Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

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Daphnia magna immobilization and reproduction assay. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the associations between the water sample physicochemical properties (from each sampling station in each season) and the acute and chronic toxicological effects, with a level of significance p<0.05. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the species that was found to be the most sensitive was T. platyurus. T. platyurus detected a higher number of toxic water samples during the dry season. Concerning the luminescent inhibition of V. fischeri, the results showed that this organism detected a great number of toxic water samples in rainy seasons. The water samples, which promoted higher toxic effects towards this species, were from the north and from the middle of the reservoir. The correlation analysis showed that V. fischeri luminescent inhibition (%) was positively correlated with total phosphorus, chlorpyrifos, iron, and arsenic. T. platyurus mortality (%) was positively correlated with the water pH, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD sub(5)), chlorides, atrazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, and endosulfan sulfate contents. Although the surface waters did not promote acute toxicity to the crustacean D. magna, in the chronic exposure, a significant decrease in the number of juveniles per female was observed, mainly at the dry period. The number of juveniles per female, in the reproduction test of D. magna, was negatively correlated with pH, temperature, BOD sub(5), chloride, atrazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, and endosulfan sulfate. The water toxicity of the Alqueva water might be due principally to the intensive agriculture activities surrounding the reservoir and to the municipal wastewater discharges. Discussion: The physicochemical parameters and the pesticide concentrations indicated that the water quality was worse in the north part of the reservoir system. These results are characteristic of the majority of reservoirs, once the construction of the dam promoted, by itself, the impounding of water flow and the increase of compound residence time. The toxicity tests corroborate with the chemical characterization. Acute toxicity of Alqueva water may be a result of the effect promoted by chlorpyrifos, endosulfan sulfate, phosphorus, and iron. Chronic toxicity may be a result of the effect of herbicides, arsenic, organic matter, endosulfan sulfate in mixture. Hence, the water toxicity of the Alqueva might be due principally to the intensive agriculture activities surrounding the reservoir and to the municipal wastewater discharges. Conclusions: This study has shown that a large number of samples from different sites of the Alqueva reservoir contained potentially toxic contaminants. The sites with impaired water quality were those located at the north of the reservoir and in the surrounding areas of intensive agricultural activity. The results demonstrated that the use of a screening of acute and chronic toxicity tests with organisms from different trophic levels and with distinct sensibilities allowed the detections of several patterns of toxicity from spatial and temporal variability promoted by natural or anthropogenic sources. The chronic responses showed, especially in the dry season, that some of the species belonging to this aquatic ecosystem might be at risk. Recommendations and perspectives: The V. fischeri and T. platyurus are two species that should be used in the acute bioassays for the ecotoxicological monitoring programs of this reservoir. It is recommended that other species, such as a productive organism (algae), be included in the next study, once the water reservoir had high levels of herbicides. Ecotoxicological assessment of surface water must integrate initial screening based on acute tests followed always by chronic bioassays. The results implicitly suggest that the implementation of processes of remediation by reducing pollutant input into the reservoir and by the implementation of water treatment processes is important and necessary.
Keywords: Agriculture
Keywords: Portugal
Keywords: Contamination
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Water Analysis
Keywords: Water Sampling
Keywords: Phosphorus
Keywords: Chloride
Keywords: Acute toxicity
Keywords: Surface Water
Keywords: Water quality
Keywords: Daphnia magna
Keywords: Bioassay
Keywords: simazine
Keywords: Assessments
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Environmental Studies--Pollution
Keywords: Chronic exposure
Keywords: Chronic toxicity
Keywords: Microbiology Abstracts C: Algology, Mycology & Protozoology; Pollution Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality
Keywords: Sampling
Keywords: Reservoirs
Keywords: pH effects
Keywords: Vibrio fischeri
Keywords: Algae
Keywords: Thamnocephalus platyurus
Keywords: Mortality
Keywords: Arsenic
Keywords: AQ 00008:Effects of Pollution
Keywords: K 03450:Ecology
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Aquatic ecosystems
Keywords: Sulfate
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Pollution sources
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Sewage
Keywords: Water Pollution Effects
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Atrazine
Keywords: Reproduction
Keywords: Waste water
Keywords: Iron
Keywords: Runoff
Keywords: Immobilization
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Portugal
Pages - 703-716
ProQuest ID - 810082781
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Agriculture; Contamination; Surface water; Phosphorus; Chloride; Acute toxicity; Water quality; simazine; Pollutants; Chronic exposure; Chronic toxicity; Sampling; pH effects; Mortality; Arsenic; Herbicides; Toxicity; Aquatic ecosystems; Sulfate; Endosulfan; Pollution sources; Chlorpyrifos; Sewage; Pesticides; Atrazine; Reproduction; Waste water; Iron; Runoff; Immobilization; Assessments; Water Analysis; Water Pollution Effects; Water Sampling; Surface Water; Reservoirs; Bioassay; Thamnocephalus platyurus; Daphnia magna; Algae; Vibrio fischeri; Portugal
Last updated - 2011-11-03
Corporate institution author - Palma, Patricia; Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Vera; Matos, Claudia; Fernandes, Rosa Maria; Soares, Amadeu; Barbosa, Isabel Rita
DOI - OB-bb562d6f-addd-4d66-8c86mfgefd108; 12591770; 0944-1344; 1614-7499 English

