Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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This treatment also achieved the highest percentage of reduction in toxicity, monitored with Vibrio fischeri.)
Keywords: A 01340:Antibiotics & Antimicrobials
Keywords: Biodegradation
Keywords: Glucose
Keywords: Nutrients
Keywords: Proteus vulgaris
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Pseudomonas putida
Keywords: Methyl parathion
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Keywords: Stenotrophomonas
Keywords: Bacillus
Keywords: Vibrio fischeri
Keywords: Sugar
Keywords: Biodeterioration
Keywords: Flavobacterium
Keywords: Citrobacter freundii
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Soil pollution
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Klebsiella
Keywords: W 30950:Waste Treatment & Pollution Clean-up
Keywords: Acinetobacter
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Microbiology Abstracts A: Industrial & Applied Microbiology; Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
Keywords: Microorganisms
Keywords: Biology
Date revised - 2012-02-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 827-831
ProQuest ID - 909770849
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Soil; Soil pollution; Chlorpyrifos; Sugar; Biodeterioration; Biodegradation; Pesticides; Glucose; Microorganisms; Nutrients; Toxicity; Methyl parathion; Proteus vulgaris; Klebsiella; Acinetobacter; Flavobacterium; Citrobacter freundii; Pseudomonas putida; Stenotrophomonas; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Bacillus; Vibrio fischeri
Last updated - 2012-02-23
Corporate institution author - Pino, Nancy; Penuela, Gustavo
DOI - OB-e7c8afe6-fa9b-4284-86c0csamfg201; 15587227; 0964-8305 English

1050. Pino Rodr+ˇguez, N. J. and Pe+_uela Mesa, G. A. Isolation of a selected microbial consortium from a contaminated site soil capable of degrading the pesticides methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos: Abstracts of the 14th European Congress on BiotechnologyBarcelona, Spain 13Çô16 September, 2009. 2009 Sep; 25, Supplement, (0): S53.

Rec #: 2590
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1051. Pinto, A. P.; Serrano, C.; Pires, T.; Mestrinho, E.; Dias, L.; Teixeira, D. M., and Caldeira, A. T. Degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin pesticides by selected fungi cultures. 2012; 435, 402-410.

Rec #: 66889
Keywords: NO EFFECT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Contamination of waters by xenobiotic compounds such as pesticides presents a serious environmental problem with substantial levels of pesticides now contaminating European water resources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus oryzae, Lentinula edodes, Penicillium brevicompactum and Lecanicillium saksenae, for the biodegradation of the pesticides terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. These pesticides are common soil and water contaminants and terbuthylazine is considered the most persistent triazine herbicide in surface environments. P. brevicompactum and L. saksenae were achieved by enrichment, isolation and screening of fungi capable to metabolize the pesticides studied. The isolates were obtained from two pesticide-primed materials (soil and biomixture). Despite the relatively high persistence of terbuthylazine, the results obtained in this work showed that the fungi species studied have a high capability of biotransformation of this xenobiotic, comparatively the results obtained in other similar studies. The highest removal percentage of terbuthylazine from liquid medium was achieved with A. oryzae (similar to 80%), although the major biodegradation has been reached with P. brevicompactum. The higher ability of P. brevicompactum to metabolize terbuthylazine was presumably acquired through chronic exposure to contamination with the herbicide. L. saksenae could remove 99.5% of the available pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. L. edodes proved to be a fungus with a high potential for biodegradation of pesticides, especially difenoconazole and pendimethalin. Furthermore, the metabolite desethyl-terbuthylazine was detected in L. edodes liquid culture medium, indicating terbuthylazine biodegradation by this fungus. The fungi strains investigated could prove to be valuable as active pesticide-degrading microorganisms, increasing the efficiency of biopurification systems containing wastewaters contaminated with the xenobiotics studied or compounds with similar intrinsic characteristics. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Biodegradation, Difenoconazole, Fungi, Pendimethalin, Terbuthylazine
ISI Document Delivery No.: 028AV

1052. Pisani, J. M. Pesticide Impact on Non-Target Wildlife in Irrigated Crops: Simulated Impact of Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides on White-Winged Doves in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. 2006: 134 p.

