Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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Cydia pomonella this species has developed low levels of resistance to this chemical group. Investigations concerning the mechanisms involved in resistance are scarce, and usually consider only one of the potential mechanisms. With the aim of a better understanding the resistance mechanisms and their possible interaction, four of these mechanisms were investigated simultaneously in one sensitive (Sv) and two resistant strains (Raz and Rdfb) of this insect. Resistant strains displayed an increased mixed function oxidase activity, whereas carboxylesterase activity varied upon the substrate used. The three strains had similar +_-naphtyl acetate activity, and the hydrolysis of +_-naphthyl acetate and p-nitrophenyl valerate was higher in the Sv strain. The p-nitrophenyl acetate activity was highest in the resistant strains and was strongly inhibited by azinphos and DEF. The Raz strain has a modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which resulted in a 0.7-, 3.2- and 21.2-fold decrease in the susceptibility to chlorpyriphos-ethyl-oxon, azinphos-methyl-oxon, and paraoxon-methyl, respectively. These combined resistance mechanisms only conferred to Raz a 0.6-, 7.9- and 3.1-fold resistance to the related insecticides. Organophosphates resistance in C. pomonella results from a combination of mechanisms including modified affinities to carboxylesterase substrates, and increased metabolisation of the insecticide. The apparent antagonism between increased functionalisation and reduced sensitivity of the AChE target is discussed. Carboxylesterases/ p-NPA/ Electrophoresis/ Organophosphates/ AChE

1124. Rhaleb, N. E.; Pokharel, S.; Sharma, U., and Carretero, O. A. Renal Protective Effects of N-Acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertensive Mice.


Rec #: 50359
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hypertension-induced renal injury is characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and proteinuria. Previous studies have demonstrated that N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (Ac-SDKP) inhibits renal damage following diabetes mellitus and antiglomerular basement membrane nephritis. However, its effects on low-renin hypertensive nephropathy are not known. Thus, we hypothesized that Ac-SDKP has renal protective effects on deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice, decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration, matrix deposition and albuminuria.
ABSTRACT: METHOD: We uninephrectomized 16-week-old C57BL/6J mice and treated them with either placebo, DCOA (10 mg/10 g body weight subcutaneous) and 1% sodium chloride with 0.2% potassium chloride in drinking water (DOCA-salt) or DOCA-salt with Ac-SDKP (800 μg/kg per day) for 12 weeks. We measured blood pressure, urine albumin, glomerular matrix, renal collagen content, monocyte/macrophage infiltration and glomerular nephrin expression.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: Treatment with DOCA-salt significantly increased blood pressure (P < 0.01), which remained unaltered by Ac-SDKP. Ac-SDKP decreased DOCA-salt-induced renal collagen deposition, glomerular matrix expansion and monocyte/macrophage infiltration. Moreover, DOCA-salt-induced increase in albuminuria was normalized by Ac-SDKP (controls, 10.8 ± 1.7; DOCA-salt, 41 ± 5; DOCA-salt + Ac-SDKP, 13 ± 3 μg/10 g body weight per 24 h; P < 0.001, DOCA-salt vs. DOCA-salt + Ac-SDKP). Loss of nephrin reportedly causes excess urinary protein excretion; therefore, we determined whether Ac-SDKP inhibits proteinuria by restoring nephrin expression in the glomerulus of hypertensive mice. DOCA-salt significantly downregulated glomerular nephrin expression (controls, 37 ± 8; DOCA-salt, 10 ± 1.5% of glomerular area; P < 0.01), which was partially reversed by Ac-SDKP (23 ± 4.0% of glomerular area; P = 0.065, DOCA-salt vs. DOCA-salt + Ac-SDKP).
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: We concluded that Ac-SDKP prevents hypertension-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition, nephrin downregulation and albuminuria, which could lead to renoprotection in hypertensive mice.
MESH HEADINGS: Albuminuria/etiology/prevention &
MESH HEADINGS: control
MESH HEADINGS: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Blood Pressure/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Collagen/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Desoxycorticosterone/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Hypertension, Renal/*etiology/pathology/physiopathology/*prevention &
MESH HEADINGS: control
MESH HEADINGS: Kidney/*drug effects/pathology/physiopathology
MESH HEADINGS: Macrophages/drug effects/pathology
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Membrane Proteins/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Inbred C57BL
MESH HEADINGS: Oligopeptides/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Sodium Chloride, Dietary/toxicity eng

1125. Rhouati, Amina; Istamboulie, Georges; Cortina-Puig, Montserrat; Marty, Jean-Louis, and Noguer, Thierry. Selective spectrophotometric detection of insecticides using cholinesterases, phosphotriesterase and chemometric analysis. 2010 Mar 5-; 46, (3Çô4 ): 212-216.