1016. Pan, D. Y. and Liang, X. M. The Susceptibility of Marsh Frog (Tadpole) and Spiders to Pesticides and Classification of Acute Toxicity. X.Liang, Dep. of Plant Protecting, Hunan Univ. of Agriculture, Changsha, 410128, Peop. Rep. China//: 1996; 42, (2): 154-160(CHI).

Rec #: 1060
Call Number: NON-ENGLISH (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

1017. Panemangalore, M. and Bebe, F. N. Short- and Long-Term Exposure to Low Levels of Pesticide and Flavonoid Mixtures Modify Endogenous Antioxidants in Tissues of Rats. Nutrition and Health Program, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, Kentucky, USA. Taylor & Francis, 11 New Fetter Lane London EC4P 4EE UK, [], [URL:]//: 2009; 44, (4): 357-364.

Rec #: 2540
Keywords: MIXTURE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY,ES,THM

1018. Panuwet, Parinya; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Chantara, Somporn; Barr, Dana B, and Panuwet, Parinya. Urinary Pesticide Metabolites in School Students From Northern Thailand. 2009 May; 212, (3): 288-297.

Rec #: 44809
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We evaluated exposure to pesticides among secondary school students aged 12-13 years old in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Pesticide-specific urinary metabolites were used as biomarkers of exposure for a variety of pesticides, including organophosphorus insecticides, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides and selected herbicides. We employed a simple solid-phase extraction with analysis using isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A total of 207 urine samples from Thai students were analyzed for 18 specific pesticide metabolites. We found 14 metabolites in the urine samples tested; seven of them were detected with a frequency17%. The most frequently detected metabolites were 2-[(dimethoxyphosphorothioyl) sulfanyl] succinic acid (malathion dicarboxylic acid), para-nitrophenol (PNP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TPCY; metabolite of chlorpyrifos), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (c-DCCA and t-DCCA; metabolite of permethrin) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA; metabolite of pyrethroids). The students were classified into 4 groups according to their parental occupations: farmers (N=60), merchants and traders (N=39), government and company employees (N=52), and laborers (N=56). Children of farmers had significantly higher urinary concentrations of pyrethroid insecticide metabolites than did other children (p<0.05). Similarly, children of agricultural families had significantly higher pyrethroid metabolite concentrations. Males had significantly higher values of PNP (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.009); however, no other sex-related differences were observed. Because parental occupation and agricultural activities seemed to have little influence on pesticide levels, dietary sources were the likely contributors to the metabolite levels observed.
Keywords: High-performance liquid chromatography
Keywords: 2,4-D
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Health & Safety Science Abstracts
Keywords: Isotopes
Keywords: Thailand
Keywords: permethrin
Keywords: Mass spectrometry
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Sex differences
Keywords: Mass spectroscopy
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: schools
Keywords: H 5000:Pesticides
Keywords: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Keywords: Pyrethroids
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Organophosphorus compounds
Keywords: Permethrin
Keywords: Herbicides
Keywords: Children
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Schools
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Liquid chromatography
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Succinic acid
Date revised - 2009-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Thailand
Pages - 288-297
ProQuest ID - 20506488
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - 2,4-D; High-performance liquid chromatography; Isotopes; Permethrin; Herbicides; Metabolites; Children; Sex differences; biomarkers; Mass spectroscopy; Malathion; Chlorpyrifos; Insecticides; Urine; Pesticides; Pyrethroids; Succinic acid; Bioindicators; Diets; Organophosphorus compounds; permethrin; Mass spectrometry; Schools; schools; Liquid chromatography; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; Thailand
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health [Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health]. Vol. 212, no. 3, pp. 288-297. May 2009.
Corporate institution author - Panuwet, Parinya; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Chantara, Somporn; Barr, Dana B
DOI - MD-0009524984; 9200047; 1438-4639 English

1019. Papoutsis, I.; Nikolaou, P.; Spiliopoulou, C.; Pistos, C.; Stefanidou, M., and Athanaselis, S. A Simple and Sensitive Gc/Ms Method for the Determination of Atropine During Therapy of Anticholinesterase Poisoning in Serum Samples.

