Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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four different cell cultures, derived from rabbit kidney (RK13), rat; and murine liver (WBF344 and Hepa 1c1c7) and insect origin (Sf21) were used to examine the effects of chlorpyrifos. Sf21 cells were the most sensitive to chlorpyrifos, with significant suppression of their proliferative activity ranging from 10(-1)-10(-5) M. However, significant suppression of proliferative activity also was recorded in mammalian cell cultures Hepa 1c1c7 (10(-1)-10(-3) M), WBF344 (10(-1)-10(-2) M), and RK13 (10(-1) M). A cytopathic effect and LDH leakage into the medium was observed in RK 13 (10(4)-10(-3) m) > WBF344 and Hepa 1c1c7 cells (10(-1)-10(-2) M) > Sf21 (10(-1) M) compared to solvent control. Our results indicate that chlorpyrifos exposure caused a species-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and cell membrane damage.
Keywords: insecticide, chlorpyrifos, cell cultures, cell proliferation, LDH
ISI Document Delivery No.: 976IJ

1062. Pope, C. The Influence of Age on Pesticide Toxicity. 2001: 873-885.


Rec #: 1990
Keywords: REVIEW
Call Number: NO REVIEW (CBL,CPY,DM,ES,MP)
Notes: EcoReference No.: 119575
Chemical of Concern: CBL,CPY,CTC,DDT,DEET,DM,DTM,EPRN,ES,FNTH,HCCH,MP,MXC,PPCP,PRN,TBT

1063. Porat, I. and Whitman, W. B. Tryptophan Auxotrophs Were Obtained by Random Transposon Insertions in the Methanococcus Maripaludis Tryptophan Operon.


Rec #: 50829
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Cites: Science. 2006 Oct 27;314(5799):649-52 (medline /17068264)
COMMENTS: Cites: Mol Microbiol. 2006 Nov;62(4):1117-31 (medline /17010158)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Bacteriol. 1987 Nov;169(11):5327-9 (medline /3667534)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Mol Biol. 1983 Jun 5;166(4):557-80 (medline /6345791)
COMMENTS: Cites: Science. 1996 Aug 23;273(5278):1058-73 (medline /8688087)
COMMENTS: Cites: Genetics. 1999 Aug;152(4):1429-37 (medline /10430573)
COMMENTS: Cites: Genetics. 1999 Aug;152(4):1439-47 (medline /10430574)
COMMENTS: Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Aug;87(15):5598-602 (medline /11607093)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Bacteriol. 2002 Mar;184(5):1449-54 (medline /11844777)
COMMENTS: Cites: Mol Microbiol. 2002 Nov;46(3):879-87 (medline /12410843)
COMMENTS: Cites: Biochemistry. 2004 Jun 15;43(23):7618-27 (medline /15182204)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Bacteriol. 2004 Aug;186(15):4940-50 (medline /15262931)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Bacteriol. 2004 Oct;186(20):6956-69 (medline /15466049)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Bacteriol. 2005 Feb;187(3):972-9 (medline /15659675)
COMMENTS: Cites: Archaea. 2005 Dec;1(6):375-84 (medline /16243778)
COMMENTS: Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1983 Jul;46(1):220-6 (medline /16346342)
COMMENTS: Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987 Oct;53(10):2373-8 (medline /16347458)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Bacteriol. 1988 Jul;170(7):3072-9 (medline /3133359)
ABSTRACT: Methanococcus maripaludis is an anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon that utilizes H(2) or formate for the reduction of CO(2) to methane. Tryptophan auxotrophs were constructed by in vitro insertions of the Tn5 transposon into the tryptophan operon, followed by transformation into M. maripaludis. This method could serve for rapid insertions into large cloned DNA regions.
MESH HEADINGS: Autotrophic Processes
MESH HEADINGS: *DNA Transposable Elements
MESH HEADINGS: Methanococcus/*genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mutagenesis, Insertional/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: *Operon
MESH HEADINGS: Tryptophan/*metabolism eng

1064. Portoles, T.; Sancho, J. V.; Hernandez, F.; Newton, A., and Hancock, P. Potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in GC-QTOF MS for pesticide residue analysis. 2010; 45, (8): 926-936.


Rec #: 66989
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The potential applications of a new atmospheric pressure source for GC-MS analysis have been investigated in this work. A list of around 100 GC-amenable pesticides, which includes organochlorine, organophosphorus and organonitrogenated compounds, has been used to evaluate their behavior in the new source. Favoring the major formation of the molecular ion in the source has been the main goal due to the wide-scope screening possibilities that this fact brings in comparison with the traditional, highly fragmented electron ionization spectra. Thus, the addition of water as modifier has been tested as a way to promote the generation of protonated molecules. Pesticides investigated have been classified into six groups according to their ionization/fragmentation behavior. Four of them are characterized by the abundant formation of the protonated molecule in the atmospheric pressure source, mostly being the base peak of the spectrum. These results show that wide-scope screening could be easily performed with this source by investigating the presence of the protonated molecule ion, MH+. The developed procedure has been applied to pesticide screening in different food samples (nectarine, orange and spinach) and it has allowed the presence of several pesticides to be confirmed such as chlorpyriphos ethyl, deltamethrin and endosulfan sulfate. The availability of a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument made it feasible to perform additional MS/MS experiments for both standards and samples to go further in the confirmation of the identity of the detected compounds. Results shown in this paper have been obtained using a prototype source which exhibits promising features that could be applied to other analytical problems apart from those illustrated in this work. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keywords: atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, GC, quadrupole time-of-flight
ISI Document Delivery No.: 646UR

1065. Potenza, D.; Moll, O.; Nario, A.; Luzio, W.; Pino, I., and Parada, A. M. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos in two soils of the VI Region of Chile, using, isotopic techniques. 2009; 53, (1): 1-12.


