Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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limpet hemocyanin from horseshoe. crab. A heterologous indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed that can detect BP down to 0.14 mu g L(-1). The assay has been proven to tolerate a wide range of ionic strengths and pH values. Studies on the selectivity of this immunoassay have demonstrated a high recognition of related pesticides that contain a bis-halophenyl group in their structure. Other pesticides do not interfere in the analysis of BP using this immunochemical technique. Preliminary experiments have shown that BP can be directly analyzed in white wine samples down to 0.16 mu g L(-1) without the necessity of a cleanup procedure prior to the ELISA.
Keywords: Pesticide, miticide, bromopropylate, antibody, hapten, immunoassay
ISI Document Delivery No.: 397LU

1104. Randhawa, M. A.; Anjum, F. M.; Ahmed, A., and Randhawa, M. S. Field incurred chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol residues in fresh and processed vegetables. 2007; 103, (3): 1016-1023.


Rec #: 67359
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The effect of washing, peeling and cooking on residue levels of chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in winter (spinach, cauliflower, potato) and summer vegetables (eggplant, tomato, okra) was determined. Analysis was carried out by capillary gas chromatography (DB-5MS capillary column) with mass selective detection. The samples were collected from trials conducted under controlled conditions as well as from the farmer's field. In supervised field trials, the highest chlorpyrifos residue was found at raw stage in spinach (1.87 mg kg(-1)) followed by okra (1.41 mg kg(-1)) and eggplant (1.25 mg kg(-1)). The lowest residue of chlorpyrifos was recorded in cauliflower (0.036 mg kg(-1)). The chlorpyrifos residue reduced from 15 to 33% after washing, 65-85% post-peeling and cooking further lowered it from 12% to 48% in all the tested vegetables; while an increase in TCP concentration was observed during heat treatment. Out of 267 vegetable samples collected from the farmer's field, 225 samples contained detectable residues representing 84% rate of contamination. About 6% of samples contained chlorpyrifos residues above maximum residue limits (MRLs). However, vegetable processing reduced the chlorpyrifos residue below the MRL. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: chlorpyrifos, TCP, vegetables, household processing, supervised field
ISI Document Delivery No.: 153DI

1105. Rao, J. V. and Kavitha, P. In vitro Effects of Chlorpyrifos on the Acetylcholinesterase Activity of Euryhaline Fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. 2010; 65, (3-4): 303-306.


Rec #: 67369
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The in vitro effect of a widely used organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPP), on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was studied in vitro. The kinetic constants K(m) and V(max) and the bimolecular constant k(i) were determined in vitro. The in vitro AChE study indicated that CPP is neurotoxic and that it alters the apparent K(m) values widely in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in a competitive type of inhibition. Based on the k(i) values, the sensitivity of AChE in brain is greater than that in gill tissue, at 7.3.10(-5) M and 11.92.10(-5) M, respectively. The study points to the importance of kinetic studies and the results suggest that in biomonitoring programmes brain AChE activity can be a good diagnostic tool for CPP toxicity.
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Chlorpyrifos, Oreochromis mossambicus
ISI Document Delivery No.: 606QJ

1106. Rapaka, R. R.; Ricks, D. M.; Alcorn, J. F.; Chen, K.; Khader, S. A.; Zheng, M.; Plevy, S.; Bengt‚N, E., and Kolls, J. K. Conserved Natural Igm Antibodies Mediate Innate and Adaptive Immunity Against the Opportunistic Fungus Pneumocystis Murina.