Rec #: 74349
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Atropine is used in the daily clinical practice for the treatment of poisonings caused by anticholinesterase pesticides, due to its sympathomimetic action. The investigation of the cause of the adverse effects that appear during atropine administration showed the necessity for the development and validation of a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific method for the determination of atropine levels in serum samples. The developed method includes liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate: dichloromethane (3:1, v/v) and derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoracetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorsilane (TMCS) in acetonitrile environment. The method was found to be selective, linear, accurate, and precise according to international guidelines. The recovery was higher than 85.9%, the limit of quantification was 2.00 ng/ml, and the calibration curve was linear within the range of 2.00-500 ng/ml (R(2)  ≥ 0.992). Accuracy and precision were also calculated and were found to be less than 5.2 and 8.7%, respectively. The developed method was applied in a real case of accidental poisoning with chlorpyrifos in order to determine the atropine serum levels of the patient. The proposed method proved to be useful for the investigation of adverse effects that appear during atropine treatment of patients poisoned by anticholinesterase pesticides and it can also be used for the investigation of poisonings caused after consumption of atropine containing plants.
MESH HEADINGS: Atropine/*blood/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification
MESH HEADINGS: Chlorpyrifos/poisoning
MESH HEADINGS: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/poisoning
MESH HEADINGS: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/economics/methods
MESH HEADINGS: Insecticides/poisoning
MESH HEADINGS: Liquid-Liquid Extraction/methods
MESH HEADINGS: Muscarinic Antagonists/*blood/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification/therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Parasympatholytics/*blood/isolation &
MESH HEADINGS: purification/therapeutic use
MESH HEADINGS: Sensitivity and Specificity eng

1020. Pareja, L; Colazzo, M; Perez-Parada, a; Niell, S; Carrasco-Letelier, L; Besil, N; Cesio, M V; Heinzen, H, and Pareja, L. Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay. 2011 Oct; 8, (10): 3844-3858.

Rec #: 43099
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 mu g/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 mu g/kg, Standard Deviation: 118) and propolis (60 mu g/kg, Standard Deviation: 57) are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 mu g/kg) are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.
Keywords: Fitness
Keywords: Imidacloprid
Keywords: Beehives
Keywords: Cypermethrin
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Z 05350:Medical, Veterinary, and Agricultural Entomology
Keywords: Uruguay
Keywords: Honeycombs
Keywords: Public health
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: cypermethrin
Keywords: Standard deviation
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Propolis
Keywords: fipronil
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Coumaphos
Keywords: Entomology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Date revised - 2012-03-01
Language of summary - English
Location - Uruguay
Pages - 3844-3858
ProQuest ID - 954641955
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Fitness; Imidacloprid; Beehives; Cypermethrin; Pesticide residues; Honeycombs; Endosulfan; Public health; Chlorpyrifos; Standard deviation; Insecticides; Propolis; fipronil; Pesticides; Coumaphos; cypermethrin; Uruguay
Last updated - 2012-06-18
British nursing index edition - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health]. Vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 3844-3858. Oct 2011.
Corporate institution author - Pareja, L; Colazzo, M; Perez-Parada, A; Niell, S; Carrasco-Letelier, L; Besil, N; Cesio, M V; Heinzen, H
DOI - MD-0018314494; 16435144; 1660-4601 English

1021. Park, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, In Chul, and Koh, Hyun Chul. Autophagy regulates chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. 2013 Apr 1-; 268, (1): 55-67.

Rec #: 60
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract Chlorpyrifos/ Autophagy/ Apoptosis/ Neuroprotection/ Rapamycin/ SH-SY5Y cells

1022. Park, M-J; In, S-W; Lee, S-K; Choi, W-K; Park, Y-S; Chung, H-S, and Park, M-J. Postmortem Blood Concentrations of Organophosphorus Pesticides. 2009 Jan 30; 184, (1-3): 28-31.