Rec #: 2830
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Enzyme spectrophotometric assays based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were used in combination with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) chemometric analysis for the resolution of pesticides mixtures of chlorpyriphos, dichlorvos and carbofuran. Electric eel (EE) AChE and the recombinant B394-AChE from Drosophila melanogaster were selected due to their different sensitivities to insecticides. These enzymes were used in association with phosphotriesterase (PTE), an enzyme allowing to discriminate between organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The combined response of three enzymes systems composed of EE-AChE, EE-AChE + PTE, and B394-AChE + PTE was modelled by means of ANN. Specifically, an ANN was constructed where the structure providing the best modelling was a single hidden layer containing four neurons. To prove the concept, a study to resolve pesticide mixtures was done with spectrophotometric measurements. Finally the developed system was successfully applied to the determination of carbofuran, CPO and dichlorvos pesticides in real water samples. Acetylcholinesterase/ Phosphotriesterase/ Chlorpyriphos/ Dichlorvos/ Carbofuran/ Artificial Neural Networks

1126. Riazuddin, Riazuddin; Khan, Muhammad Farhanullah; Iqbal, Sajid; Abbas, Muhammad, and Riazuddin, Riazuddin. Determination of Multi-Residue Insecticides of Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, and Pyrethroids in Wheat. 2011 Sep; 87, (3): 303-306.


Rec #: 43169
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The undesirable effects of green revolution include residues of extensively used pesticides in various food commodities. Several studies showed that pesticides could cause health problems. Keeping in view the problem of pesticide residues in various food commodities, the present study was conducted on domestic stored wheat as well as on imported wheat for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroids. Among the imported wheat, 22.5% samples were found contaminated by organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos 0.073-0.230 mu g/g, malathion 0.0419-0.1003 mu g/g) and pyrethroids (cypermethrin 0.1404-0.2005 mu g/g, permethrin 0.0140-0.0480 mu g/g) while in domestic wheat 6.7% samples were found contaminated by pyrethroids (deltamethrin 0.0650-1.2903 mu g/g) only. Method used for extraction and analysis of insecticides was validated both by recovery studies and inter laboratory comparison proficiency test. The method recovery results show that the average recovery of the fortified wheat samples was in the range of 73.77%-100.17% with the RSD in the range of 2.21-9.27 whereas, the Z-scores of the inter laboratory comparison proficiency test's result was less than 2.
Keywords: wheat
Keywords: Organochlorine compounds
Keywords: Cypermethrin
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Food
Keywords: Quantitative analysis
Keywords: permethrin
Keywords: Permethrin
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: P 6000:TOXICOLOGY AND HEALTH
Keywords: Deltamethrin
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Triticum aestivum
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Pyrethroids
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 303-306
ProQuest ID - 899142963
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Organochlorine compounds; Insecticides; Cypermethrin; Pesticide residues; Food; Pesticides; Permethrin; Pyrethroids; Malathion; Deltamethrin; wheat; Quantitative analysis; permethrin; Triticum aestivum
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology [Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.]. Vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 303-306. Sep 2011.
Corporate institution author - Riazuddin, Riazuddin; Khan, Muhammad Farhanullah; Iqbal, Sajid; Abbas, Muhammad
DOI - f8305756-87fd-40a0-9faamfgefd108; 15511105; 0007-4861; 1432-0800 English

1127. Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Rittenhouse, Jennifer L, and Rice, Pamela J. Evaluation of Core Cultivation Practices to Reduce Ecological Risk of Pesticides in Runoff From Agrostis Palustris. 2010; 29, (6): 1215-1223.