Rec #: 50399
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Host defense against opportunistic fungi requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity for resolution of infection. Antibodies generated in mice vaccinated with the fungus Pneumocystis prevent growth of Pneumocystis organisms within the lungs, but the mechanisms whereby antibodies enhance antifungal host defense are poorly defined. Nearly all species of fungi contain the conserved carbohydrates β-glucan and chitin within their cell walls, which may be targets of innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we show that natural IgM antibodies targeting these fungal cell wall carbohydrates are conserved across many species, including fish and mammals. Natural antibodies bind fungal organisms and enhance host defense against Pneumocystis in early stages of infection. IgM antibodies influence recognition of fungal antigen by dendritic cells, increasing their migration to draining pulmonary lymph nodes. IgM antibodies are required for adaptive T helper type 2 (Th2) and Th17 cell differentiation and guide B cell isotype class-switch recombination during host defense against Pneumocystis. These experiments suggest a novel role for the IgM isotype in shaping the earliest steps in recognition and clearance of this fungus. We outline a mechanism whereby serum IgM, containing ancient specificities against conserved fungal antigens, bridges innate and adaptive immunity against fungal organisms.
MESH HEADINGS: Adaptive Immunity/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Antibodies, Bacterial/blood/immunology/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Wall/immunology/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Immune Sera/adverse effects/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Immunity, Innate/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/classification/genetics/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Immunoglobulin M/blood/genetics/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Inbred BALB C
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Inbred C57BL
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, Knockout
MESH HEADINGS: Mice, SCID
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Phylogeny
MESH HEADINGS: Pneumocystis/growth &
MESH HEADINGS: development/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Pneumocystis carinii/growth &
MESH HEADINGS: development/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/*immunology/microbiology/prevention &
MESH HEADINGS: control
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Binding/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Species Specificity
MESH HEADINGS: Th17 Cells/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Th2 Cells/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: beta-Glucans/immunology/metabolism eng

1107. Raposo, R; Barroso, M; Fonseca, S; Costa, S; Queiroz, J a; Gallardo, E; Dias, M, and Raposo, R. Determination of Eight Selected Organophosphorus Insecticides in Postmortem Blood Samples Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. 2010 Nov 15; 24, (21): 3187-3194.


Rec #: 43769
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A simple, rapid and sensitive method is described for the determination of omethoate, dimethoate, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, parathion-ethyl, chlorfenvinphos, quinalphos and azinphos-ethyl in postmortem whole blood samples. The analytes and internal standard (ethion) were isolated from the matrix by solid-phase extraction, and were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode. The method has shown to be selective after analysis of postmortem samples of 40 different origins. Calibration curves were established between 0.05 (0.1 for omethoate) and 25 mu g/mL, and the values obtained for intra- and interday precision and accuracy were within the criteria usually accepted for bioanalytical method validation. Lower limits of quantitation were 50 ng/mL for all compounds, except for omethoate (100 ng/mL); the limits of identification of the method were 25 ng/mL for all analytes, except for omethoate, for which 50 ng/mL was obtained. Absolute recovery was determined at three concentration levels, and ranged from 31 to 108%. The proposed method is simple and fast, and can be routinely applied in the determination of these compounds in postmortem whole blood samples within the scope of forensic toxicology. In addition, mass spectrometry has demonstrated to be a powerful and indispensable tool for the unequivocal identification of the analytes, since the acceptance criteria were accomplished even at very low levels, thus allowing obtaining forensically valid and sound results.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Organophosphorus compounds
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Mass spectrometry
Keywords: quinalphos
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: dimethoate
Keywords: Toxicology
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 3187-3194
ProQuest ID - 901682509
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Organophosphorus compounds; Gas chromatography; Pesticides; Mass spectrometry; quinalphos; Diazinon; dimethoate; Toxicology
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry [Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.]. Vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 3187-3194. 15 Nov 2010.
Corporate institution author - Raposo, R; Barroso, M; Fonseca, S; Costa, S; Queiroz, J A; Gallardo, E; Dias, M
DOI - fef76905-6dc2-4eb7-97fbcsaobj201; 15267468; 1097-0231 English

1108. Rasoul, G. M. A.; Abou Salem, M. E.; Mechael, A. A.; Hendy, O. M.; Rohlman, D. S., and Ismail, A. A. Effects of occupational pesticide exposure on children applying pesticides. 2008; 29, (5): 833-838.