Rec #: 2180
Notes: Chemical of Concern: AZ,CPY,DMT,MP,OML

1053. Pliotas, C.; Ward, R.; Branigan, E.; Rasmussen, A.; Hagelueken, G.; Huang, H.; Black, S. S.; Booth, I. R.; Schiemann, O., and Naismith, J. H. Conformational State of the Mscs Mechanosensitive Channel in Solution Revealed by Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (Peldor) Spectroscopy.

Rec #: 49959
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: The heptameric mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) provides a critical function in Escherichia coli where it opens in response to increased bilayer tension. Three approaches have defined different closed and open structures of the channel, resulting in mutually incompatible models of gating. We have attached spin labels to cysteine mutants on key secondary structural elements specifically chosen to discriminate between the competing models. The resulting pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectra matched predicted distance distributions for the open crystal structure of MscS. The fit for the predictions by structural models of MscS derived by other techniques was not convincing. The assignment of MscS as open in detergent by PELDOR was unexpected but is supported by two crystal structures of spin-labeled MscS. PELDOR is therefore shown to be a powerful experimental tool to interrogate the conformation of transmembrane regions of integral membrane proteins.
MESH HEADINGS: Blotting, Western
MESH HEADINGS: Chromatography, Gel
MESH HEADINGS: Crystallography
MESH HEADINGS: Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
MESH HEADINGS: Escherichia coli Proteins/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Ion Channels/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: *Models, Molecular
MESH HEADINGS: Mutagenesis
MESH HEADINGS: Patch-Clamp Techniques
MESH HEADINGS: *Protein Conformation
MESH HEADINGS: Sequence Analysis, DNA
MESH HEADINGS: Spectrum Analysis/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Spin Labels eng

1054. Pohanka, Miroslav; Drtinova, Lucie; Kuca, Kamil, and Pohanka, Miroslav. Acetylcholinesterase Based Assay of Eleven Organophosphorus Pesticides: Finding of Assay Limitations. 2012 Jan; 92, ( 1): 125-132.

Rec #: 42949
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The study includes findings about limitations of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) based assay. Eleven organophosphorus pesticides: chlorpyrifos ethyl, chlorpyrifos methyl, DFP, dichlorvos, dimethoate, fenthion, paraoxon ethyl, paraoxon methyl, phosalone, pirimiphos methyl and pirimiphos ethyl were photometrically assayed using AChE as a recognition element. The study was carried out in order to find approachability of AChE based assay. In the first round, common organic solvents were tested for interfering in assay, since samples collection and extraction is a necessary part in samples processing. Isopropanol was found as the most convenient due to minimal inhibition not exceeding 5%. Though all analysed pesticides inhibit AChE in vivo, some of them are toxic after metabolisation. We found AChE based assay approachable for assay of DFP, paraoxons, and dichlorvos. These are oxoforms of organophosphorus pesticides. From thioforms of assayed pesticides, only fenthion was able significantly inhibit AChE in vitro. Electrochemical biosensor with AChE attached on platinum electrode was used for confirmation of interaction pesticide - AChE and complex stability estimation. DFP, paraoxons and dichlorvos were allowed to interact with AChE in biosensor. These pesticides were settled firmly in AChE active site as no spontaneous recovery of AChE activity was observed.
Keywords: Biosensors
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: Electrodes
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Platinum
Keywords: Solvents
Keywords: dichlorvos
Keywords: Assays
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Keywords: dimethoate
Date revised - 2012-04-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 125-132
ProQuest ID - 1008843650
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Biosensors; Chlorpyrifos; Electrodes; Pesticides; Platinum; Solvents; dichlorvos; Assays; dimethoate
Last updated - 2012-05-18
British nursing index edition - International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry [Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem.]. Vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 125-132. Jan 2012.
Corporate institution author - Pohanka, Miroslav; Drtinova, Lucie; Kuca, Kamil
DOI - 04803e59-5524-4693-b0c8mfgefd108; 16536527; 0306-7319; 1029-0397 English

1055. Poissant, L; Beauvais, C; Lafrance, P; Deblois, C, and Poissant, L. Pesticides in Fluvial Wetlands Catchments Under Intensive Agricultural Activities. 2008 Oct 1; 404, (1): 182-195.