Rec #: 66999
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: After the application of a pesticide, only a part of it has an effect oil the target, while other part of the pesticide circulates in different environments turning into an environmental risk. In Chile, one of the pesticides widely used is chlorpyrifos (CLP), where the highest percentage is traded at the VI Region. The objective of this study was to quantify the biodegradation of CLP in two Soil Series (Fluventic Haploxerolls) from the VI Region, using a labeled chlorpyrifos with (14)Carbon ((14)C-CLP) in the molecular structure. The biodegradation of CLP was measured for a soil incubation period of 69 days for the Seric O'Higgins (S(1)), and 57 days for Serie Rancagua (S(2)). Every three days the (14)CO(2) produced was quantified, also the total (14)C-CLP bound and extractable residues in the soil were measured during the process. The results showed that 50% of the biodegradation was attained after 40 days of incubation for S(1) and 24 days in S., while at the end of the total period 59.5 % and 61.3 % of pesticide were biodegraded for S, and S, respectively. As an approach the GUS index was assessed assuming the 50 % of the CLP biodegradation as the CLP half life, representing a value of 1.38 for S(1) and 0.79 for S(2). These indexes indicate CLP as a non leachable product and a low potential risk of groundwater contamination.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 426TD

1066. Potera, C. Newly Discovered Mechanism for Chlorpyrifos Effects on Neurodevelopment. 2012; 120, (7): A270-A271.


Rec #: 67009
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Keywords: PESTICIDE, EXPOSURE, CHILDREN, COHORT
ISI Document Delivery No.: 969DG

1067. Povey, Andrew C. GeneÇôenvironmental interactions and organophosphate toxicity: Highlights of the 2010 Annual Congress of The British Toxicology Society. Includes the Abstracts of the British Toxicology Society, Spring 2010. 2010 Dec 30-; 278, (3 ): 294-304.


Rec #: 4050
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Organophosphates (OPs) are an important class of insecticides that in the UK have been widely used for treating sheep for ectoparasites as well as in other sectors of the farming industry. Health problems associated with acute OP toxicity are well defined but, ill-health induced by chronic exposures to OPs remains controversial. A substantial number of sheep farmers complain of chronic ill-health which they attribute to repeated exposure to OPs. If OPs were associated with chronic ill-health then individuals with specific defects in OP metabolism might be expected to be at greater risk of ill-health following exposure. To examine such a hypothesis, the characterisation of both OP exposure and those pathways which lead to the formation and removal of the active OP metabolites becomes important. A wide range of OPs have previously been used to treat sheep but currently the only OP licenced for treating sheep is diazinon. Immediately after treatment, farmersÇÖ urines contain detectable levels of OP metabolites but few farmers have a significant decrease in plasma cholinesterase activity. Diazinon, like chlorpyrifos, is an organothiophosphate which is metabolised, particularly by cytochrome p450s, to the corresponding active oxon form. CYP metabolism also leads to the inactivation of the parent compound and the relative balance of inactivation and activation can depend upon the specific OP and the CYP isoform. OP oxons are inactivated by serum paraoxonase (PON1) and mice lacking PON1 activity are susceptible to oxon and parent OP induced toxicity. PON1 polymorphisms at positions 192 (R form with arginine at 192 and Q with glutamine) and 55 (L form with a leucine and a M form with methionine) influence paroxonase activity. The effect of the Q192R polymorphism is substrate specific with reports indicating that diazoxon is metabolised less by the R isoform. In a study of sheep farmers within the UK, the R allele was associated with an increased risk of self-reported chronic ill-health, a result consistent with the hypothesis that this ill-health may have been caused by OPs. Studies in other populations exposed to pesticides also show associations between ill-health and PON1 Q192R polymorphisms but not consistently so. This is not surprisingly given that exposure is often poorly characterised. In vivo models also suggest that PON1 genotypes may have little influence on susceptibility at low doses of the parent OP. Hence further work is required not only to better characterise OP exposure in humans populations but also to identify those populations susceptible to OP toxicity. Organophosphate/ Sheep dip/ CYP/ Paraoxonase/ Susceptibility

1068. Povey, Andrew C and Povey, Andrew C. Gene-Environmental Interactions and Organophosphate Toxicity. 2010 Dec 30; 278, (3): 294-304.


Rec #: 43709
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphates (OPs) are an important class of insecticides that in the UK have been widely used for treating sheep for ectoparasites as well as in other sectors of the farming industry. Health problems associated with acute OP toxicity are well defined but, ill-health induced by chronic exposures to OPs remains controversial. A substantial number of sheep farmers complain of chronic ill-health which they attribute to repeated exposure to OPs. If OPs were associated with chronic ill-health then individuals with specific defects in OP metabolism might be expected to be at greater risk of ill-health following exposure. To examine such a hypothesis, the characterisation of both OP exposure and those pathways which lead to the formation and removal of the active OP metabolites becomes important. A wide range of OPs have previously been used to treat sheep but currently the only OP licenced for treating sheep is diazinon. Immediately after treatment, farmers' urines contain detectable levels of OP metabolites but few farmers have a significant decrease in plasma cholinesterase activity. Diazinon, like chlorpyrifos, is an organothiophosphate which is metabolised, particularly by cytochrome p450s, to the corresponding active oxon form. CYP metabolism also leads to the inactivation of the parent compound and the relative balance of inactivation and activation can depend upon the specific OP and the CYP isoform. OP oxons are inactivated by serum paraoxonase (PON1) and mice lacking PON1 activity are susceptible to oxon and parent OP induced toxicity. PON1 polymorphisms at positions 192 (R form with arginine at 192 and Q with glutamine) and 55 (L form with a leucine and a M form with methionine) influence paroxonase activity. The effect of the Q192R polymorphism is substrate specific with reports indicating that diazoxon is metabolised less by the R isoform. In a study of sheep farmers within the UK, the R allele was associated with an increased risk of self-reported chronic ill-health, a result consistent with the hypothesis that this ill-health may have been caused by OPs. Studies in other populations exposed to pesticides also show associations between ill-health and PON1 Q192R polymorphisms but not consistently so. This is not surprisingly given that exposure is often poorly characterised. In vivo models also suggest that PON1 genotypes may have little influence on susceptibility at low doses of the parent OP. Hence further work is required not only to better characterise OP exposure in humans populations but also to identify those populations susceptible to OP toxicity.
Keywords: inactivation
Keywords: Glutamine
Keywords: M form
Keywords: double prime L form
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: G 07810:Insects
Keywords: Gene polymorphism
Keywords: Aryldialkylphosphatase
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: R form
Keywords: Cholinesterase
Keywords: Methionine
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Chronic exposure
Keywords: Leucine
Keywords: sheep
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: British Isles
Keywords: Pharmacy And Pharmacology
Keywords: Arginine
Keywords: Genetics Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Population studies
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Cytochrome P450
Keywords: human populations
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: ectoparasites
Keywords: Metabolism
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Location - British Isles
Pages - 294-304
ProQuest ID - 852202803
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Glutamine; M form; double prime L form; Arginine; Gene polymorphism; Population studies; Aryldialkylphosphatase; Metabolites; R form; Toxicity; organophosphates; Cholinesterase; Methionine; Models; Chlorpyrifos; Insecticides; Urine; Chronic exposure; Pesticides; Leucine; Cytochrome P450; Diazinon; ectoparasites; inactivation; Organophosphates; sheep; human populations; Metabolism; British Isles
Last updated - 2011-12-12
Corporate institution author - Povey, Andrew C
DOI - OB-5b831a9a-c129-4c93-9b30csamfg201; 14200470; 0300-483X English

1069. Powers, C. M.; Badireddy, A. R.; Ryde, I. T.; Seidler, F. J., and Slotkin, T. A. Silver Nanoparticles Compromise Neurodevelopment in PC12 Cells: Critical Contributions of Silver Ion, Particle Size, Coating, and Composition. 2011; 119, (1): 37-44.