Rec #: 67389
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Nearly 40% of the Egyptian workforce is employed in agriculture. The cotton industry relies on children and adolescents, who work seasonally, to apply pesticides to the cotton crops. Although previous research has examined adult pesticide exposures in this workforce in Egypt, no research has examined the health effects in adolescents. This study attempts to systematically replicate findings examining the impact of organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure in adults on Arabic speaking children working as applicators. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of pesticide exposure on children and adolescents spraying cotton fields. Male children currently applying pesticides between the ages of 9 and 15 (Younger, n = 30) and 16 and 19 (Older, n = 20) were recruited for the study. They completed a neurobehavioral test battery: personality inventory; work, health, and exposure questionnaires; and medical and neurological screening exams. Blood samples were collected to measure acetylcholinesterase. Children not working in agriculture, matched on age and education, served as controls. Both Younger and Older applicator groups, performed significantly worse than the controls on the majority of neurobehavioral tests controlling for age and years of education. The applicators reported significantly more neurological symptoms than the controls and had lower acetylcholinesterase activity. A dose-effect relationship demonstrated that increased years of exposure to organophosphate pesticides is associated with cognitive deficits. This is one of the several studies demonstrating that functional cognitive effects are positively correlated with increased years of exposure to OP pesticides, though primarily in adult populations, building confidence in the association. Since children around the world are exposed to OP pesticides, these studies suggest that the need to evaluate this potential problem is urgent. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Neurobehavioral tests, Adolescents, Pesticides, AChE, Seasonal
ISI Document Delivery No.: 366XE

1109. Rastogi, S K; Tripathi, S; Ravishanker, D, and Rastogi, S K. A Study of Neurologic Symptoms on Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides in the Children of Agricultural Workers. 2010 Aug; 14, (2): 54-57.


Rec #: 43969
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world in agriculture and in pest control as well as for community health purposes. Organophosphate (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world that kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is an apparent problem in places where highly toxic OP pesticides are available. Neurologic dysfunction is the best documented health effect of pesticide exposure. High-level exposure has both acute and long-term neurologic signs and symptoms, and adverse effects have been reported in most type of pesticides, including organophosphate (OP), carbamate, organochlorine, and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. Acute OP pesticide exposure can involve in wide range of both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms. Increased neurologic symptom prevalence may provide early evidence of neurologic dysfunctions, before clinically measurable signs are evident. In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data on neurologic signs and symptoms from 225 rural children, both males (n = 132) and females (n = 93) who were occupationally and paraoccupationally exposed to methyl OPs (dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion) and ethyl OPs (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethyl parathion) as they belonged to agricultural families handling, mixing, and spraying the OP pesticides. The children completed a specially designed questionnaire (Q16) on neurologic symptoms associated with pesticide exposure with their parental help. A suitable reference group consisting of rural children (n = 50) never involved in pesticide handling (neither outdoor nor indoor) belonging to similar socioeconomic strata included in the study to compare the prevalence of various neurologic symptoms between the two groups. Among all the neurologic self-reported symptoms, headache, watering in eyes, and burning sensation in eye/face were the most important clinical manifestations attributed to OP pesticide exposure. These symptoms could probably be the consequence of chronic effects of most pesticides on the central nervous system. The muscarinic symptoms reported the maximum prevalence of salivation (18.22%), whereas lacrimation was observed in 17.33% cases, followed by diarrhea in 9.33% cases. The nicotinic clinical manifestations of acute OP poisoning revealed excessive sweating in 13.78% cases and tremors in 9.3% cases followed by mydriasis in 8.4% exposed children. The characteristic cholinergic symptoms, such as insomnia, headache, muscle cramps, weakness, and anorexia were also reported by both male and female exposed children. The high frequency of neurologic symptoms observed in the study may be due to parasympathetic hyperactivity due to the accumulated ACh resulting from AChE inhibition.
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Central nervous system
Keywords: Fumigants
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Headache
Keywords: Methyl parathion
Keywords: tremor
Keywords: Occupational exposure
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Inventories
Keywords: Diarrhea
Keywords: N3 11028:Neuropharmacology & toxicology
Keywords: Muscles
Keywords: Poisoning
Keywords: H 1000:Occupational Safety and Health
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: anorexia
Keywords: Fungicides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: CSA Neurosciences Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Rural areas
Keywords: Parathion
Keywords: Hyperactivity
Date revised - 2011-12-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 54-57
ProQuest ID - 911166655
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Agriculture; Central nervous system; Pesticides (organophosphorus); Inventories; Diarrhea; Fumigants; Poisoning; Muscles; organophosphates; Children; Malathion; anorexia; Pesticides; Headache; Methyl parathion; tremor; Diazinon; Occupational exposure; Hyperactivity; Chlorpyrifos; Organophosphates; Fungicides; Parathion; Rural areas
Last updated - 2012-04-06
British nursing index edition - Indian Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine [Indian J. Occup. Environ. Med.]. Vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 54-57. May-Aug 2010.
Corporate institution author - Rastogi, S K; Tripathi, S; Ravishanker, D
DOI - MD-0017879074; 16084116; 0973-2284 English