Rec #: 45109
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Cases involving acute fatalities due to ingestion of organophosphorus pestiddes (OPs), such as chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and parathion, are presented. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used for the analysis of OPs in postmortem blood. After extraction with an Oasis HLB cartridge, the eluent was evaporated to dryness under a nitrogen stream at 35 degree C, reconstituted with ethanol, and then analyzed by GC/MS. Terbufos was used as an internal standard. Verification procedures, such as the limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity of the calibration, precision and recovery were performed. Validation data were adequate for analyzing OPs in blood. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and parathion were detected in 31 postmortem blood samples. Parathion was the most frequently detected compound among the four pesticides. The mean concentrations of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and parathion were 0.72, 1.03, 0.82 and 2.90 mg/L, respectively.
Keywords: Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: Streams
Keywords: Mass spectroscopy
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Gas chromatography
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Ethanol
Keywords: Nitrogen
Keywords: Parathion
Date revised - 2009-03-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 28-31
ProQuest ID - 20368998
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Parathion; Chlorpyrifos; Malathion; Diazinon; Mass spectroscopy; Nitrogen; Data processing; Ethanol; Streams; Gas chromatography; Pesticides (organophosphorus)
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Forensic Science International [Forensic Sci. Int.]. Vol. 184, no. 1-3, pp. 28-31. 30 Jan 2009.
Corporate institution author - Park, M-J; Lee, S-K; Choi, W-K; Park, Y-S; Chung, H-S
DOI - MD-0009355476; 9054942; 0379-0738 English

1023. Park, R a; Clough, J S; Wellman, M C, and Park, R A. Aquatox: Modeling Environmental Fate and Ecological Effects in Aquatic Ecosystems. 2008 Apr 24; 213, (1): 1-15.

Rec #: 49499
Keywords: MODELING
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: AQUATOX combines aquatic ecosystem, chemical fate, and ecotoxicological constructs to obtain a truly integrative fate and effects model. It is a general, mechanistic ecological risk assessment model intended to be used to evaluate past, present, and future direct and indirect effects from various stressors including nutrients, organic wastes, sediments, toxic organic chemicals, flow, and temperature in aquatic ecosystems. The model has a very flexible structure and provides multiple analytical tools useful for evaluating ecological effects, including uncertainty analysis, nominal range sensitivity analysis, comparison of perturbed and control simulations, and graphing and tabulation of predicted concentrations, rates, and photosynthetic limitations. It can represent a full aquatic food web, including multiple genera and guilds of periphyton, phytoplankton, submersed aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and fish and associated organic toxicants. It can model up to 20 organic chemicals simultaneously. (It does not model metals.) Modeled processes for organic toxicants include chemodynamics of neutral and ionized organic chemicals, bioaccumulation as a function of sorption and bioenergetics, biotransformation to daughter products, and sublethal and lethal toxicity. It has an extensive library of default biotic, chemical, and toxicological parameters and incorporates the ICE regression equations for estimating toxicity in numerous organisms. The model has been implemented for streams, small rivers, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries. It is an integral part of the BASINS system with linkage to the watershed models HSPF and SWAT.
Keywords: Risk assessment
Keywords: Water reservoirs
Keywords: Ecosystems
Keywords: Toxicants
Keywords: Photosynthesis
Keywords: Bioenergetics
Keywords: M3 1010:Issues in Sustainable Development
Keywords: biotransformation
Keywords: Phytoplankton
Keywords: Basins
Keywords: Nutrients
Keywords: Ecological Effects
Keywords: Watersheds
Keywords: Streams
Keywords: Toxicity tests
Keywords: Ponds
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Lakes
Keywords: Assessments
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Sustainability Science Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Water Resources Abstracts; Ecology Abstracts
Keywords: food webs
Keywords: Pollution indicators
Keywords: Reservoirs
Keywords: Food webs
Keywords: Temperature effects
Keywords: Rivers
Keywords: Ice
Keywords: Metals
Keywords: Sorption
Keywords: Mathematical models
Keywords: Computers
Keywords: Estimating
Keywords: Estuaries
Keywords: Temperature
Keywords: Wastes
Keywords: Vegetation
Keywords: Toxicity
Keywords: Aquatic ecosystems
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: Model Studies
Keywords: nutrients
Keywords: Bioaccumulation
Keywords: Guilds
Keywords: Water Pollution Effects
Keywords: D 04030:Models, Methods, Remote Sensing
Keywords: Periphyton
Keywords: aquatic ecosystems
Date revised - 2008-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1-15
ProQuest ID - 289495685
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Model Studies; Toxicity; Water Pollution Effects; Ecosystems; Ecological Effects; Streams; Estimating; Temperature; Assessments; aquatic ecosystems; Rivers; Toxicants; Vegetation; Watersheds; Bioaccumulation; nutrients; Sorption; Phytoplankton; Reservoirs; Photosynthesis; food webs; Ponds; Toxicity tests; Pollution indicators; Water reservoirs; Temperature effects; Models; Aquatic ecosystems; Mathematical models; Nutrients; Guilds; Bioenergetics; Food webs; biotransformation; Lakes; Sediments; Basins; Periphyton; Wastes; Risk assessment; Metals; Estuaries; Ice
Last updated - 2011-10-26
Corporate institution author - Park, R A; Clough, J S; Wellman, M C
DOI - OB-MD-0007977162; 8104655; 0304-3800 English

1024. Park, S. K.; Kong, K. A.; Cha, E. S.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, G. T., and Lee, W. J. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and Nerve Conduction Studies Among Korean Farmers. 2012; 67, (2): 78-83.