Rec #: 67029
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: Silver exposures are rising because of the increased use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products. The mono-valent silver ion (Ag(+)) impairs neurodevelopment in PC12 cells and zebrafish. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We compared the effects of AgNPs with Ag(+) in PC12 cells for neurodevelopmental end points including cell replication, oxidative stress, cell viability, and differentiation. First, we compared citrate-coated AgNPs (AgNP-Cs) with Ag(+), and then we assessed the roles of particle size, coating, and composition by comparing AgNP-C with two different sizes of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (AgNP-PVPs) or silica nanoparticles. RESULTS: In undifferentiated cells, AgNP-C impaired DNA synthesis, but to a lesser extent than an equivalent nominal concentration of Ag(+), whereas AgNP-C and Ag(+) were equally effective against protein synthesis; there was little or no oxidative stress or loss of viability due to AgNP-C. In contrast, in differentiating cells, AgNP-C evoked robust oxidative stress and impaired differentiation into the acetyl-choline phenotype. Although the effects of AgNP-PVP showed similarities to those of AgNP-C, we also found significant differences in potencies and differentiation outcomes that depended both on particle size and coating. None of the effects reflected simple physical attributes of nano-particles, separate from composition or coating, as equivalent concentrations of silica nanoparticles had no detectable effects. CONCLUSIONS: AgNP exposure impairs neurodevelopment in PC12 cells. Further, AgNP effects are distinct from those of Ag(+) alone and depend on size and coating, indicating that AgNP effects are not due simply to the release of Ag(+) into the surrounding environment.
Keywords: acetylcholine, developmental neurotoxicity, dopamine, in vitro, metal
ISI Document Delivery No.: 701BI

1070. Powers, Christina M; Wrench, Nicola; Ryde, Ian T; Smith, Amanda M; Seidler, Frederic J, and Slotkin, Theodore a. Silver Impairs Neurodevelopment: Studies in Pc12 Cells. 2010 Jan; 118, (1): 73-9.


Rec #: 44319
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Exposure to silver is increasing because of silver nanoparticles in consumer products. Many biological effects of silver entail actions of Ag+ (monovalent silver ions), so we used neuronotypic PC12 cells to evaluate the potential for silver to act as a developmental neurotoxicant, using chlorpyrifos (CPF), a pesticide known to evoke developmental neurotoxicity, as a positive control for comparison. In undifferentiated cells, a 1-hr exposure to 10 microM Ag+ inhibited DNA synthesis more potently than did 50 microM CPF; it also impaired protein synthesis but to a lesser extent than its effect on DNA synthesis, indicating a preferential effect on cell replication. Longer exposures led to oxidative stress, loss of viability, and reduced numbers of cells. With the onset of cell differentiation, exposure to 10 microM Ag+ evoked even greater inhibition of DNA synthesis and more oxidative stress, selectively impaired neurite formation without suppressing overall cell growth, and preferentially suppressed development into the acetylcholine phenotype in favor of the dopamine phenotype. Lowering the exposure to 1 microM Ag+ reduced the net effect on undifferentiated cells. However, in differentiating cells, the lower concentration produced an entirely different pattern, enhancing cell numbers by suppressing ongoing cell death and impairing differentiation in parallel for both neurotransmitter phenotypes. Our results show that silver has the potential to evoke developmental neurotoxicity even more potently than known neurotoxicants, such as CPF, and that the spectrum of effects is likely to be substantially different at lower exposures that do not show signs of outright toxicity.
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Neurons -- drug effects
Keywords: DNA -- biosynthesis
Keywords: Pesticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Rats
Keywords: Acetylcholine -- metabolism
Keywords: Cell Survival -- drug effects
Keywords: Cell Differentiation -- drug effects
Keywords: Metal Nanoparticles -- administration & dosage
Keywords: Neurons -- metabolism
Keywords: Metal Nanoparticles -- toxicity
Keywords: Silver -- toxicity
Keywords: Dopamine -- metabolism
Keywords: Neurogenesis -- drug effects
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Neurogenesis -- physiology
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Neurons -- cytology
Keywords: DNA
Keywords: Oxidative Stress -- drug effects
Keywords: Silver -- administration & dosage
Keywords: Acetylcholine
Keywords: Silver
Keywords: PC12 Cells
Copyright - Copyright National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Jan 2010
Language of summary - English
Pages - 73-9
ProQuest ID - 222625035
Last updated - 2012-03-04
Place of publication - Research Triangle Park
Corporate institution author - Powers, Christina M; Wrench, Nicola; Ryde, Ian T; Smith, Amanda M; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A
DOI - 1943895691; 50348511; 67001; ENHP; 20056586; INODENHP0006208111
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Slotkin TA. 2005. Developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates: a case study of chlorpyrifos. In: Toxicity of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides (Gupta RC, ed). San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press, 293-314.
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Theodore A Slotkin, Emiko A MacKillop, Ian T Ryde, and Frederic J Seidler. "Ameliorating the Developmental Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos: A Mechanisms-Based Approach in PC12 Cells." Environmental Health Perspectives 115:9 Sep 2007: 1306-13
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1071. Prabhakaran, M. and Kelley, R. L. A New Strategy for Isolating Genes Controlling Dosage Compensation in Drosophila Using a Simple Epigenetic Mosaic Eye Phenotype.