1110. Rauch, S. A.; Braun, J. M.; Barr, D. B.; Calafat, A. M.; Khoury, J.; Montesano, M. A.; Yolton, K., and Lanphear, B. P. Associations of Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticide Metabolites with Gestational Age and Birth Weight. 2012; 120, (7): 1055-1060.


Rec #: 67399
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides, a widely used class of pesticides, may be associated with decreased gestational age and lower birth weight. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in paroxanase (PON1) enzyme genotypes may modify the relationships between OP exposure and perinatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship of prenatal OP insecticide exposure, measured using urinary dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolite concentrations, With gestational age and birth weight. METHODS: We measured the concentrations of six nonspecific DAP metabolites of OP insecticides in two maternal spot urine samples collected in a prospective birth cohort. We performed multi-variable regression to examine associations between the sum of six DAP concentrations (Sigma DAP) with gestational age and birth weight. We also examined whether these associations differed according to infant PON1(192) and PON1(-108) genotypes. RESULTS: Among 306 mother-infant dyads, a 10-fold increase in Sigma DAP concentrations was associated with a decrease in covariate-adjusted gestational age [-0.5 weeks; 95% confidence interval (Cl): -0.8, 0.1] and birth weight (-151 gt CI: -287, -16); the decrements in birth weight were attenuated after adjusting for gestational age. The relationship between Sigma DAP concentrations and gestational age was stronger for white (-0.7 weeks; CI: -1.1, -0.3) than for black (-0.1 weeks; 95% CI: -0.9, 0.6) newborns. In contrast, there was a greater decrease in birth weight with increasing urinary Sigma DAP concentrations for black (-188 g; CI: -395, 19) than for white (-118 g; CI: -296, 60) newborns. Decrements in birth weight and gestational age associated with Sigma DAP concentrations were greatest among infants with PON1(192QR) and PON(-108CT) genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal urinary Sigma DAP concentrations were associated with shortened gestation and reduced birth weight in this cohort, but the effects differed by race/ethnicity and PON1(192/108) genotypes.
Keywords: birth weight, DAPs, fetal growth, gestational age, OPs, organophosphate,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 969DG

1111. Rauh, V. A.; Whyatt, R. W.; Perera, F. P.; Andrews, H. F.; Garfinkel, R., and Tang, D. L. Prenatal chlorpyrifos and early neurodevelopment: How good is the science? In reply. 2007; 120, (1): 243-244.


Rec #: 67429
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ISI Document Delivery No.: 185OC

1112. Rauh, Virginia; Arunajadai, Srikesh; Horton, Megan; Perera, Frederica; Hoepner, Lori; Barr, Dana B, and Whyatt, Robin. Seven-Year Neurodevelopmental Scores and Prenatal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos, a Common Agricultural Pesticide. 2011 Aug; 119, (8): 1196-201.