Rec #: 66589
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This study aimed to determine whether occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with decreased nerve conduction studies among farmers. On 2 separate occasions, the authors performed a cross-sectional study of a group of 31 male farmers who periodically applied pesticides. The study included questionnaire interviews and nerve conduction studies on the median, ulnar, posterior tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. Although all mean values remained within laboratory normal limits, significant differences between the first and second tests were found in sensory conduction velocities on the median and sural nerves, and motor conduction velocities on the posterior tibial nerve. Lifetime days of pesticide application was negatively associated with nerve conduction velocities at most nerves after adjusting for potential confounders. These findings may reflect a link between occupational pesticide exposure and peripheral neurophysiologic abnormality that deserves further evaluation.
Keywords: farmers, nerve conduction study, occupational exposure, pesticides
ISI Document Delivery No.: 936LD

1025. Park, Y.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Yoon, K. S.; Clark, J., and Lee, J. Imidacloprid, a Neonicotinoid Insecticide, Potentiates Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. 2013; 61, (1): 255-259.

Rec #: 66609
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: There is emerging evidence that organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticide exposure may be linked to excessive weight gain and symptoms of diabetes. However, there is a lack of knowledge for other types of insecticides with potential influence on obesity and diabetes. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of imidadoprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, in lipid metabolism by use of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Imidacloprid treatment potentiated lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and significantly increased expression of a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and key regulators of lipogenesis. These results imply the involvement of imidacloprid in altered adipogenesis, resulting in increased fat accumulation. This finding is the first report of a potential link between neonicotinoid insecticide exposure and lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Further in vivo as well as epidemiological studies will be required before we can extrapolate these findings to a potential contribution of imidacloprid in human obesity.
Keywords: Imidacloprid, neonicotinoid, lipid metabolism, obesity, adipocyte
ISI Document Delivery No.: 065JB

1026. Parker, L. C.; Prestwich, E. C.; Ward, J. R.; Smythe, E.; Berry, A.; Triantafilou, M.; Triantafilou, K., and Sabroe, I. A Phosphatidylserine Species Inhibits a Range of Tlr- but Not Il-1beta-Induced Inflammatory Responses by Disruption of Membrane Microdomains.

Rec #: 51099
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: TLRs detect conserved molecular patterns that are unique to microbes, enabling tailored responses to invading pathogens and modulating a multitude of immunopathological conditions. We investigated the ability of a naturally occurring stearoyl-arachidonoyl form of phosphatidylserine (SAPS) to inhibit the proinflammatory effects of TLR agonists in models of inflammation investigating the interaction of leukocytes with epithelial and endothelial cells. The responses to LPS of both epithelial and endothelial cells were highly amplified in the presence of PBMCs. Coincubation with SAPS markedly inhibited activation of cocultures by LPS, principally through inhibition of the TLR4 signaling pathway in PBMCs; however, this was not through downmodulation of TLR4 or coreceptor expression, nor was IL-1beta-induced cytokine release affected. SAPS also impaired Pam(3)CSK(4) (TLR2/1), Gardiquimod (TLR7/8), and Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced cytokine release, but had only modest effects on poly(I:C) (TLR3)-induced responses. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of molecular associations revealed that SAPS disrupted the association of both TLR4 and TLR2 with their respective membrane partners that are required for signaling. Thus, our data reinforce the existence and importance of cooperative networks of TLRs, tissue cells, and leukocytes in mediating innate immunity, and identify a novel disrupter of membrane microdomains, revealing the dependence of TLR signaling on localization within these domains.
MESH HEADINGS: Down-Regulation/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Endothelial Cells/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Epithelial Cells/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Immunity, Innate/drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Inflammation/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Interleukin-1beta/*immunology/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Leukocytes, Mononuclear/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Lipopeptides
MESH HEADINGS: Membrane Microdomains/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: *Models, Immunological
MESH HEADINGS: Peptides/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Phosphatidylserines/*immunology/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Signal Transduction/drug effects/*immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Toll-Like Receptors/agonists/*immunology eng

1027. Parveen, Z.; Afridi, I. A. K., and Masud, S. Z. A Multi-Residue Method for Quantitation of Organochlorine, Organophosphorus and Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticides in Cotton Seeds. SOIL; 1994; 37, (12): 536-540.