Rec #: 50499
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Drosophila Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex contains chromatin modifying enzymes and non-coding roX RNA. It paints the male X at hundreds of bands where it acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16. This epigenetic mark increases expression from the single male X chromosome approximately twofold above what gene-specific factors produce from each female X chromosome. This equalises X-linked gene expression between the sexes. Previous screens for components of dosage compensation relied on a distinctive male-specific lethal phenotype.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: Here, we report a new strategy relying upon an unusual male-specific mosaic eye pigmentation phenotype produced when the MSL complex acts upon autosomal roX1 transgenes. Screening the second chromosome identified at least five loci, two of which are previously described components of the MSL complex. We focused our analysis on the modifier alleles of MSL1 and MLE (for 'maleless'). The MSL1 lesions are not simple nulls, but rather alter the PEHE domain that recruits the MSL3 chromodomain and MOF ('males absent on first') histone acetyltransferase subunits to the complex. These mutants are compromised in their ability to recruit MSL3 and MOF, dosage compensate the X, and support long distance spreading from roX1 transgenes. Yet, paradoxically, they were isolated because they somehow increase MSL complex activity immediately around roX1 transgenes in combination with wild-type MSL1 subunits.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSIONS: We propose that these diverse phenotypes arise from perturbations in assembly of MSL subunits onto nascent roX transcripts. This strategy is a promising alternative route for identifying previously unknown components of the dosage compensation pathway and novel alleles of known MSL proteins.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Base Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: Blotting, Northern
MESH HEADINGS: Blotting, Western
MESH HEADINGS: DNA Primers/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Dosage Compensation, Genetic/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Drosophila Proteins/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Drosophila melanogaster/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Genetic Complementation Test
MESH HEADINGS: Histone Acetyltransferases/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Immunoprecipitation
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Mutagenesis
MESH HEADINGS: Nuclear Proteins/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Ocular Physiological Phenomena/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Pigmentation/genetics/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Sequence Analysis, DNA
MESH HEADINGS: Sex Factors
MESH HEADINGS: Transcription Factors/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: X Chromosome/*genetics/metabolism eng

1072. Prakash, A.; Khan, S.; Aggarwal, M.; Telang, A., and Malik, J. Quercetin and catechin attenuate chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes: Abstracts of the XII International Congress of Toxicology. 2010 Jul 17-; 196, Supplement, (0): S203.


Rec #: 2420
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1073. Prakash, Atul; Khan, Saleem; Aggarwal, Manoj; Telang, Avinash G., and Malik, Jitendra Kumar. Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis in murine thymocytes: Abstracts of the 46th Congress of the European Societies of Toxicology. 2009 Sep 13-; 189, Supplement, (0): S83.


Rec #: 2380
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1074. Pratt, J. R. Aquatic Community Response to Stress: Prediction and Detection of Adverse Effects. 1990: 16-26.


Rec #: 1240
Keywords: REFS CHECKED,REVIEW
Call Number: NO REFS CHECKED (CPY), NO REVIEW (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1075. Pratt, J. R.; Bowers, N. J., and Balczon, J. M. A Microcosm Using Naturally Derived Microbial Communities: Comparative Ecotoxicology. 5113//: 1993: 178-191.


Rec #: 1640
Keywords: REFS CHECKED,REVIEW
Call Number: NO REFS CHECKED (ATZ,CPY,Cu,PCP,Zn,Zn element), NO REVIEW (ATZ,CPY,Cu,PCP,Zn,Zn element)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ATZ,CPY,Cu,PCP,PL,TNT,Zn

1076. Prebble, M. L. Aerial Control of Forest Insects in Canada. SOIL; 2008: 339 p. (Publ As 106268,106269,106235,112462).


Rec #: 1250
Keywords: REFS CHECKED
Call Number: NO REFS CHECKED (CBF,CPY,DMT,DZ,FNT,LINSD,MLN,PPX), NO SKIMMED (CBF,CPY,DMT,DZ,FNT,LINSD,MLN,PPX)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CBF,CPY,DDT,DMT,DZ,FNT,LINSD,MLN,PPX,Pb

1077. Price, Paul S; Schnelle, Karl D; Cleveland, Cheryl B; Bartels, Michael J; Hinderliter, Paul M; Timchalk, Charles; Poet, Torka S, and Schnelle, Karl D. Application of a Source-to-Outcome Model for the Assessment of Health Impacts From Dietary Exposures to Insecticide Residues. 2011 Oct; 61, (1): 23-31.


Rec #: 39379
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The paper presents a case study of the application of a "source-to-outcome" model for the evaluation of the health outcomes from dietary exposures to an insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in populations of adults (age 30) and children (age 3). The model is based on publically-available software programs that characterize the longitudinal dietary exposure and anthropometry of exposed individuals. These predictions are applied to a validated PBPK/PD model to estimate interindividual and longitudinal variation in brain and RBC AChE inhibition (key events) and chlorpyrifos concentrations in blood and TCPy in urine (biomarkers of exposure). The predicted levels of chlorpyrifos and TCPy are compared to published measurements of the biomarkers. Predictions of RBC AChE are compared to levels of inhibition associated with reported exposure-related effects in humans to determine the potential for the occurrence of adverse cholinergic effects. The predicted distributions of chlorpyrifos in blood and TCPy in urine were found to be reasonably consistent with published values, supporting the predictive value of the exposure and PBPK portions of the source-to-outcome model. Key sources of uncertainty in predictions of dietary exposures were investigated and found to have a modest impact on the model predictions. Future versions of this source-to-outcome model can be developed that consider advances in our understanding of metabolism, to extend the approach to other age groups (infants), and address intakes from other routes of exposure.
Keywords: H 6000:Natural Disasters/Civil Defense/Emergency Management
Keywords: Age
Keywords: Parkinson's disease
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Anthropometry
Keywords: Computer programs
Keywords: software
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Medical Sciences--Forensic Sciences
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: Brain
Keywords: Children
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Neurodegenerative diseases
Keywords: Blood
Keywords: Movement disorders
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Metabolism
Keywords: Infants
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 23-31
ProQuest ID - 894630658
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Age; Parkinson's disease; Brain; Children; biomarkers; Models; Chlorpyrifos; Anthropometry; Blood; Computer programs; Neurodegenerative diseases; software; Movement disorders; Insecticides; Urine; Metabolism; Infants; Bioindicators; Diets; Pesticides
Last updated - 2012-01-26
Corporate institution author - Price, Paul S; Schnelle, Karl D; Cleveland, Cheryl B; Bartels, Michael J; Hinderliter, Paul M; Timchalk, Charles; Poet, Torka S
DOI - OB-0e8647c8-5177-42dc-906bcsamfg201; 15673695; 0273-2300 English

1078. Prins, J. M.; George, K. M., and Thompson, C. M. Paraoxon-Induced Protein Expression Changes to SH-SY5Y Cells. 2010; 23, (11): 1656-1662.