Rec #: 39549
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In a longitudinal birth cohort study of inner-city mothers and children (Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health), we have previously reported that prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) was associated with neurodevelopmental problems at 3 years of age. The goal of the study was to estimate the relationship between prenatal CPF exposure and neurodevelopment among cohort children at 7 years of age. In a sample of 265 children, participants in a prospective study of air pollution, we measured prenatal CPF exposure using umbilical cord blood plasma (picograms/gram plasma) and 7-year neurodevelopment using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV). Linear regression models were used to estimate associations, with covariate selection based on two alternate approaches. On average, for each standard deviation increase in CPF exposure (4.61 pg/g), Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) declined by 1.4% and Working Memory declined by 2.8%. Final covariates included maternal educational level, maternal IQ, and quality of the home environment. We found no significant interactions between CPF and any covariates, including the other chemical exposures measured during the prenatal period (environmental tobacco smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). We report evidence of deficits in Working Memory Index and Full-Scale IQ as a function of prenatal CPF exposure at 7 years of age. These findings are important in light of continued widespread use of CPF in agricultural settings and possible longer-term educational implications of early cognitive deficits.
Keywords: Young Adult
Keywords: Intelligence -- drug effects
Keywords: Memory -- drug effects
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Child
Keywords: Pesticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Pregnancy
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Adolescent
Keywords: Male
Keywords: Female
Keywords: Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Copyright - Copyright National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Aug 2011
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1196-201
ProQuest ID - 887730507
Last updated - 2012-10-12
Place of publication - Research Triangle Park
Corporate institution author - Rauh, Virginia; Arunajadai, Srikesh; Horton, Megan; Perera, Frederica; Hoepner, Lori; Barr, Dana B; Whyatt, Robin
DOI - 2444114951; 64007581; 67001; ENHP; 21507777; INODENHP0007385678
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1113. Rauh, Virginia a; Perera, Frederica P; Horton, Megan K; Whyatt, Robin M; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Barr, Dana Boyd; Slotkin, Theodore a, and Peterson, Bradley S. Brain Anomalies in Children Exposed Prenatally to a Common Organophosphate Pesticide. 2012 May 15; 109, (20): 7871-7876.


Rec #: 46719
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, is associated with neurobehavioral deficits in humans and animal models. We investigated associations between CPF exposure and brain morphology using magnetic resonance imaging in 40 children, 5.9-11.2 y, selected from a nonclinical, representative community-based cohort. Twenty high-exposure children (upper tertile of CPF concentrations in umbilical cord blood) were compared with 20 low-exposure children on cortical surface features; all participants had minimal prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High CPF exposure was associated with enlargement of superior temporal, posterior middle temporal, and inferior postcentral gyri bilaterally, and enlarged superior frontal gyrus, gyrus rectus, cuneus, and precuneus along the mesial wall of the right hemisphere. Group differences were derived from exposure effects on underlying white matter. A significant exposure × IQ interaction was derived from CPF disruption of normal IQ associations with surface measures in low-exposure children. In preliminary analyses, high-exposure children did not show expected sex differences in the right inferior parietal lobule and superior marginal gyrus, and displayed reversal of sex differences in the right mesial superior frontal gyrus, consistent with disruption by CPF of normal behavioral sexual dimorphisms reported in animal models. High-exposure children also showed frontal and parietal cortical thinning, and an inverse dose-response relationship between CPF and cortical thickness. This study reports significant associations of prenatal exposure to a widely used environmental neurotoxicant, at standard use levels, with structural changes in the developing human brain.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Keywords: Fetal Blood -- chemistry
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Child
Keywords: Nervous System Malformations -- chemically induced
Keywords: Pesticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Pregnancy
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Brain -- abnormalities
Keywords: New York City
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Prospective Studies
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Cognition -- drug effects
Keywords: Brain -- pathology
Keywords: Organophosphates -- toxicity
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Cohort Studies
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Female
Keywords: Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Keywords: Intelligence Tests
Date completed - 2012-07-27
Date created - 2012-05-16
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 7871-7876
ProQuest ID - 1014110419
SuppNotes - Comment In: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 14;109(33):E2195; author reply E2196[22797900]
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, May 15, 2012, 109(20):7871-7876
Corporate institution author - Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Horton, Megan K; Whyatt, Robin M; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Barr, Dana Boyd; Slotkin, Theodore A; Peterson, Bradley S
DOI - MEDL-22547821; 22547821; PMC3356641; 1091-6490 eng

1114. Ravelo-Perez, Lidia M; Hernandez-Borges, Javier; Rodriguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel, and Ravelo-Perez, Lidia M. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Efficient Solid-Phase Extraction Materials of Organophosphorus Pesticides From Apple, Grape, Orange and Pineapple Fruit Juices. 2008 Nov; 1212, (1-2): 33-42.