Rec #: 44099
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticides associated with the turfgrass industry have been detected in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds, invoking concern of their potential environmental effects and a desire to reduce their transport to nontarget locations. Quantities of chlorpyrifos, dicamba, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), flutolanil, and mecoprop-p (MCPP) transported in runoff from bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) fairway turf managed with solid tine (ST) or hollow tine (HT) core cultivation were compared to determine which cultivation practice is more efficient at mitigating environmental risk. Plots receiving HT core cultivation showed a 10 and 55% reduction in runoff volume and a 15 to 57% reduction in pesticide transport with runoff at 63 d and 2 d following core cultivation. Estimated environmental concentrations of the pesticides in a surface water receiving runoff from turf managed with ST core cultivation exceeded the median lethal concentration (LC50) or median effective concentration (EC50) of nine aquatic organisms evaluated. Replacing ST core cultivation with HT core cultivation reduced surface water concentrations of the pesticides to levels below the LC50 and EC50 for most these aquatic organisms, lessening risk associated with pesticides in runoff from the fairway turf. Results of the present research provide quantitative information that will allow for informed decisions on cultural practices that can maximize pesticide retention at the site of application, improving pest control in turf while minimizing environmental contamination and adverse effects associated with the off-site transport of pesticides.
Keywords: 2,4-D
Keywords: Aquatic organisms
Keywords: D 04070:Pollution
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Storm Runoff
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Surface Water
Keywords: Watersheds
Keywords: Toxicity tests
Keywords: Environmental factors
Keywords: Risks
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Cores
Keywords: Environmental effects
Keywords: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Keywords: cultivation
Keywords: R2 23050:Environment
Keywords: Agrostis palustris
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: SW 3050:Ultimate disposal of wastes
Keywords: Ecology Abstracts; Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 1: Biological Sciences & Living Resources
Keywords: Flutolanil
Keywords: turf
Keywords: Pest control
Keywords: Turf
Keywords: Q1 01485:Species interactions: pests and control
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Risk
Keywords: Salts
Keywords: Turf Grasses
Keywords: Lethal limits
Keywords: Water management
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Mortality causes
Keywords: Side effects
Keywords: culture
Keywords: Runoff
Keywords: Cultivation
Date revised - 2011-03-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1215-1223
ProQuest ID - 858424318
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Lethal limits; Water management; Pesticides; Pest control; Environmental factors; Toxicity tests; Risks; Mortality causes; Runoff; 2,4-D; Aquatic organisms; Contamination; Surface water; Flutolanil; Turf; Watersheds; Chlorpyrifos; Salts; Environmental effects; Side effects; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; turf; cultivation; culture; Risk; Turf Grasses; Agricultural Chemicals; Storm Runoff; Cores; Surface Water; Cultivation; Agrostis palustris
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry [Environ. Toxicol. Chem.]. Vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1215-1223. 1 Jun 2010.
Corporate institution author - Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Rittenhouse, Jennifer L
DOI - cd69ed10-21f8-4856-8337csamfg201; 14430212; CS1146821; 1552-8618 English

1128. ---. Pesticide Transport With Runoff From Creeping Bentgrass Turf: Relationship of Pesticide Properties to Mass Transport. 2010 Jun 1; 29, (6): 1209-1214.