Rec #: 45559
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A survey on pesticides (73 compounds) in the Bay St. Francois wetland and its catchment (part of the wetlands of Lake St. Pierre area [St. Lawrence River, Quebec]) was achieved in 2006. The metabolites as well as the active ingredients of pesticides (11 compounds) were detected in the wetland and its catchment. This wetland ecosystem was active in the degradation of agricultural pesticides (e.g., atrazine). The measured pesticides were individually below the criteria for aquatic species in natural water, except chlorpyrifos. Overall, the pesticides lost from agricultural field towards the streams were <1% of the quantity applied. The environmental fates of the pesticides were found to vary according to the size of the watershed. Over large catchments, half-life times were important in terms of global loss from the agricultural lands to wetlands whereas over small catchments, soil organic carbon/water distribution coefficient (Koc) was an important term for pesticides losses to water system since half-life times were not limiting factors.
Keywords: Catchment area
Keywords: Molecular structure
Keywords: Organic carbon
Keywords: ENA 12:Oceans & Estuaries
Keywords: Radioactive Half-life
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Watersheds
Keywords: Streams
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: Q5 01523:Conservation, wildlife management and recreation
Keywords: Lakes
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: SW 3060:Water treatment and distribution
Keywords: Wetlands
Keywords: Agricultural runoff
Keywords: Canada, Quebec
Keywords: Organic Carbon
Keywords: Catchment Areas
Keywords: AQ 00005:Underground Services and Water Use
Keywords: agricultural land
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Limiting factors
Keywords: Canada, Quebec, St. Lawrence R.
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Natural Waters
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Atrazine
Keywords: Catchments
Date revised - 2011-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Canada, Quebec; Canada, Quebec, St. Lawrence R.
Pages - 182-195
ProQuest ID - 293820222
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Molecular structure; Catchment area; Organic carbon; Pesticides; Metabolites; Wetlands; Limiting factors; Watersheds; Agricultural runoff; agricultural land; Herbicides; Streams; Soil; Chlorpyrifos; Lakes; Atrazine; Catchments; Natural Waters; Agricultural Chemicals; Organic Carbon; Catchment Areas; Radioactive Half-life; Canada, Quebec; Canada, Quebec, St. Lawrence R.
Last updated - 2012-08-02
Corporate institution author - Poissant, L; Beauvais, C; Lafrance, P; Deblois, C
DOI - OB-MD-0008496972; 8515475; CS0861381; 0048-9697 English

1056. Poletika, N N; Coody, P N; Fox, G a; Sabbagh, G J; Dolder, S C; White, J, and Poletika, N N. Chlorpyrifos and Atrazine Removal From Runoff by Vegetated Filter Strips: Experiments and Predictive Modeling. 2009; 38, (3): 1042-1052.

Rec #: 41629
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Runoff volume and flow concentration are hydrological factors that limit effectiveness of vegetated filter strips (VFS) in removing pesticides from surface runoff. Empirical equations that predict VFS pesticide effectiveness based solely on physical characteristics are insufficient on the event scale because they do not completely account for hydrological processes. This research investigated the effect of drainage area ratio (i.e., the ratio of field area to VFS area) and flow concentration (i.e., uniform versus concentrated flow) on pesticide removal efficiency of a VFS and used these data to provide further field verification of a recently proposed numerical/empirical modeling procedure for predicting removal efficiency under variable flow conditions. Runoff volumes were used to simulate drainage area ratios of 15:1 and 30:1. Flow concentration was investigated based on size of the VFS by applying artificial runoff to 10% of the plot width (i.e., concentrated flow) or the full plot width (i.e., uniform flow). Artificial runoff was metered into 4.6-m long VFS plots for 90 min after a simulated rainfall of 63 mm applied over 2 h. The artificial runoff contained sediment and was dosed with chlorpyrifos and atrazine. Pesticide removal efficiency of VFS for uniform flow conditions (59% infiltration; 88% sediment removal) was 85% for chlorpyrifos and 62% for atrazine. Flow concentration reduced removal efficiencies regardless of drainage area ratio (i.e., 16% infiltration, 31% sediment removal, 21% chlorpyrifos removal, and 12% atrazine removal). Without calibration, the predictive modeling based on the integrated VFSMOD and empirical hydrologic-based pesticide trapping efficiency equation predicted atrazine and chlorpyrifos removal efficiency under uniform and concentrated flow conditions. Consideration for hydrological processes, as opposed to statistical relationships based on buffer physical characteristics, is required to adequately predict VFS pesticide trapping efficiency.
Keywords: Prediction
Keywords: Flow
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: ENA 09:Land Use & Planning
Keywords: buffers
Keywords: Rainfall
Keywords: Uniform Flow
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Keywords: AQ 00004:Water Treatment
Keywords: Environmental factors
Keywords: Efficiency
Keywords: Hydrologic Models
Keywords: Agricultural Chemicals
Keywords: Drainage Area
Keywords: Modelling
Keywords: Sediment pollution
Keywords: Mathematical models
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Filters
Keywords: Atrazine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Infiltration
Keywords: Runoff
Date revised - 2009-07-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1042-1052
ProQuest ID - 20752394
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Prediction; Sediment pollution; Mathematical models; Pesticides; Herbicides; Environmental factors; Runoff; Modelling; Filters; Chlorpyrifos; Efficiency; buffers; Rainfall; Atrazine; Infiltration; Flow; Hydrologic Models; Agricultural Chemicals; Uniform Flow; Drainage Area; Sediments
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Environmental Quality [J. Environ. Qual.]. Vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 1042-1052. 2009.
Corporate institution author - Poletika, N N; Coody, P N; Fox, G A; Sabbagh, G J; Dolder, S C; White, J
DOI - MD-0010064948; 10188667; CS0945300; 0047-2425; 1537-2537 English