Rec #: 49089
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used for the first time as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for the extraction of eight organophosphorus pesticides (i.e. ethoprophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos- methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, chlorpyriphos, fenamiphos and buprofezin) from different commercial fruit juices (i.e. apple, grape, orange and pineapple). The developed method, which involves SPE and direct gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection analysis, is very fast, simple and cheap: only 1:1 dilution with Milli-Q water and pH adjustment to 6.0 of 10 mL of juice is necessary prior to a quick MWCNTs-SPE procedure that used only 40 mg of stationary phase (MWCNTs of 10-15 nm o.d., 2-6 nm i.d. and 0.1-10 mu m length). Mean recovery values were above 73% for all the pesticides and fruit juices (between 77 and 101% for apple juice, 75 and 103% for grape juice, 73 and 103% for orange juice and 73 and 93% for pineapple juice) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 8.5% in all cases. Matrix matched calibration was carried out for each sample matrix since statistical differences between the calibration curves constructed is pure solvent and in the reconstructed juice extracts were found. Limits of detection ranged between 1.85 and 7.32 mu g/L (which also represents LODs between 1.85 and 7.34 mu g/kg) well below the European Union maximum residue limits for the raw fruits. The proposed method, which is demonstrated to be quick, cheap, accurate and highly selective, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in several commercial juices in which none of the selected pesticides were found.
Keywords: Citrus
Keywords: Fruits
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Statistics
Keywords: Phosphorus
Keywords: Solvents
Keywords: X 24320:Food Additives & Contaminants
Keywords: Fenitrothion
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: fenamiphos
Keywords: stationary phase
Keywords: Fruit juices
Keywords: Carbon
Keywords: Standard deviation
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: Malus
Keywords: nanotubes
Keywords: Vitaceae
Keywords: pH effects
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Nitrogen
Date revised - 2009-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 33-42
ProQuest ID - 19569049
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Malus; Vitaceae; Citrus; Fruit juices; Carbon; nanotubes; Pesticides (organophosphorus); Statistics; Standard deviation; Nitrogen; Fruits; Solvents; Malathion; stationary phase; pH effects; Fenitrothion; fenamiphos; Phosphorus; Gas chromatography; Diazinon
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Journal of Chromatography A [J. Chromatogr.]. Vol. 1212, no. 1-2, pp. 33-42. Nov 2008.
Corporate institution author - Ravelo-Perez, Lidia M; Hernandez-Borges, Javier; Rodriguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel
DOI - MD-0009026469; 8840245; 0021-9673 English

1115. Reddy, G. P. V. and Prasad, V. D. The Problem of Insecticide Resistance in Gram Caterpillar, Heliothis armigera, and Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura, in India - Assessment and Future Strategies. 1991; 32, (3): 365-366.


Rec #: 290
Keywords: NO CONC,NO DURATION
Call Number: NO CONC (ACP,CBL,CPY,CYP,DM,ES,FNV), NO DURATION (ACP,CBL,CPY,CYP,DM,ES,FNV)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACP,CBL,CPY,CYP,DDT,DM,ES,FNV

1116. Reder, A.; H”Per, D.; Gerth, U., and Hecker, M. Contributions of Individual ΣB-Dependent General Stress Genes to Oxidative Stress Resistance of Bacillus Subtilis.


Rec #: 73429
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis comprises approximately 200 genes and is under the control of the alternative sigma factor σ(B). The activation of σ(B) occurs in response to multiple physical stress stimuli as well as energy starvation conditions. The expression of the general stress proteins provides growing and stationary nonsporulating vegetative cells with nonspecific and broad stress resistance. A previous comprehensive phenotype screening analysis of 94 general stress gene mutants in response to severe growth-inhibiting stress stimuli, including ethanol, NaCl, heat, and cold, indicated that secondary oxidative stress may be a common component of severe physical stress. Here we tested the individual contributions of the same set of 94 mutants to the development of resistance against exposure to the superoxide-generating agent paraquat and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In fact, 62 mutants displayed significantly decreased survival rates in response to paraquat and/or H(2)O(2) stress compared to the wild type at a confidence level of an α value of ≤ 0.01. Thus, we were able to assign 47 general stress genes to survival against superoxide, 6 genes to protection from H(2)O(2) stress, and 9 genes to the survival against both. Furthermore, we show that a considerable overlap exists between the phenotype clusters previously assumed to be involved in oxidative stress management and the actual group of oxidative-stress-sensitive mutants. Our data provide information that many general stress proteins with still unknown functions are implicated in oxidative stress resistance and further support the notion that different severe physical stress stimuli elicit a common secondary oxidative stress.
MESH HEADINGS: Bacillus subtilis/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Bacterial Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Profiling
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Genomics
MESH HEADINGS: Hydrogen Peroxide
MESH HEADINGS: Microbial Viability/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Oxidants/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Oxidative Stress/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Paraquat/pharmacology eng