Rec #: 40539
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The off-site transport of pesticides with runoff is both an agronomic and environmental concern, resulting from reduced control of target pests in the area of application and contamination of surrounding ecosystems. Experiments were designed to measure the quantity of pesticides in runoff from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) turf managed as golf course fairway to gain a better understanding of factors that influence chemical availability and mass transport. Less than 1 to 23% of applied chloropyrifos, flutolanil, mecoprop-p (MCPP), dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), or dicamba was measured in edge-of-plot runoff when commercially available pesticide formulations were applied at label rates 23 +/- 9 h prior to simulated precipitation (62 +/- 13 mm). Time differential between hollow tine core cultivation and runoff did not significantly influence runoff volumes or the percentage of applied chemicals transported in the runoff. With the exception of chlorpyrifos, all chemicals of interest were detected in the initial runoff samples and throughout the runoff events. Chemographs of the five pesticides followed trends in agreement with mobility classifications associated with their soil organic carbon partition coefficient (K sub(OC).) Data collected from the present study provides information on the transport of chemicals with runoff from turf, which can be used in model simulations to predict nonpoint source pollution potentials and estimate ecological risks.
Keywords: 2,4-D
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Mobility
Keywords: P 5000:LAND POLLUTION
Keywords: Organic carbon
Keywords: Pollution dispersion
Keywords: mass transport
Keywords: Mass transport
Keywords: environmental perception
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Carbon
Keywords: Classification
Keywords: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Keywords: Pests
Keywords: R2 23050:Environment
Keywords: Agrostis palustris
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pollution
Keywords: Nonpoint sources
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Flutolanil
Keywords: Geochemistry
Keywords: turf
Keywords: Simulation
Keywords: Soils (organic)
Keywords: Precipitation
Keywords: Turf
Keywords: Q1 01485:Species interactions: pests and control
Keywords: Water pollution
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Salts
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: classification
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; ASFA 1: Biological Sciences & Living Resources
Keywords: Runoff
Date revised - 2011-03-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1209-1214
ProQuest ID - 858424684
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Classification; Organic carbon; Geochemistry; Pollution dispersion; Pesticides; Simulation; Mass transport; Water pollution; Runoff; 2,4-D; Nonpoint sources; Data processing; Contamination; Mobility; Flutolanil; Soils (organic); Precipitation; Turf; Models; Chlorpyrifos; Salts; Carbon; Pests; Pollution; Soil; classification; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; turf; mass transport; environmental perception; Agrostis palustris
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry [Environ. Toxicol. Chem.]. Vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1209-1214. 1 Jun 2010.
Corporate institution author - Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Rittenhouse, Jennifer L
DOI - c219342a-e9f1-4dec-b0f0csamfg201; 14430213; CS1146822; 1552-8618 English

1129. Richter, R. J.; Jarvik, G. P., and Furlong, C. E. Paraoxonase 1 Status as a Risk Factor for Disease or Exposure.


Rec #: 77349
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Cites: Pharmacogenetics. 1999 Dec;9(6):745-53 (medline /10634137)
COMMENTS: Cites: Pharmacogenetics. 2000 Dec;10(9):767-79 (medline /11191881)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Clin Invest. 2008 Sep;118(9):3123-31 (medline /18704198)
COMMENTS: Cites: Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(9):1052-9 (medline /16958594)
COMMENTS: Cites: Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006 Mar;16(3):183-90 (medline /16495777)
COMMENTS: Cites: FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005 Dec 1;253(1):29-37 (medline /16260097)
COMMENTS: Cites: Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005 Aug;15(8):589-98 (medline /16007003)
COMMENTS: Cites: Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Feb 15;69(4):541-50 (medline /15670573)
COMMENTS: Cites: Nature. 1998 Jul 16;394(6690):284-7 (medline /9685159)
COMMENTS: Cites: Nat Genet. 1996 Nov;14(3):334-6 (medline /8896566)
COMMENTS: Cites: Toxicol Lett. 1995 Apr;76(3):219-26 (medline /7539166)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health. 1993 Oct-Nov;40(2-3):337-46 (medline /7693961)
COMMENTS: Cites: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990 Mar 15;103(1):66-76 (medline /1690462)
COMMENTS: Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1983 Nov;35(6):1126-38 (medline /6316781)
COMMENTS: Cites: Clin Sci (Lond). 2004 Nov;107(5):435-47 (medline /15265000)
COMMENTS: Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 9;101(10):3587-90 (medline /14970327)
COMMENTS: Cites: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Aug 1;23(8):1317-8 (medline /12909569)
COMMENTS: Cites: Biochem J. 2003 Jun 1;372(Pt 2):643-9 (medline /12639220)
COMMENTS: Cites: Pharmacogenetics. 2003 May;13(5):291-5 (medline /12724622)
COMMENTS: Cites: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Sep;21(9):1451-7 (medline /11557671)
COMMENTS: Cites: Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2008 Dec;1(2):147-52 (medline /20031556)
ABSTRACT: Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has broad substrate specificity and has been shown to protect against exposure to some organophosphorus (OP) insecticides due to its ability to hydrolyze toxic metabolites of some organophosphorothioate insecticides. PON1 status has been shown to be important in protecting against vascular disease, presumably due to the not-as-yet fully characterized role of the three PON proteins in modulating oxidative stress. More recently, all three PONs (1, 2, and 3) have been shown to inactivate the quorum sensing factor N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L: -homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) of Pseudomonas. Expression of human PON1 in Drosophila demonstrated the importance of PON1 in resistance to Pseudomonas infection. Many studies have examined only DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms as possible risk factors for disease or exposures. For all of the known functions of PON1, the level of PON1 enzyme is important and, in some cases, also the Q192R polymorphism. A simple high throughput two-substrate assay/analysis, plotting rates of diazoxon hydrolysis vs. paraoxon hydrolysis, provided both PON1 levels and functional Q192R phenotype/genotype. We have developed a new two-substrate assay/analysis protocol that provides PON1 status without use of toxic OP substrates. Factors were determined for inter-converting rates of hydrolysis of different substrates.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Aryldialkylphosphatase/*biosynthesis
MESH HEADINGS: Biological Markers/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Drosophila melanogaster/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Hydrolysis
MESH HEADINGS: Insecticides/*toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Lactones/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Organophosphorus Compounds/chemistry/toxicity
MESH HEADINGS: Oxidative Stress
MESH HEADINGS: Paraoxon/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
MESH HEADINGS: Pseudomonas/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Quorum Sensing
MESH HEADINGS: Risk
MESH HEADINGS: Risk Factors eng