Rec #: 280

1028. Patch, J. R.; Han, Z.; Mccarthy, S. E.; Yan, L.; Wang, L. F.; Harty, R. N., and Broder, C. C. The Yplgvg Sequence of the Nipah Virus Matrix Protein Is Required for Budding.

Rec #: 50999
Keywords: VIRUS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged paramyxovirus capable of causing fatal disease in a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Together with Hendra virus (HeV), they comprise the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Recombinant expression systems have played a crucial role in studying the cell biology of these Biosafety Level-4 restricted viruses. Henipavirus assembly and budding occurs at the plasma membrane, although the details of this process remain poorly understood. Multivesicular body (MVB) proteins have been found to play a role in the budding of several enveloped viruses, including some paramyxoviruses, and the recruitment of MVB proteins by viral proteins possessing late budding domains (L-domains) has become an important concept in the viral budding process. Previously we developed a system for producing NiV virus-like particles (VLPs) and demonstrated that the matrix (M) protein possessed an intrinsic budding ability and played a major role in assembly. Here, we have used this system to further explore the budding process by analyzing elements within the M protein that are critical for particle release.
ABSTRACT: RESULTS: Using rationally targeted site-directed mutagenesis we show that a NiV M sequence YPLGVG is required for M budding and that mutation or deletion of the sequence abrogates budding ability. Replacement of the native and overlapping Ebola VP40 L-domains with the NiV sequence failed to rescue VP40 budding; however, it did induce the cellular morphology of extensive filamentous projection consistent with wild-type VP40-expressing cells. Cells expressing wild-type NiV M also displayed this morphology, which was dependent on the YPLGVG sequence, and deletion of the sequence also resulted in nuclear localization of M. Dominant-negative VPS4 proteins had no effect on NiV M budding, suggesting that unlike other viruses such as Ebola, NiV M accomplishes budding independent of MVB cellular proteins.
ABSTRACT: CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the YPLGVG motif within the NiV M protein plays an important role in M budding; however, involvement of any specific components of the cellular MVB sorting pathway in henipavirus budding remains to be demonstrated. Further investigation of henipavirus assembly and budding may yet reveal a novel mechanism(s) of viral assembly and release that could be applicable to other enveloped viruses or have therapeutic implications.
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acid Motifs
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acid Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Nipah Virus/*chemistry/genetics/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Sequence Alignment
MESH HEADINGS: Viral Matrix Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *Virus Shedding eng

1029. Patlolla, R. R.; Desai, P. R.; Belay, K., and Singh, M. S. Translocation of Cell Penetrating Peptide Engrafted Nanoparticles Across Skin Layers.

Rec #: 50549
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Cites: J Control Release. 2004 Sep 14;99(1):53-62 (medline /15342180)
COMMENTS: Cites: Pharm Res. 2007 Nov;24(11):1977-92 (medline /17443399)
ABSTRACT: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the ability of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to translocate the lipid payload into the skin layers. Fluorescent dye (DID-oil) encapsulated nano lipid crystal nanoparticles (FNLCN) were prepared using Compritol, Miglyol and DOGS-NTA-Ni lipids by hot melt homogenization technique. The FNLCN surface was coated with TAT peptide (FNLCNT) or control YKA peptide (FNLCNY) and in vitro rat skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Observation of lateral skin sections obtained using cryotome with a confocal microscope demonstrated that skin permeation of FNLCNT was time dependent and after 24h, fluorescence was observed upto a depth of 120 microm which was localized in the hair follicles and epidermis. In case of FNLCN and FNLCNY formulations fluorescence was mainly observed in the hair follicles. This observation was further supported by confocal Raman spectroscopy where higher fluorescence signal intensity was observed at 80 and 120 microm depth with FNLCNT treated skin and intensity of fluorescence peaks was in the ratio of 2:1:1 and 5:3:1 for FNLCNT, FNLCN, and FNLCNY treated skin sections, respectively. Furthermore, replacement of DID-oil with celecoxib (Cxb), a model lipophilic drug showed similar results and after 24h, the CXBNT formulation increased the Cxb concentration in SC by 3 and 6 fold and in epidermis by 2 and 3 fold as compared to CXBN and CXBNY formulations respectively. Our results strongly suggest that CPP can translocate nanoparticles with their payloads into deeper skin layers.
MESH HEADINGS: Administration, Cutaneous
MESH HEADINGS: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Drug Carriers/chemistry/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Drug Delivery Systems
MESH HEADINGS: Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Products, tat/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Lysine/analogs &
MESH HEADINGS: derivatives/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Materials Testing
MESH HEADINGS: Nanoparticles/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Oleic Acids/chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Particle Size
MESH HEADINGS: Peptides/chemistry/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Permeability
MESH HEADINGS: Skin/cytology/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Succinates/chemistry eng

1030. Pauli, B. D.; Perrault, J. A., and Money, S. L. RATL: A Database of Reptile and Amphibian Toxicology Literature. 2000: 494 p.