Rec #: 67129
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were examined to determine changes in protein expression following exposure to the organophosphate paraoxon (O,O-diethyl-p-nitrophenoxy phosphate). Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to paraoxon (20 mu M) for 48 h showed no significant change in cell viability as established using an MTT assay. Protein expression changes from the paraoxon-treated SH-SY5Y cells were determined using a comparative, subproteome approach by fractionation into cytosolic, membrane, nuclear, and cytoskeletal fractions. The fractionated proteins were separated by 2D-PAGE, identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and expression changes determined by densitometry. Over 400 proteins were separated from the four fractions, and 16 proteins were identified with altered expression >= 1.3-fold including heat shock protein 90 (-1.3-fold), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (+2.8-fold), and H(+) transporting ATP synthase beta chain (-3.1-fold). Western blot analysis conducted on total protein isolates confirmed the expression changes in these three proteins.
Keywords: HUMAN NEUROBLASTOMA-CELLS, ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, CHLORPYRIFOS
ISI Document Delivery No.: 681DJ

1079. Printes, Liane Biehl; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso; Espindola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta, and Printes, Liane Biehl. Laboratory Measurements of Biomarkers and Individual Performances in Chironomus Xanthus to Evaluate Pesticide Contamination of Sediments in a River of Southeastern Brazil. 2011 Mar; 74, (3): 424-430.


Rec #: 47389
Keywords: SEDIMENT CONC
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating biomarkers, individual and population responses in the native Chironomus xanthus to assess the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated sediments from the Monjolinho River (Southeast Brazil). We measured cholinesterase (ChE) and glutathione S-transferase activities (GST), as biomarkers and survival, individual growth and adult emergence, as individual performances. There was no response of the ChE activity and a tendency to decreased GST activity in contaminated sites, but this was generally not statistically significant. Therefore, there was no association of the biomarker responses with exposure to sediment containing pesticides. In contrast, ash free dry mass was significantly increased and male emergence was decreased in C. xanthus exposed to the same sediments. In conclusion, the selected biomarkers were not sensitive and specific enough to detect and anticipate effects of pesticide contamination at the levels measured in the study area. Nevertheless, individual performances alterations pointed to potential pollution problems and possible ecological consequences.
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Statistical analysis
Keywords: Survival
Keywords: Biomarkers
Keywords: Glutathione transferase
Keywords: Cholinesterase
Keywords: Freshwater
Keywords: Growth
Keywords: Ecotoxicology
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: Coenzymes
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pollution
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Rivers
Keywords: Sediment pollution
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Environmental Studies--Toxicology And Environmental Safety
Keywords: Ash
Keywords: Z 05350:Medical, Veterinary, and Agricultural Entomology
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Entomology Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chironomus
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: survival
Date revised - 2011-10-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 424-430
ProQuest ID - 886608552
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Rivers; Sediment pollution; Growth; Ecotoxicology; Contamination; Pesticides; Coenzymes; Toxicity; Biomarkers; Statistical analysis; Survival; Glutathione transferase; Cholinesterase; biomarkers; Pollution; Sediments; Bioindicators; Ash; survival; Chironomus; Freshwater
Last updated - 2011-12-13
Corporate institution author - Printes, Liane Biehl; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso
DOI - OB-7579bf19-d315-46f0-96a7csamfg201; 14514270; CS1147037; 0147-6513 English

1080. Prueitt, R. L.; Goodman, J. E.; Bailey, L. A., and Rhomberg, L. R. Hypothesis-Based Weight-of-Evidence Evaluation of the Neurodevelopmental Effects of Chlorpyrifos. 2011; 41, (10): 822-903.


Rec #: 2210
Keywords: REVIEW
Call Number: NO REVIEW (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1081. Qian, Guoliang; Wang, Limin; Wu, Yunru; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Qin; Liu, Yang, and Liu, Fengquan. A monoclonal antibody-based sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of the organophosphorous pesticides chlorpyrifos-methyl in real samples. 2009 Nov 15-; 117, (2): 364-370.


Rec #: 300
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Chlorpyrifos-methyl hapten, O-methyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphoramidothionte (H1), was synthesized and conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) by the active ester method. Then H1ÇôOVA conjugate was used as coating antigen, while H1ÇôBSA conjugate was used as immunogen for producing monoclonal antibody. After optimisation, a monoclonal antibody-based effective competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and applied for determination of chlorpyrifos-methyl with a novel combination of antibody/antigen, I50 of which was 75.22 ng/ml, limit detection (LD) was 0.32 ng/ml, and there was relative high cross-reactivity (CR) only with chlorpyrifos (1.4%), and CRs with other tested pesticides were all below 1% and regarded as negligible. The recoveries obtained by standard chlorpyrifos-methyl addition to real samples, including grape, Chinese cabbages, water and soil were all from 82.4% to 110.2%. Therefore, the optimised ELISA might become a convenient and satisfied analytical tool for monitoring chlorpyrifos-methyl residues in agriculture ecosystem. Chlopyrifos-methyl/ Monoclonal antibody/ ELISA

1082. Qian, Y. C.; Venkatraj, J.; Barhoumi, R.; Pal, R.; Datta, A.; Wild, J. R., and Tiffany-Castiglioni, E. Comparative non-cholinergic neurotoxic effects of paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) on human neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cell lines. 2007; 219, (2-3): 162-171.