1130. Richter, Rebecca J; Jarvik, Gail P, and Furlong, Clement E. Paraoxonase 1 (Pon1) Status and Substrate Hydrolysis. 2009 Feb 15; 235, (1): 1-9.


Rec #: 45019
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) hydrolyzes a number of organophosphorus (OP) compounds including insecticides and nerve agents. The in vivo efficacy of PON1 to protect against a specific OP exposure depends on the catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis. The Q192R polymorphism affects the catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis of some substrates and not others. While PON1(R192) hydrolyzes paraoxon approximately 9-times as efficiently as PON1(Q192), the efficiency is insufficient to provide in vivo protection against paraoxon/parathion exposure. The two PON1(192) alloforms have nearly equivalent but higher catalytic efficiencies for hydrolyzing diazoxon (DZO) and provide equivalent in vivo protection against DZO exposures. On the other hand, PON1(R192) is significantly more efficient in hydrolyzing chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) than PON1(Q192) and provides better protection against CPO exposure. Thus, for some exposures it is only the level of plasma PON1 that is important, whereas for others it is both plasma level and the PON1(192) alloform(s) present in plasma that are important. In no case is the plasma level of PON1 unimportant, provided that the catalytic efficiency is sufficient to protect against the exposure. Two-substrate enzyme assay/analysis protocols that reveal both PON1 plasma levels and PON1(192) phenotype (QQ; QR; RR) are designed to optimize the separation of PON1(192) phenotypes; however, they have not been optimized for evaluating in vivo rates of OP detoxication. This study describes the adaptation of a non-OP, two-substrate determination of PON1 status to the conversion of the PON1 status data to physiologically relevant rates of DZO and CPO detoxication. Conversion factors were generated for rates of hydrolysis of different substrates.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Aryldialkylphosphatase -- metabolism
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Aryldialkylphosphatase
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Keywords: 9FX08D2L1U
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds -- metabolism
Keywords: Isoenzymes
Keywords: Molecular Structure
Keywords: Insecticides -- metabolism
Keywords: Aryldialkylphosphatase -- genetics
Keywords: Polymorphism, Genetic
Keywords: PON1 protein, human
Keywords: O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphate
Keywords: Hydrolysis
Keywords: EC 3.1.8.1
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: 0
Keywords: 5598-15-2
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- analogs & derivatives
Keywords: diazoxon
Keywords: Substrate Specificity
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- metabolism
Date completed - 2009-03-06
Date created - 2009-02-09
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1-9
ProQuest ID - 66903303
SuppNotes - Cites: Life Sci. 1994;54(18):1357-64[7514706]; Cites: Toxicol Lett. 1995 Aug;78(3):245-52[7542808]; Cites: Neurotoxicology. 1995 Summer;16(2):281-90[7566687]; Cites: J Med Chem. 2000 Jan 13;43(1):19-21[10633034]; Cites: Pharmacogenetics. 1999 Dec;9(6):745-53[10634137]; Cites: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000 Feb;20(2):516-21[10669651]; Cites: Atherosclerosis. 2000 Jun;150(2):295-8[10856521]; Cites: Pharmacogenetics. 2000 Dec;10(9):767-79[11191881]; Cites: Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Feb;11(1):77-84[11207034]; Cites: Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Apr;29(4 Pt 2):566-9[11259353]; Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Jun;68(6):1428-36[11335891]; Cites: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Sep;21(9):1451-7[11557671]; Cites: Biochem J. 2003 Jun 1;372(Pt 2):643-9[12639220]; Cites: Pharmacogenetics. 2003 May;13(5):291-5[12724622]; Cites: Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Jun;13(6):357-64[12777966]; Cites: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Aug 1;23(8):1465-71[12805074]; Cites: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Aug 1;23(8):1317-8[12909569]; Cites: Lancet. 2004 Feb 28;363(9410):689-95[15001326]; Cites: Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005 Jan;15(1):51-60[15864126]; Cites: FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005 Dec 1;253(1):29-37[16260097]; Cites: Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006 Mar;16(3):183-90[16495777]; Cites: Biochemistry. 1991 Oct 22;30(42):10141-9[1657140]; Cites: Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006 May;20(3):244-50[16629699]; Cites: Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(9):1052-9[16958594]; Cites: Toxicology. 2007 Apr 20;233(1-3):47-59[17007987]; Cites: Eur J Clin Invest. 2007 Mar;37(3):187-96[17359486]; Cites: Neurotoxicology. 2008 May;29(3):428-43[18394709]; Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1983 May;35(3):393-408[6305189]; Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1983 Nov;35(6):1126-38[6316781]; Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health. 1993 Oct-Nov;40(2-3):337-46[7693961]; Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Mar;52(3):598-608[7916578]; Cites: Nat Genet. 1993 Jan;3(1):73-6[8098250]; Cites: Nat Genet. 1996 Nov;14(3):334-6[8896566]; Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health. 1997 May;51(1):35-55[9169060]; Cites: Nature. 1998 Jul 16;394(6690):284-7[9685159]; Cites: Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Apr;26(4):355-9[9531524]; Cites: Clin Chim Acta. 1963 Jul;8:568-73[14063971]; Cites: J Biol Chem. 1965 Feb;240:863-9[14275146]; Cites: Clin Sci (Lond). 2004 Nov;107(5):435-47[15265000]; Cites: Drug Metab Dispos. 1991 Jan-Feb;19(1):100-6[1673382]; Cites: Biochemistry. 1991 Oct 22;30(42):10133-40[1718413]; Cites: Arch Toxicol Suppl. 1986;9:154-8[3028323]; Cites: Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1973 Jan-Feb;14(1):41-7[4734200]; Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1984 Mar;36(2):295-305[6324579]
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Toxicology and applied pharmacology, February 15, 2009, 235(1):1-9
Corporate institution author - Richter, Rebecca J; Jarvik, Gail P; Furlong, Clement E
DOI - MEDL-19071155; 19071155; NIHMS99874; PMC3045428; 1096-0333 eng