Rec #: 1950

1031. Payan-Renteria, R.; Garibay-Chavez, G.; Rangel-Ascencio, R.; Preciado-Martinez, V.; Munoz-Islas, L.; Beltran-Miranda, C.; Mena-Munguia, S.; Jave-Suarez, L.; Feria-Velasco, A., and De Celis, R. Effect of Chronic Pesticide Exposure in Farm Workers of a Mexico Community. 2012; 67, (1): 22-30.

Rec #: 66699
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Pesticides are frequently used substances worldwide, even when the use of some of them is forbidden due to the recognized adverse effect they have on the health of not only the people who apply the pecticides, but also of those that consume the contaminated products. The objectives of this study were to know the health issues of farm workers chronically exposed to pesticides, to evaluate possible damage at genetic level, as well as to explore some hepatic, renal, and hematological alterations. A transversal comparative study was performed between 2 groups, one composed of 25 farm workers engaged in pesticide spraying, and a control group of 21 workers not exposed to pesticides; both groups belonged to the Nextipac community in Jalisco, Mexico. Each member of both groups underwent a full medical history. Blood samples were taken from all farmworkers in order to obtain a complete blood count and chemistry, clinical chemistry, lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, erythrocyte cholinesterase quantification, lipid peroxidation profile, and free DNA fragment quantification. For the information analysis, central tendency and dispersion measurements were registered. In order to know the differences between groups, a cluster multivariate method was used, as well as prevalence reasons. The most used pesticides were mainly organophosphates, triazines and organochlorine compounds. The exposed group showed acute poisoning (20% of the cases) and diverse alterations of the digestive, neurological, respiratory, circulatory, dermatological, renal, and reproductive system probably associated to pesticide exposure. More importantly, they presented free DNA fragments in plasma (90.8 vs 49.05 ng/mL) as well as a higher level of lipid peroxidation (41.85 vs. 31.91 nmol/mL) in comparison with those data from unexposed farm workers. These results suggest that there exist health hazards for those farm workers exposed to pesticides, at organic and cellular levels.
Keywords: circulating DNA fragments, farm workers, occupational exposure,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 911OR

1032. Payne-Sturges, D.; Cohen, J.; Castorina, R.; Axelrad, D. A., and Woodruff, T. J. Evaluating Cumulative Organophosphorus Pesticide Body Burden of Children: A National Case Study. 2009; 43, (20): 7924-7930.

Rec #: 66709
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Biomonitoring is a valuable tool for identifying exposures to chemicals that pose potential harm to human health. However, to date there has been little published on ways to evaluate the relative public health significance of biomonitoring data for different chemicals and even less on cumulative assessment of multiple chemicals. The objectives of our study are to develop a methodology for a health risk interpretation of biomonitoring data and to apply it using NHANES 1999-2002 body burden data for organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. OP pesticides present a particularly challenging case given the nonspecificity of many metabolites monitored through NHANES. We back-calculate OP pesticide exposures from urinary metabolite data and compare cumulative dose estimates with available toxicity information for a common mechanism of action (brain cholinesterase inhibition) using data from U.S. EPA. Our results suggest that approximately 40% of children in the United States may have had insufficient margins of exposure (MOEs) for neurological impacts from cumulative exposures to OP pesticides (MOE less than 1000). Limitations include uncertainty related to assumptions about likely precursor pesticide compounds of the urinary metabolites, sources of exposure, and intraindividual and temporal variability.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 504DR

1033. Pearson, M. A.; Lu, C. S.; Schmotzer, B. J.; Waller, L. A., and Riederer, A. M. Evaluation of physiological measures for correcting variation in urinary output: Implications for assessing environmental chemical exposure in children. 2009; 19, (3): 336-342.