1057. Poletika, N. N.; Woodburn, K. B., and Henry, K. S. An Ecological Risk Assessment for Chlorpyrifos in an Agriculturally Dominated Tributary of the San Joaquin River. 2002; 22, (2): 291-308.

Rec #: 2790
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,DZ,MDT

1058. Poletika, Nicholas N; Teply, Mark; Dominguez, Lawrence G; Cramer, Steven P; Schocken, Mark J; Habig, Clifford; Kern, Matthew; Ochoa-Acuă±a, Hugo, and Mitchell, Gary C. A Spatially and Temporally Explicit Risk Assessment for Salmon From a Prey Base Exposed to Agricultural Insecticides. 2012 Apr; 8, (2 ): 285.

Rec #: 46789
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This risk assessment applied a framework for determining probable co-occurrence of juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) with agricultural pesticides in the Willamette Basin, Oregon (Teply et al. this issue) to characterize risk to the threatened population. The assessment accounted for spatial and temporal distribution of 6 acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides in salmonid habitat within the basin and their relative contributions to mixture toxicity estimated from chemical monitoring data. The 6 insecticides were chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, carbaryl, carbofuran, and methomyl. Seasonal distributions of the juvenile salmon prey base across the basin were determined and compared to co-occurrence with the insecticide mixture to determine the probability of prey reduction and reduced production of juvenile fish. Probability of effect on freshwater aquatic invertebrates was based on acute toxicity species sensitivity distributions (normalized to the most potent compound, chlorpyrifos) using a novel approach to apply the toxicological concept of concentration addition to species sensitivity distributions with differing slopes. The chlorpyrifos distribution was then used to determine relative sensitivity among various species tested within the important taxa making up the prey base. A prey base index was devised, incorporating diet composition and prey availability, to evaluate the indirect effects of the insecticide mixture on juvenile salmon production occurring as a result of a reduction in the prey base. Our analysis targeted fish use of backwater and off-channel habitat units, because they generally coincide with agricultural lands in lowlands and represent shallow habitat with limited water exchange. The percentage of agricultural land use within 300 m of critical habitat stream reaches was used to scale chemical measurement data from a site with high agricultural land use across the full extent of the basin to provide estimates of chemical exposure in each reach. Seasonal impacts were evaluated from mean monthly concentrations. Stressor impact on 5 key taxa was evaluated at each time step and for each reach, and the outcome was compared to a conservation threshold assigned to the prey base index. Only 13% of juveniles reared in backwater, off-channel habitat within 300 m of agricultural land. Percent reduction of carrying capacity as a consequence of reduced prey was estimated to be 5% over the entire brood year. This can be considered lost capacity that is probably compensated elsewhere via increased occupancy (emigration to other habitat units within the reach), which is not accounted for in the model. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Keywords: Oregon
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Copyright - Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Apr 2012
Language of summary - English
Location - Oregon
ProQuest ID - 940861460
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Oregon
Last updated - 2012-03-26
Place of publication - Oxford
Corporate institution author - Poletika, Nicholas N; Teply, Mark; Dominguez, Lawrence G; Cramer, Steven P; Schocken, Mark J; Habig, Clifford; Kern, Matthew; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; Mitchell, Gary C
DOI - 2618299701; 68187852; 68222; IEAM; INODIEAM0000536948 English

