) = 456 mg LęĆ1) include operating at 20 mA cmęĆ2 and 70 -_C. This arrangement allows to completely degrade chlorpyrifos in just 6 h. Compared with PbO2, BDD anode has shown more performance and rapidity in the COD removal in the same electrolysis device. Chlorpyrifos/ Electrochemical degradation/ Boron-doped diamond/ Lead dioxide/ Hydroxyl radicals

1173. Samet, Youssef; Hmani, Emna, and Abdelhă©Di, Ridha. Fenton and Solar Photo-Fenton Processes for the Removal of Chlorpyrifos Insecticide in Wastewater. 2012 Jul; 38, (4): 537-542.


Rec #: 38739
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The degradation of chlorpyrifos in water by Fenton (H^sub 2^O^sub 2^/Fe^sup 2+^) and solar photo-Fenton (H^sub 2^O^sub 2^/Fe^sup 2+^/solar light) processes was investigated. A laboratory-scale reactor was designed to evaluate and select the optimal oxidation condition. The degradation rate is strongly dependent on pH, temperature, H^sub 2^O^sub 2^ dosing rate, and initial concentrations of the insecticide and Fe^sup 2+^. The kinetics of organic matter decay was evaluated by means of chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement. Overall kinetics can be described by a pseudo-second-order rate equation with respect to COD. The optimum conditions were obtained at pH 3, H^sub 2^O^sub 2^ dosing rate 120 mg.min^sup -1^, [Fe^sup 2+^]^sub 0^ 5.0 mM, initial COD 1 330 mg.l^sup -1^ and 35°C for the Fenton process. However, in the solar photo-Fenton process, the degradation rate increased significantly. To achieve 90% of COD removal, the solar photo-Fenton process needs 50% less time than that used in the Fenton process which translates to a 50% gain of H^sub 2^O^sub 2^. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Keywords: Water Resources
Copyright - Copyright Water Research Commission Jul 2012
Language of summary - English
Pages - 537-542
ProQuest ID - 1034899835
Document feature - Diagrams; Equations; Graphs; Tables; References
Last updated - 2012-08-24
Place of publication - Gezina
Corporate institution author - Samet, Youssef; Hmani, Emna; Abdelhédi, Ridha
DOI - 2743869141; 71343722; 110023; WTSA; INNNWTSA0001037920
References
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1174. Sams, Craig; Jones, Kate, and Sams, Craig. Human Volunteer Studies Investigating the Potential for Toxicokinetic Interactions Between the Pesticides Deltamethrin; Pirimicarb and Chlorpyrifos-Methyl Following Oral Exposure at the Acceptable Daily Intake. 2011 Jan 15; 200, (1-2): 41-45.


Rec #: 40029
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Human volunteer studies have been conducted by orally administering the pesticides deltamethrin (0.01mg/kg/day) or pirimicarb (0.02mg/kg/day) at the acceptable daily intake (ADI) together with chlorpyrifos-methyl (0.01mg/kg/day), in order to investigate any potential interactions that may occur during dietary exposure. Deltamethrin and pirimicarb are metabolised in vivo by hydrolytic enzymes, which may be susceptible to inhibition by esterase-inhibiting compounds, such as chlorpyrifos-methyl. Urine samples were collected at time points up to at least 48h post-exposure and metabolites were quantified. Urinary metabolite excretion data obtained from the mixed exposures were compared with data obtained from the same individuals given a dose of each individual pesticide on a separate occasion. Metabolite excretion profiles for both pesticides administered as a mixed dose with chlorpyrifos-methyl were qualitatively similar to those obtained for the individual doses. Peak excretion of deltamethrin and pirimicarb metabolites occurred at around 4h post-exposure for both the individual and the mixed exposure scenarios, and metabolite excretion was almost complete within 24h. No statistically significant differences were found between the individual and mixed doses for either metabolite excretion half-life or metabolite levels quantified in 24-h total urine collections. The data presented here indicate that no significant toxicokinetic interactions occur between either deltamethrin or pirimicarb and chlorpyrifos-methyl when orally administered together at the ADI.
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Pharmacy And Pharmacology
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Statistical analysis
Keywords: Oral administration
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Deltamethrin
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Excretion
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 41-45
ProQuest ID - 852261611
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Data processing; Urine; Pesticides; Oral administration; Statistical analysis; Enzymes; Excretion; Metabolites; Deltamethrin; Diets
Last updated - 2011-12-12
Corporate institution author - Sams, Craig; Jones, Kate
DOI - OB-9c802660-3cfe-4e33-a732csamfg201; 14199936; 0378-4274 English

1175. Sanagi, M. M.; Ghani, Nfya; Miskam, M.; Ibrahim, W. A. W., and Aboul-Enein, H. Y. ANALYSIS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES IN VEGETABLE SAMPLES BY HOLLOW FIBER LIQUID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTRON CAPTURE DETECTION. 2010; 33, (5): 693-703.


Rec #: 68209
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A method based on hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) coupled with gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) has been developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) (chlorpyrifos and profenofos) in vegetable samples. In this method, a microsyringe needle with 1.5cm polypropylene hollow fibre containing a volume of organic acceptor phase (n-dodecane) was immersed in an aqueous donor solution, and at the completion of extraction, the acceptor phase was withdrawn and transferred to GC-ECD for analysis. The effects of extraction solvent, volume of acceptor phase, and volume of donor phase were investigated. The optimized conditions for HF-LPME of the selected OPPs were n-dodecane as organic solvent, 11mL of donor phase, and 3L of acceptor phase. The correlation coefficient (r2) of the calibration curves ranged from 0.998 to 0.999. The limits of detection (LOD) were between 0.099 and 0.128g/mL. The developed method provided excellent RSDs ranging from 0.54% to 8.00% and analyte recoveries ranging from 60.8% to 88.0%. This method was applied successfully for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in selected vegetables.
Keywords: GC-ECD, hollow-fiber liquid phase microextraction, organophosphorus
ISI Document Delivery No.: 563EY

1176. Sanchez, Critina Solis and Grineski, Sara. Geography of Pesticide Exposure in the Lower Valley (El Paso County, Texas). 2009: (UMI# 1477827 ).


Rec #: 51789
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Previous studies using GIS have been used to understand the demographics of particular areas of a city and the risks associated with living there. In the Lower Valley (Socorro, Clint, and San Elizario) area of El Paso County (TX), there has been a rapid growth in population. This increase in growth has led to this project about the types of pesticides used in farms and if they are creating possible health risks for people living in this area and which populations are most at risk.
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