1131. Ridano, Magali E.; Racca, Ana C.; Flores-Mart+¡n, J+ sica; Camolotto, Soledad A.; de Potas, Gladis Magnarelli; Genti-Raimondi, Susana, and Panzetta-Dutari, Graciela M. Chlorpyrifos modifies the expression of genes involved in human placental function. 2012 Jun; 33, (3): 331-338.


Rec #: 310
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The effects of organophosphate pesticides on human placenta remain poorly investigated although an increased risk of pregnancy alterations has been reported in women chronically exposed to these pesticides. Here, we have addressed whether chlorpyrifos (CPF) modifies the expression of genes relevant for placental function. Human placental JEG-3 cells were exposed to increasing CPF concentrations up to 100 ++M for 24 and 48 h and cell viability, mRNA, protein and hormone levels were analyzed. Quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that CPF increased the expression of ABCG2, GCM1 and, even more significantly, +_hCG mRNAs in conditions where cell viability and morphology were not compromised. In addition, +_hCG protein synthesis and secretion were time-dependently augmented. Present results may reflect a CPF nocive effect on placenta cells or a placental-defense mechanism to preserve its function. These novel CPF trophoblast target genes should be considered in future studies of pregnancy outcomes associated with in vivo exposures. Organophosphate pesticide/ Trophoblast/ Gene expression/ +_hCG/ Pregnancy

1132. Riederer, A. M.; Hunter, R. E.; Hayden, S. W., and Ryan, P. B. Pyrethroid and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Composite Diet Samples from Atlanta, USA Adults. 2010; 44, (1): 483-490.