Rec #: 67169
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative non-cholinergic neurotoxic effects of paraoxon, which is acutely neurotoxic, and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), which induces OPIDN, in the human neuroblastoma SY5Y and the human astrocytoma cell line CCF-STTG1. SY5Y cells have been studied extensively as a model for OP-induced neurotoxicity, but CCF cells have not previously been studied. We conducted a preliminary human gene array assay of OP-treated SY5Y cells in order to assess at the gene level whether these cells can distinguish between OP compounds that do and do not cause OPIDN. Paraoxon and DFP induced dramatically different profiles of gene expression. Two genes were upregulated and 13 downregulated by at least 2-fold in paraoxon-treated cells. In contrast, one gene was upregulated by DFP and none was downregulated at the 2-fold threshold. This finding is consistent with current and previous observations that SY5Y cells can distinguish between OPs that do or do not induce OPIDN. We also examined gene array results for possible novel target proteins or metabolic pathways for OP neurotoxicity. Protein levels of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) revealed that paraoxon exposure at 3 mu M for 24 It significantly reduced GRP78 levels by 30% in neuroblastoma cells, whereas DFP treatment had no effect. In comparison with SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, paraoxon and DFP (3 mu M for 24 h) each significantly increased GRP78 levels by 23-24% in CCF astrocytoma cells. As we have previously evaluated intracellular changes in Ca(2+) levels in SY5Y cells, we investigated the effects of paraoxon and DFP on cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in CCF by studying cytosolic and mitochondrial basal calcium levels. A significant decrease in the ratio of mitochondrial to cytosolic Ca(2+) fluorescence was detected in CCF cultures treated for either 1 or 3 days with 1, 3, 10, or 30 mu M paraoxon. In contrast, treatment with DFP for 1 day had no significant effect on the ratio of mitochondrial to cytosolic Ca(2+) fluorescence; after 3 days treatment, only 30 mu M decreased the ratio. These results are consistent with the finding that paraoxon induced a greater decrease than did DFP of intracellular esterase activity in CCF cells. The changes seen in the ratio of mitochondrial to cytosolic Ca(2+) represent a good indicator of the degree of injury induced by each chemical tested. This work further develops in vitro models that distinguish between compounds that cause OPIDN and those that induce acute neurotoxicity only. The study also exposes additional OP-induced toxicities that may be obscured in vivo. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: paraoxon, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, organophosphates, neurotoxicity,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 145VF

1083. Quandt, S. A.; Chen, H. Y.; Grzywacz, J. G.; Vallejos, Q. M.; Galvan, L., and Arcury, T. A. Cholinesterase Depression and Its Association with Pesticide Exposure across the Agricultural Season among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina. 2010; 118, (5): 635-639.


Rec #: 67179
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: Farmworkers can be exposed to a wide variety of pesticides. Assessing cholinesterase activity over time can be used to monitor exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to document patterns and variation in cholinesterase levels across the agricultural season (May-August) among field-workers, and to explore the association of cholinesterase depression with pesticide exposure across the agricultural season. METHODS: Dried blood samples collected from 231 migrant farmworkers sampled from camps in eastern North Carolina up to four times across a summer agricultural season were analyzed for cholinesterase activity, and urine samples were analyzed for metabolites of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Reductions of >= 15% from an individual's highest value were identified and considered evidence of meaningful cholinesterase activity depression. RESULTS: The average cholinesterase activity levels were lowest in June, with significantly higher mean values in July and August. When adjusted for age, sex, minutes waited to shower, and days worked in the fields, the number of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides detected in urine predicted reductions in cholinesterase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that workers are experiencing pesticide exposure. Greater enforcement of existing safety regulations or strengthening of these regulations may be warranted. This study demonstrates that serial measurements of cholinesterase activity across an agricultural season can detect exposure to pesticides among field-workers.
Keywords: cholinesterase, farmworker, pesticide
ISI Document Delivery No.: 598OF

1084. Querejeta, G. A.; Ramos, L. M.; Flores, A. P.; Hughes, E. A.; Zalts, A., and Montserrat, J. M. Environmental Pesticide Distribution in Horticultural and Floricultural Periurban Production Units. SOIL; 2012; 87, (5): 566-572.


Rec #: 2840
Keywords: FATE
Call Number: NO FATE (CPY,CTN,DM,ES)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,CTN,DM,ES

1085. Quintero, A.; Caselles, M. J.; Ettiene, G.; de Colmenares, N. G.; Ramirez, T., and Medina, D. Monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables of agricultural area in Venezuela. 2008; 81, (4): 393-396.


Rec #: 67209
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the residues of seven pesticides organophosphorus (methamidophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos, parathion-methyl, dimethoate, malathion and tetrachlorvinphos), in some vegetables like: potato, lettuce, tomato, onion, red pepper and green onion cultivated in Jose Maria Vargas County in Taichira State, Venezuela. The research permitted to detect that 48.0% of the samples were contaminated with some of the pesticides studied. Methamidophos was founded in the vegetables in the rank of 6.3%-65.5%. The results show that 16.7% of the samples tested have residues higher than the maximum limits permitted.
Keywords: monitoring vegetables, pesticides organophosphorus
ISI Document Delivery No.: 348YS

1086. Quiros-Alcala, L.; Alkon, A. D.; Boyce, W. T.; Lippert, S.; Davis, N. V.; Bradman, A.; Barr, D. B., and Eskenazi, B. Maternal prenatal and child organophosphate pesticide exposures and children's autonomic function. 2011; 32, (5): 646-655.


Rec #: 67219
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background: Organophosphate pesticides (OP), because of their effects on cholinergic fibers, may interfere with the functions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). We conducted a study to assess the relation of in utero and child OP pesticide exposures and children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation under resting and challenge conditions. We hypothesized that children with high OP levels would show parasympathetic activation and no sympathetic activation during rest and concomitant parasympathetic and sympathetic activation during challenging conditions. Methods: OP exposures were assessed by measuring urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAPs, total diethyls-DEs, and total dimethyls-DMs) in maternal and children's spot urine samples. ANS regulation was examined in relation to maternal and child DAPs in 149 children at 6 months and 1 year, 97 at 3 1/2 years and 274 at 5 years. We assessed resting and reactivity (i.e., challenge minus rest) measures using heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period (PEP) during the administration of a standardized protocol. Cross-sectional (at each age) and longitudinal regression models were conducted to assess OP and ANS associations. To estimate cumulative exposure at 5 years, we used an area-under-the-concentration-time-curve (AUC) methodology. We also evaluated whether children with consistently high versus low DAP concentrations had significantly different mean ANS scores at 5 years. Results: Child DMs and DAPs were significantly negatively associated with resting RSA at 6 months and maternal DMs and child DEs were significantly positively associated with resting PEP at 1 year. No associations with resting were observed in 3 1/2- or 5-year-old children nor with reactivity at any age. There was no significant relationship between the reactivity profiles and maternal or child DAPs. Cumulative maternal total DEs were associated with low HR (-3.19 bpm decrease: 95% CI: -6.29 to -0.09, p = 0.04) only at 5 years. In addition, there were no significant differences in ANS measures for 5-year-olds with consistently high versus low DAPs. Conclusion: Although we observe some evidence of ANS dysregulation in infancy, we report no consistent associations of maternal and child OP pesticide exposure, as measured by urinary DAPs, on children's ANS (HR, RSA, and PEP) regulation during resting and challenging conditions up to age 5 years. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Autonomic nervous system (ANS), Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA),
ISI Document Delivery No.: 843KX

1087. Quiros-Alcala, Lesliam; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Kimberly; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Barr, Dana Boyd; Nishioka, Marcia; Castorina, Rosemary; Hubbard, Alan E; Nicas, Mark; Hammond, S Katharine; Mckone, Thomas E; Eskenazi, Brenda, and Quiros-Alcala, Lesliam. Organophosphorous Pesticide Breakdown Products in House Dust and Children's Urine. 2012 Nov; 22, (6): 559-568.