Rec #: 66719
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Urinary contaminant concentrations are commonly adjusted by creatinine to account for the variability in urinary output. This approach may not be optimal among children due to developmental growth of muscle mass and the associated increase in creatinine formation. An alternative approach is to measure the specific gravity of the urine sample, which reflects the solute concentration of the urine. We compare the appropriateness of urinary creatinine and urinary-specific gravity as factors for correcting morning and evening spot urine samples collected from 23 children (3-11 years) for a total of 41 days in four different seasons. Two linear mixed-effects models were fit using age, sex, season, and sample collection time (morning/evening) as predictors with specific gravity and creatinine as dependent variables. Specific gravity was significantly associated with the sample collection time (P < 0.001) with morning samples higher than evening samples. Creatinine was significantly associated with season (P < 0.05), sample collection time (P < 0.0001), and age (P < 0.0001). Creatinine levels were higher during the summer compared to the other seasons, higher in the morning compared to the evening, and higher with increases in children's age. Normalizing the children's spot urine samples using creatinine would introduce bias to the data analysis. Whereas using specific gravity to correct for variable urinary output would be more robust. In addition, measuring speci. c gravity is relatively easy, does not require the use of chemicals, and the results are available instantaneously. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2009) 19, 336-342; doi: 10.1038/jes. 2008.48; published online 8 October 2008
Keywords: children, creatinine, specific gravity, urinary biomarker
ISI Document Delivery No.: 408TJ

1034. Pelit, F++sun Ok+ºu; Pelit, Levent; Erta+Hasan, and Nil Erta+F. Development of a gas chromatographic method for the determination of Chlorpyrifos and its metabolite Chlorpyrifos-oxon in wine matrix. 2012 Sep 1-; 904, (0): 35-41.

Rec #: 1320
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: A reliable method has been developed for the determination of Chlorpyrifos (CP) and its metabolite Chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) in wine sample using pulsed splitless technique coupled with gas chromatography by using electron capture detector. In this study, a quick, easy and cheap sample preparation method (QuEChERS) based on liquid extraction with acetonitrile, followed by dispersive solid phase extraction using primary secondary amine was tested for the separation and quantification of CP and CPO in wine samples. The accuracy of the developed method was tested upon recovery studies and it was calculated as (92.3 -_ 18.2)% for CP and (96.6 -_ 16.1)% for CPO. LOD and LOQ values of CP were found as 0.04 and 0.15 ng/mL and 0.49 and 1.62 ng/mL for CPO respectively. By using the pulsed splitless injection mode, the sensitivity of the determination of CP and its metabolite CPO in wine samples was improved compared to splitless technique. CP content of analyzed wine sample was found as 2.05 -_ 0.15 ng/mL with a RSD of 7.6% and CPO content was found as 4.99 -_ 0.15 ng/mL with a RSD of 3.0% (n = 3). The expanded measurement uncertainties were calculated as 17% and 6% for CP and CPO, respectively. Chlorpyrifos oxon/ Metabolite/ Pulsed splitless/ Pesticide/ Gas chromatography/ Wine/ Uncertainty

1035. Pelit, F++sun Ok+şu; Erta+Hasan; Seyrani, I+ l, and Nil Erta+F. Assessment of DFG-S19 method for the determination of common endocrine disruptor pesticides in wine samples with an estimation of the uncertainty of the analytical results. 2013 May 1-; 138, (1): 54-61.

Rec #: 5630
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: A gas chromatographic method for the determination of endocrine disruptor pesticides (Chlorpyrifos, Penconazole, Procymidone, Iprodione, Bromopropylate and Lambda-Cyhalothrin) in wine samples is described. A general DFG-S19 method for residual pesticide determination in all kind of food stuff was investigated to simplify and adopt for wine samples in this work. Alternative sample preparation routes were elucidated and compared according to their recovery values. Four different separation techniques were tested and the method employing florosil column after a LLE procedure was applied for wine samples with satisfactory recovery ratios (72Çô97%). The pesticides were extracted from the sample by cyclohexaneÇôethyl acetate mixture (1:1 v/v) and cleaned up by florosil column. The regression coefficients were at least 0.99 and relative standard deviations were no higher than 16%. Detection limits were in the range of 0.6Çô2.9 ng/mL and the relative expanded measurement uncertainties were calculated in the 7Çô22% range. Pesticides/ Endocrine disruptor/ Wine/ Sample preparation/ Gas chromatography

1036. Perez, Joanne Rodriguez; Loureiro, Susana; Menezes, Salome; Palma, Patricia; Fernandes, Rosa M; Barbosa, Isabel R; Soares, Amadeu Mvm, and Loureiro, Susana. Assessment of Water Quality in the Alqueva Reservoir (Portugal) Using Bioassays. 2010 Mar; 17, (3): 688-702.

Rec #: 48039
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Background, aim, and scope: Alqueva Reservoir is the biggest artificial freshwater reservoir in Europe and is an important water supply for human and agricultural consumption in the Alentejo region (Portugal). Pollution can impair environmental and human health status, and to assure water quality and ecological balance, it is crucial to frequently monitor water supplies. In this study, we used an
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