1059. Polidoro, Ba; Morra, Mj; Ruepert, C; Castillo, Le, and Polidoro, BA. Pesticide Sequestration in Passive Samplers (Spmds): Considerations for Deployment Time, Biofouling, and Stream Flow in a Tropical Watershed. 2009 Oct; 11, (10): 1866-1874.

Rec #: 40989
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) provide an informative and cost-effective approach for monitoring contaminants in remote tropical streams. Estimation and interpretation of contaminant concentrations in streams derived from SPMDs can vary based on a number of environmental factors, including stream flow, biofouling, and deployment time. In three one-month long trials, SPMDs were concurrently deployed for 4, 15, and 28 days at three stream sites in an extensive agricultural area of southeastern Costa Rica. Water, bottom sediment, and suspended solids grab samples were also collected and several environmental variables were monitored at corresponding time intervals during each month-long study period. At all three sites, SPMD concentrations of the widely used insecticide chlorpyrifos increased with deployment time, with no relationship between SPMD biofouling and pesticide sequestration. Differences in SPMD chlorpyrifos sequestration among sites are likely due to differences in stream chlorpyrifos concentration rather than differences in SPMD sampling rates. The longer exposure period of SPMDs allowed for the detection of lower concentrations of chlorpyrifos, terbufos, and difenoconazole compared to water grab samples. In addition to the use of appropriate performance reference compounds (PRCs), other environmental variables such as stream turbidity, flow regime, stream morphology, and knowledge of pesticide application methods are important considerations for optimizing SPMD deployment and data interpretation in tropical regions.
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Suspended solids
Keywords: Pollution monitoring
Keywords: J1P
Keywords: J1T
Keywords: Costa Rica
Keywords: J1G
Keywords: EE 30:Soil Pollution: Monitoring, Control & Remediation
Keywords: SW 3030:Effects of pollution
Keywords: Streams
Keywords: Water Resources Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Tropical environments
Keywords: Economics
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: stream flow
Keywords: Turbidity
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Location - J1G; Costa Rica
Pages - 1866-1874
ProQuest ID - 294034007
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - J1T; J1G; Costa Rica; J1P; Pesticides; Streams; Chlorpyrifos; stream flow; Pollution monitoring; Turbidity; Suspended solids; Economics; Tropical environments
Last updated - 2011-10-26
Corporate institution author - Polidoro, BA; Morra, MJ; Ruepert, C; Castillo, LE
DOI - OB-MD-0011157661; 11292055; CS1000102; 1464-0325 English

1060. Polidoro, Beth A.; Dahlquist, Ruth M.; Castillo, Luisa E.; Morra, Matthew J.; Somarriba, Eduardo, and Bosque-P+_rez, Nilsa A. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cab+_car Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica. 2008 Sep; 108, (1): 98-106.

Rec #: 4900
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cab+_car Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cab+_car Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets, suggesting a lack of appropriate application knowledge. Results indicate that the quantity of agrochemicals applied in plantain cultivation is less than that applied in export banana, but the absence of appropriate agrochemical application practices in plantain cultivation may pose serious risks to human and environmental health. Culturally appropriate farmer education and certification programs are needed as well as the development of safe-handling practices, regulatory infrastructure, and adequate agrochemical storage, transport, and waste disposal facilities. Long-term solutions however, are dependent on the development of policies and infrastructure that support non-chemical pest management, alternatives to pesticides, and the identification of organic plantain markets. Agrochemicals/ Pest management/ Talamanca/ Occupational exposure/ Banana

1061. Pollakova, J.; Pistl, J.; Kovalkovicova, N.; Csank, T. ; Kocisova, A., and Legath, J. Use of Cultured Cells of Mammal and Insect Origin to Assess Cytotoxic Effects of the Pesticide Chlorpyrifos. 2012; 21, (4): 1001-1006.

Rec #: 66979
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In the present study
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