Rec #: 42449
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Human exposure to preformed dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in food or the environment may affect the reliability of DAP urinary metabolites as biomarkers of organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure. We conducted a study to investigate the presence of DAPs in indoor residential environments and their association with children's urinary DAP levels. We collected dust samples from homes in farmworker and urban communities (40 homes total, n=79 samples) and up to two urine samples from resident children ages 3-6 years. We measured six DAPs in all samples and eight DAP-devolving OP pesticides in a subset of dust samples (n=54). DAPs were detected in dust with diethylphosphate (DEP) being the most frequently detected ( greater than or equal to 60%); detection frequencies for other DAPs were less than or equal to 50%. DEP dust concentrations did not significantly differ between communities, nor were concentrations significantly correlated with concentrations of chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the most frequently detected diethyl-OP pesticides (Spearman rho =-0.41 to 0.38, P>0.05). Detection of DEP, chlorpyrifos, or diazinon, was not associated with DEP and/or DEP+diethylthiophosphate detection in urine (Kappa coefficients=-0.33 to 0.16). Finally, estimated non-dietary ingestion intake from DEP in dust was found to be less than or equal to 5% of the dose calculated from DEP levels in urine, suggesting that ingestion of dust is not a significant source of DAPs in urine if they are excreted unchanged.
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Age
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Food
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Ingestion
Keywords: Children
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: Dust
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: House dust
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Diazinon
Date revised - 2012-12-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 559-568
ProQuest ID - 1257736235
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Age; House dust; Urine; Food; Pesticides; Metabolites; organophosphates; Children; biomarkers; Diazinon; Dust; Bioindicators; Organophosphates; Ingestion
Last updated - 2013-01-11
British nursing index edition - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 559-568. Nov 2012.
Corporate institution author - Quiros-Alcala, Lesliam; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Kimberly; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Barr, Dana Boyd; Nishioka, Marcia; Castorina, Rosemary; Hubbard, Alan E; Nicas, Mark; Hammond, S Katharine; McKone, Thomas E; Eskenazi, Brenda
DOI - 987b291e-2d0a-4cdf-b11dmfgefd101; 17410885; 1559-0631 English

1088. Quiros Alcala, Lesliam and Eskenazi, Brenda Nicas Mark. Children's Residential Exposures to Flame Retardants, Pesticides and Pesticide Degradation Products, and the Relationship of Pesticides With Autonomic Nervous System Functioning. 2010.


Rec #: 51709
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Protecting children's environmental health is a significant public health challenge given children's unique exposure pathways and special vulnerabilities to environmental contaminants compared to adults. This dissertation focused on topics surrounding children's environmental health research with an emphasis on exposure assessment and application in an epidemiologic investigation. The environmental contaminants that this work focused on included pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to children's environmental health and highlights the background and significance and specific aims for each study/chapter. Chapter 2 focuses on children's residential exposures via house dust to pesticides and PBDEs in low-income homes. House dust was used to assess indoor residential exposures to these environmental contaminants given that for young children this medium serves as a reservoir for contaminants tracked-in or used indoors and a source of non-dietary ingestion. In this study, concentrations for 24 pesticides, one pesticide synergist, and three PBDE congeners (major constituents of the pentaBDE flame retardant commercial mixture commonly used on furniture) were measured in house dust samples from farmworker and urban homes in California. Pesticides frequently detected in most homes included: organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) which were voluntarily phased-out for residential uses prior to this study by the urging of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); pyrethroids such as permethrins, allethrins, cypermethrins; and the synergist piperonyl butoxide. Interestingly, chlorthal-dimethyl was detected solely in farmworker homes, suggesting contamination due to regional agricultural use. In chapter 3 the presence in the environment of dialkylphosphates (DAPs), non-specific urinary OP pesticide metabolites, and their relation to children's urinary DAP metabolites was investigated. Although DAPs were found to be present in the environment, as assessed in house dust, this medium may not play a significant contribution to the DAPs observed in children's urine. The non-dietary ingestion exposure route for environmental DAPs was estimated to be ≤5% of the dose calculated from DAP levels in children's urine. The distribution of concentrations of diethyl and dimethyl DAPs in dust differed from those observed in children's urine, a finding suggesting that DAPs behave differently in the environment and in the body. However, if humans excrete DAPs unchanged then it is possible for urinary DAPs to reflect exposure to both OP pesticides and DAPs present in one's environment and/or food. Results from this study indicate other sources and pathways, such as DAPs in food, may impact urinary DAP levels more significantly than DAPs in dust. More research is needed on the pharmacokinetics and toxicodynamics of preformed DAPs and other specific OP metabolites to determine the extent of their contribution to urinary biomarkers in humans. In chapter 4 the effects of early life exposures to OP pesticides, as assessed by urinary DAP metabolites, on children's autonomic dysregulation (concomitant sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal) were assessed at several time points (i.e., when children were 6 months and 1, 31⁄2 and 5 years of age). This is the first study to use ANS response measures as outcomes to investigate the association between OP pesticide exposures in children and ANS regulation. The study population was part of the Center for Children's Environmental Health Research longitudinal birth cohort study (CHAMACOS). Children in this cohort live in the Salinas Valley, an agricultural region in California with intense OP pesticide use and were predominantly from Mexico or Mexican-American. Children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) function was assessed using resting and reactivity measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), pre-ejection period (PEP), and heart rate (HR), while OP pesticide exposures were assessed in utero and postnatally by using urinary DAPs. Although the results suggest that OP pesticides at the exposure levels observed are not associated with children's ANS dysregulation, the study focused on a relatively demographically and ethnically homogeneous study population; thus, the results may not be generalizable to other populations. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Start Page: 138
ISSN/ISBN: 9781124141626
Keywords: Autonomic nervous system
Keywords: Dialkylphosphates
Keywords: Psychology
Keywords: Flame retardants
Keywords: 0383:Toxicology
Keywords: 0354:Occupational health
Keywords: Biomarkers
Keywords: Children
Keywords: 0768:Environmental science
Keywords: 0383:Surgery
Keywords: 0470:Environmental Health
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Health and environmental sciences
Keywords: 0349:Psychobiology
Keywords: Farmworkers
Keywords: Residential exposures
Keywords: Degradation products
9781124141626
Psychology
0349: Psychobiology
Biomarkers
0383: Surgery
0354: Occupational health
Quiros Alcala, Lesliam
3413465
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2010
0768: Environmental science
2010
Health and environmental sciences
749203507
Farmworkers
Residential exposures
Autonomic nervous system
Dialkylphosphates
Flame retardants
0383: Toxicology
66569
Children
n/a
English
54157841
0470: Environmental Health
Pesticides
2127254621
Degradation products
2012-07-05 English