1117. Redman, R. S.; Kim, Y. O.; Woodward, C. J.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S. L., and Rodriguez, R. J. Increased Fitness of Rice Plants to Abiotic Stress Via Habitat Adapted Symbiosis: a Strategy for Mitigating Impacts of Climate Change.


Rec #: 50149
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization).These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.
MESH HEADINGS: Adaptation, Physiological/drug effects/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Biomass
MESH HEADINGS: Climate Change
MESH HEADINGS: Cold Temperature
MESH HEADINGS: Droughts
MESH HEADINGS: *Ecosystem
MESH HEADINGS: Fungi/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Fusarium/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Host-Pathogen Interactions
MESH HEADINGS: Oryza sativa/metabolism/microbiology/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Salinity
MESH HEADINGS: Seedling/metabolism/microbiology/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Sodium Chloride/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Symbiosis/drug effects/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Water/pharmacology eng

1118. Reish, D. J. and Kauwling, T. J. Marine and Estuarine Pollution. 8109//: 1978; 50, (6): 1424-1468.


Rec #: 1900
Keywords: REVIEW
Call Number: NO REVIEW (CPY)
Notes: EcoReference No.: 53537
Chemical of Concern: CPY

1119. Reiss, R.; Neal, B.; Lamb, J. C., and Juberg, D. R. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Dose-Response Modeling for Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos-Oxon. Exponent, 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 500, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA. rreiss@exponent.com//: 2012; 63, (1): 124-131.


Rec #: 2890
Keywords: NO DURATION
Call Number: NO DURATION (CPY,CPYO)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,CPYO

1120. Ren, H.; Yu, D.; Ge, B.; Cook, B.; Xu, Z., and Zhang, S. High-Level Production, Solubilization and Purification of Synthetic Human Gpcr Chemokine Receptors Ccr5, Ccr3, Cxcr4 and Cx3cr1.


Rec #: 50949
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Chemokine receptors belong to a class of integral membrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are responsible for transmitting signals from the extracellular environment. However, the structural changes in the receptor, connecting ligand binding to G-protein activation, remain elusive for most GPCRs due to the difficulty to produce them for structural and functional studies. We here report high-level production in E.coli of 4 human GPCRs, namely chemokine receptors (hCRs) CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4 and CX3CR1 that are directly involved in HIV-1 infection, asthma and cancer metastasis. The synthetic genes of CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4 and CX3CR1 were synthesized using a two-step assembly/amplification PCR method and inserted into two different kinds of expression systems. After systematic screening of growth conditions and host strains, TB medium was selected for expression of pEXP-hCRs. The low copy number pBAD-DEST49 plasmid, with a moderately strong promoter tightly regulated by L-arabinose, proved helpful for reducing toxicity of expressed membrane proteins. The synthetic Trx-hCR fusion genes in the pBAD-DEST49 vector were expressed at high levels in the Top10 strain. After a systematic screen of 96 detergents, the zwitterionic detergents of the Fos-choline series (FC9-FC16) emerged as the most effective for isolation of the hCRs. The FC14 was selected both for solubilization from bacterial lysates and for stabilization of the Trx-hCRs during purification. Thus, the FC-14 solubilized Trx-hCRs could be purified using size exclusion chromatography as monomers and dimers with the correct apparent MW and their alpha-helical content determined by circular dichroism. The identity of two of the expressed hCRs (CCR3 and CCR5) was confirmed using immunoblots using specific monoclonal antibodies. After optimization of expression systems and detergent-mediated purification procedures, we achieved large-scale, high-level production of 4 human GPCR chemokine receptor in a two-step purification, yielding milligram quantities of CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4 and CX3CR1 for biochemical, biophysical and structural analysis.
MESH HEADINGS: Cloning, Molecular/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Escherichia coli/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Humans
MESH HEADINGS: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
MESH HEADINGS: Polymerase Chain Reaction
MESH HEADINGS: Receptors, CCR3/biosynthesis/genetics/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification
MESH HEADINGS: Receptors, CCR5/biosynthesis/genetics/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification
MESH HEADINGS: Receptors, CXCR4/biosynthesis/genetics/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification
MESH HEADINGS: Receptors, Chemokine/*biosynthesis/genetics/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification
MESH HEADINGS: *Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled eng