Rec #: 67659
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Four pyrethroid (permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin) and 3 organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion) pesticides were measured in 4 days of 24 h duplicate diet samples collected from 12 Atlanta adults over two cycles (2005-2006). Samples were composited into 9 categories, by food type, to evaluate their contribution to daily intakes. The resulting 437 samples were analyzed using a multiresidue method using liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction followed by quantification via gas chromatograph with electron-capture detection. Total daily intakes (mg/kg-d) were calculated by summing the mass of a pesticide in all composites collected that day and dividing by body weight. Chlorpyrifos diazinon, and cypermethrin in were detected in a range of composite types at frequencies >= 30%, whereas other pesticides were detected at lower frequencies. Concentrations ranged from the detection limits (0.38-0.88 ng/g) to several hundred ng/g, exceeding U.S. tolerances in a few cases. We also detected pesticides in some foods labeled organic. Total daily intakes were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral reference doses, except in 6% of cases when the organophosphorus concentrations were summed. Results show frequent dietary exposure of our participants to the target pesticides from a range of food types.
Keywords: EXPOSURE, RESIDUES, FOOD, INSECTICIDES, CHLORPYRIFOS, VARIABILITY,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 539PB

1133. Riederer, A. M.; Pearson, M. A., and Lu, C. S. Comparison of food consumption frequencies among NHANES and CPES children: Implications for dietary pesticide exposure and risk assessment. 2010; 20, (7): 602-614.


Rec #: 67669
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Characterizing food consumption patterns among children is critical to dietary pesticide exposure assessment. We have used public release data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the longitudinal Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES) to illustrate the magnitude of potential error introduced by using national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the consumption frequencies for smaller cohorts. We focused on foods commonly consumed by children in the target CPES age and income group (3-11 years; annual household income >$75,000) and foods likely to contain organophosphorus or pyrethroid pesticide residues. We defined "percent eaters'' as the percentage of study participants who reported eating a particular food in a 24-h period. We computed the weighted percent eaters and 95% confidence limits (CL) for the target age/income group using the NHANES 24-h dietary recall data and compared these with the CPES percent eaters by sampling day and season. For certain foods, particularly the seasonally available produce (for example, apples, peaches/nectarines, melon, grapes, pears, strawberries), soy milk, and peanut butter, the CPES percent eaters fell outside the NHANES 95% CLs on many sampling days. For other foods (for example, orange juice and cow's milk), differences were not readily apparent. Although the differences we observed for certain foods may be, in part, because of measurement error, they also likely reflect seasonal and geographic patterns among the CPES data that the public release NHANES data do not capture. Using NHANES data to estimate pesticide intakes from strawberries, for example, may underestimate the exposure of the CPES children, as significantly more CPES than NHANES children ate strawberries on many sampling days. For other sampling days or other foods, overestimation is also possible. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2010) 20, 602-614; doi:10.1038/jes.2009.48; published online 9 September 2009
Keywords: children, CPES, diet survey, NHANES, pesticides, risk assessment
ISI Document Delivery No.: 667CO

1134. ---. Dietary patterns among the Metro Atlanta Cohort: Implications for population-based longitudinal dietary pesticide exposure and risk assessment. 2011; 21, (2): 142-149.


Rec #: 67679
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Characterizing dietary consumption patterns is critical to dietary pesticide exposure assessment. We compared consumption patterns between adults (age 18-60) in the Metro Atlanta Cohort (MAC), a longitudinal study of pesticide exposure among Atlanta residents, and US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) adults. We focused on foods commonly eaten by US adults and foods likely to contain certain pesticide residues. MAC participants provided consumption data for 6 days per month for I year using a web-based data collection tool. We defined "percent eaters" as the percent of participants who reported eating a particular food in 24 h. We computed the NHANES weighted percent eaters and 95% confidence limits (CLs) using the 24-h dietary recall data. We calculated the MAC percent eaters for each sampling day and the percent of days this number fell below, within, or above the NHANES 95% CLs. We also re-sampled the MAC percent eaters across sampling days to find whether the resulting distribution resembled the NHANES estimate, and used the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate whether season affected the number of MAC eaters of a particular food on a given sampling day. In general, across all sampling days, a greater proportion of MAC participants reported eating banana, broccoli, cream, grapes, lettuce, onion, peach, pear, peas, strawberries, string beans, and tomatoes than the national estimate, whereas the proportion of apple, spinach, catsup and white bread/roll eaters was similar, and the proportion of milk drinkers was lower. Season predicted the number of MAC peach and strawberry eaters but not other foods. The data show how a higher proportion of Atlanta adults may eat certain foods (e.g., peaches in summer or strawberries in spring) than the national average depending on season or other factors. An exposure assessment that ignored this difference could underestimate dietary pesticide intakes. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2011) 21, 142-149; doi:10.1038/jes.2009.72; published online 31 March 2010
Keywords: food consumption, longitudinal, dietary pesticide exposure, risk
ISI Document Delivery No.: 730SN