1089. QuirăłS-Alcalăˇ, Lesliam; Bradman, Asa; Nishioka, Marcia; Harnly, Martha E; Hubbard, Alan; Mckone, Thomas E; Ferber, Jeannette, and Eskenazi, Brenda. Pesticides in House Dust From Urban and Farmworker Households in California: an Observational Measurement Study. 2011; 10, (1): 19.


Rec #: 43619
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Abstract Background: Studies report that residential use of pesticides in low-income homes is common because of poor housing conditions and pest infestations; however, exposure data on contemporary-use pesticides in low-income households is limited. We conducted a study in low-income homes from urban and agricultural communities to: characterize and compare house dust levels of agricultural and residential-use pesticides; evaluate the correlation of pesticide concentrations in samples collected several days apart; examine whether concentrations of pesticides phased-out for residential uses, but still used in agriculture (i.e., chlorpyrifos and diazinon) have declined in homes in the agricultural community; and estimate resident children's pesticide exposures via inadvertent dust ingestion. Methods: In 2006, we collected up to two dust samples 5-8 days apart from each of 13 urban homes in Oakland, California and 15 farmworker homes in Salinas, California, an agricultural community (54 samples total). We measured 22 insecticides including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diazinon-oxon, malathion, methidathion, methyl parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos) and pyrethroids (allethrin-two isomers, bifenthrin, cypermethrin-four isomers, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, imiprothrin, permethrin-two isomers, prallethrin, and sumithrin), one phthalate herbicide (chlorthal-dimethyl), one dicarboximide fungicide (iprodione), and one pesticide synergist (piperonyl butoxide). Results: More than half of the households reported applying pesticides indoors. Analytes frequently detected in both locations included chlorpyrifos, diazinon, permethrin, allethrin, cypermethrin, and piperonyl butoxide; no differences in concentrations or loadings were observed between locations for these analytes. Chlorthal-dimethyl was detected solely in farmworker homes, suggesting contamination due to regional agricultural use. Concentrations in samples collected 5-8 days apart in the same home were strongly correlated for the majority of the frequently detected analytes (Spearman ρ = 0.70-1.00, p < 0.01). Additionally, diazinon and chlorpyrifos concentrations in Salinas farmworker homes were 40-80% lower than concentrations reported in samples from Salinas farmworker homes studied between 2000-2002, suggesting a temporal reduction after their residential phase-out. Finally, estimated non-dietary pesticide intake for resident children did not exceed current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) recommended chronic reference doses (RfDs). Conclusion: Low-income children are potentially exposed to a mixture of pesticides as a result of poorer housing quality. Historical or current pesticide use indoors is likely to contribute to ongoing exposures. Agricultural pesticide use may also contribute to additional exposures to some pesticides in rural areas. Although children's non-dietary intake did not exceed U.S. EPA RfDs for select pesticides, this does not ensure that children are free of any health risks as RfDs have their own limitations, and the children may be exposed indoors via other pathways. The frequent pesticide use reported and high detection of several home-use pesticides in house dust suggests that families would benefit from integrated pest management strategies to control pests and minimize current and future exposures.
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Pesticides -- analysis
Keywords: Dust -- analysis
Keywords: Housing
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Environmental Exposure -- analysis
Keywords: Child
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants -- analysis
Keywords: Diazinon -- analysis
Keywords: Dust
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Environmental Pollutants
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Socioeconomic Factors
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- analysis
Keywords: California
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Adult
Keywords: Mexican Americans
Keywords: Time Factors
Keywords: Diazinon
Copyright - © 2011 Quirós-Alcalá et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Language of summary - English
Pages - 19
ProQuest ID - 902388256
Last updated - 2012-03-07
Place of publication - London
Corporate institution author - Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Bradman, Asa; Nishioka, Marcia; Harnly, Martha E; Hubbard, Alan; McKone, Thomas E; Ferber, Jeannette; Eskenazi, Brenda
DOI - 2504416041; 65401881; 58366; ENVH; 21410986; BMDDENVH201101011476069X1019
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1090. Radio, N. M.; Freudenrich, T. M.; Robinette, B. L.; Crofton, K. M., and Mundy, W. R. Comparison of PC12 and cerebellar granule cell cultures for evaluating neurite outgrowth using high content analysis. 2010; 32, (1): 25-35.


Rec #: 67259
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Development of high-throughput assays for chemical screening and hazard identification is a pressing priority worldwide. One approach uses in vitro, cell-based assays which recapitulate biological events observed in vivo. Neurite outgrowth is one such critical cellular process underlying nervous system development that can be quantified using automated microscopy and image analysis (high content analysis). The present study characterized and compared the PC-12 cell line (NS-1) and primary cultures of cerebellar granular cells (CGC), as models for assessing chemical effects on neurite outgrowth. High content analysis of neurite outgrowth was performed using the Cellomics ArrayScan V(Ti) automated epifluorescent imaging system to acquire and analyze images of beta-tubulin immunostained cells in 96-well plates. Cell viability was assessed using the CellTiter-Glo (R) assay. Culture of NS-1 or CGC in nerve growth factor or serum respectively, rapidly induced neurite outgrowth that increased over four days in vitro. Seven compounds previously shown to affect neurite outgrowth in vitro were tested in both models for changes in total neurite length and cell viability. In NS-1 cells, four chemicals (PKC inhibitor Bis-I, MEK inhibitor U0126, trans-Retinoic acid, methylmercury) inhibited neurite outgrowth, while lead, amphetamine and valproic acid had no effect. In CGC, five chemicals inhibited neurite outgrowth (
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