1121. Renner, R. In search of a chlorpyrifos antidote - Mechanisms offer clues. 2007; 115, (9): A461-A461.


Rec #: 67519
Keywords: ABSTRACT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ISI Document Delivery No.: 206RM

1122. Reuter, S. ; Schn”Ckel, U.; Schr”Ter, R.; Schober, O.; Pavenst„Dt, H.; Sch„Fers, M.; Gabri‰Ls, G., and Schlatter, E. Non-Invasive Imaging of Acute Renal Allograft Rejection in Rats Using Small Animal F-Fdg-Pet.


Rec #: 50889
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Cites: Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008 Dec;35(12):2267-74 (medline /18622612)
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: At present, renal grafts are the most common solid organ transplants world-wide. Given the importance of renal transplantation and the limitation of available donor kidneys, detailed analysis of factors that affect transplant survival are important. Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection (AR) is still a major risk for graft survival. Nowadays, AR can only be definitively by renal biopsy. However, biopsies carry a risk of renal transplant injury and loss. Most important, they can not be performed in patients taking anticoagulant drugs.
ABSTRACT: METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a non-invasive, entirely image-based method to assess AR in an allogeneic rat renal transplantation model using small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). 3 h after i.v. injection of 30 MBq FDG into adult uni-nephrectomized, allogeneically transplanted rats, tissue radioactivity of renal parenchyma was assessed in vivo by a small animal PET-scanner (post operative day (POD) 1,2,4, and 7) and post mortem dissection. The mean radioactivity (cps/mm(3) tissue) as well as the percent injected dose (%ID) was compared between graft and native reference kidney. Results were confirmed by histological and autoradiographic analysis. Healthy rats, rats with acute CSA nephrotoxicity, with acute tubular necrosis, and syngeneically transplanted rats served as controls. FDG-uptake was significantly elevated only in allogeneic grafts from POD 1 on when compared to the native kidney (%ID graft POD 1: 0.54+/-0.06; POD 2: 0.58+/-0.12; POD 4: 0.81+/-0.06; POD 7: 0.77+/-0.1; CTR: 0.22+/-0.01, n = 3-28). Renal FDG-uptake in vivo correlated with the results obtained by micro-autoradiography and the degree of inflammatory infiltrates observed in histology.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that graft FDG-PET imaging is a new option to non-invasively, specifically, early detect, and follow-up acute renal rejection. This method is potentially useful to improve post-transplant rejection monitoring.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/diagnostic use
MESH HEADINGS: Graft Rejection/pathology/*radionuclide imaging
MESH HEADINGS: Kidney/immunology/pathology/*radionuclide imaging
MESH HEADINGS: Kidney Transplantation/pathology/*radionuclide imaging
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Positron-Emission Tomography/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Rats
MESH HEADINGS: Rats, Inbred Lew
MESH HEADINGS: Rats, Inbred Strains
MESH HEADINGS: Transplantation, Homologous eng

1123. Reyes, Maritza; Collange, Beatrice; Rault, Magali; Casanelli, Stefano, and Sauphanor, Beno+ t. Combined detoxification mechanisms and target mutation fail to confer a high level of resistance to organophosphates in Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). 2011 Jan; 99, (1): 25-32.


Rec #: 4380
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Despite the frequent and widespread applications of organophosphates against
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