1135. Riskallah, M. R.; El-Sayed, M. M., and Hindi, S. A. Study on the Stability of Leptophos in Water Under Laboratory Conditions. 1979; 23, 607-614.


Rec #: 1270
Keywords: FATE
Call Number: NO FATE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1136. Riva, M. C.; Lopez, D., and Fabian, L. Toxicity of Organophosphorus Pesticides to Aquatic Microalgae. M.C.Riva, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya. Jefa del Laboratorio de Toxicologla Ambiental del INTEXTER (U.P.C.), Spain//: 1998; 113, 25-29(SPA).


Rec #: 1280
Keywords: NON-ENGLISH
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1137. Robinson, P. W. The Toxicity of Pesticides and Organics to Mysid Shrimps can be Predicted from Daphnia spp. Toxicity Data. 1999; 33, (6): 1545-1549.


Rec #: 2010
Keywords: MODELING,REFS CHECKED
Call Number: NO MODELING (13DPE,ACP,BMC,CMPH,CPY,CYH,CYP,CYR,DCB,DFZ,DM,DPDP,DZ,ETHB,LNR,PTP,SFL), NO REFS CHECKED (13DPE,ACP,BMC,CMPH,CPY,CYH,CYP,CYR,DCB,DFZ,DM,DPDP,DZ,ETHB,LNR,PTP,SFL)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: 13DPE,4CE,4NP,ACP,BMC,CMPH,CPY,CYH,CYP,CYR,DCB,DFZ,DM,DMM,DMP,DPDP,DZ,ETHB,FCX,LNR,NBZ,PTP,SFL,TOL

1138. Robles-Molina, J.; de Vidales, M. J. M.; Garcia-Reyes, J. F.; Canizares, P.; Saez, C.; Rodrigo, M. A., and Molina-Diaz, A. Conductive-diamond electrochemical oxidation of chlorpyrifos in wastewater and identification of its main degradation products by LC-TOFMS. 2012; 89, (10): 1169-1176.


Rec #: 67729
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The electrochemical transformation of the organophosphorous insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) was investigated in wastewater. The oxidation of CPF was carried out in a single-compartment electrochemical flow cell working under batch operation mode, using diamond-based material as anode and stainless steel as cathode. In order to evaluate its persistence and degradation pathway, two different concentration levels (1.0 mg L(-1) and 0.1 mg L(-1)) were studied. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used for evaluation of the initial and electrolyzed solutions. The identification of CPF transformation products was performed by liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS). Results showed that CPF is completely removed at the end of treatment time. Analysis by LC-TOFMS allowed the identification of six degradation products (with Mw 154, 170, 197, 305 321 and 333). Three of the identified intermediates (Mw 170, 305 and 321) were completely removed at the end of electrolysis time. Interestingly, the formation of diethyl 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2yl phosphate (chlorpyrifos oxon) and 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol was also found in previous reported degradation pathways using different degradation technologies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Priority contaminant, Water, Electrochemical degradation,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 024ME

1139. Rodrigues, S. R.; Caldeira, C.; Castro, B. B.; Goncalves, F.; Nunes, B., and Antunes, S. C. Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) as environmental biomarker: ChE characterization and potential neurotoxic effects of xenobiotics. 2011; 99, (2): 181-188.


Rec #: 67749
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Inhibition of cholinesterases (ChEs) has been widely used as an environmental biomarker of exposure to organophosphates (OP) and carbamate (a) pesticides. More recently, this biomarker has been suggested as a putative biomarker for exposure to detergents. The use of cholinesterase inhibition as effect criterion in Ecotoxicology requires the previous characterization of the specific enzymatic forms that may be present in different tissues or organs. Different ChEs isoforms may be present in the same tissue and may exhibit distinct sensitivities towards environmental contaminants.
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