Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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In this report, we demonstrate that oral administration of Aureobasidium pullulans-cultured fluid (AP-CF) enriched with the β-(1→3),(1→6)-D-glucan exhibits efficacy to protect mice infected with a lethal titer of the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8; H1N1) strain of influenza virus. The survival rate of the mice significantly increased by AP-CF administration after sublethal infection of PR8 virus. The virus titer in the mouse lung homogenates was significantly decreased by AP-CF administration. No significant difference in the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, and in the population of lymphocytes was observed in the lungs of mice administered with AP-CF. Interestingly, expression level for the mRNA of virus sensors, RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I) and MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5) strongly increased at 5 hours after the stimulation of A. pullulans-produced purified β-(1→3),(1→6)-D-glucan (AP-BG) in murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the replication of PR8 virus was significantly repressed by pre-treatment of AP-BG. These findings suggest the increased expression of virus sensors is effective for the prevention of influenza by the inhibition of viral replication with the administration of AP-CF.
MESH HEADINGS: Administration, Oral
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Ascomycota/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Line
MESH HEADINGS: Culture Media, Conditioned/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Cytokines/biosynthesis
MESH HEADINGS: DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects/immunology
MESH HEADINGS: Immunization/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology/pathogenicity
MESH HEADINGS: Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/biosynthesis
MESH HEADINGS: Lung/drug effects/immunology/metabolism/virology
MESH HEADINGS: Macrophages/drug effects/immunology/metabolism/virology
MESH HEADINGS: Male
MESH HEADINGS: Membrane Proteins/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*prevention &
MESH HEADINGS: control
MESH HEADINGS: Survival Rate
MESH HEADINGS: Time Factors
MESH HEADINGS: beta-Glucans/metabolism/*pharmacology eng

942. Muranli, F. D. G. GENOTOXIC AND CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF A PYRETHROID INSECTICIDE LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN ON HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES INVESTIGATED BY CHROMOSOME ABERRATION AND FLOW CYTOMETRY ASSAYS. 2009; 18, (9A): 1758-1763.


Rec #: 65719
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Genotoxic and cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) (3.75, 7.5, 15 and 30 mu M/ml) were investigated in human peripheral blood lymphocyte culture by chromosome aberration (CA) and flow cytometry (FC) assays. Human peripheral whole blood cultures were treated with four concentrations of LCT which were prepared by using distilled water and Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) for 48 hours. Although LCT did not significantly induce CA frequency in human peripheral blood, the insecticide showed a genotoxic effect due to decrease of Mitotic Index (MI) and G2 phase ratios and high concentrations of LCT demonstrated an accumulation of aneuploid population in early S phase that might mean its damaging effect on DNA molecule.
Keywords: Flow cytometry, Chromosome aberrations, Human peripheral blood culture,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 505OC

943. Murphy, J. N.; Durbin, K. J., and Saltikov, C. W. Functional Roles of Arca, Etra, Cyclic Amp (Camp)-Camp Receptor Protein, and Cya in the Arsenate Respiration Pathway in Shewanella Sp. Strain Ana-3.


Rec #: 50989
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
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ABSTRACT: Microbial arsenate respiration can enhance arsenic release from arsenic-bearing minerals--a process that can cause arsenic contamination of water. In Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, the arsenate respiration genes (arrAB) are induced under anaerobic conditions with arsenate and arsenite. Here we report how genes that encode anaerobic regulator (arcA and etrA [fnr homolog]) and carbon catabolite repression (crp and cya) proteins affect arsenate respiration in ANA-3. Transcription of arcA, etrA, and crp in ANA-3 was similar in cells grown on arsenate and cells grown under aerobic conditions. ANA-3 strains lacking arcA and etrA showed minor to moderate growth defects, respectively, with arsenate. However, crp was essential for growth on arsenate. In contrast to the wild-type strain, arrA was not induced in the crp mutant in cultures shifted from aerobic to anaerobic conditions containing arsenate. This indicated that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cyclic AMP receptor (CRP) activates arr operon transcription. Computation analysis for genome-wide CRP binding motifs identified a putative binding motif within the arr promoter region. This was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with cAMP-CRP and several DNA probes. Lastly, four putative adenylate cyclase (cya) genes were identified in the genome. One particular cya-like gene was differentially expressed under aerobic versus arsenate respiration conditions. Moreover, a double mutant lacking two of the cya-like genes could not grow with arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor; exogenous cAMP could complement growth of the double cya mutant. It is concluded that the components of the carbon catabolite repression system are essential to regulating arsenate respiratory reduction in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3.
MESH HEADINGS: Arsenates/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/genetics/metabolism/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Binding Sites
MESH HEADINGS: Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein/genetics/metabolism/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
MESH HEADINGS: Mutation
MESH HEADINGS: Operon/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Shewanella/genetics/growth &
MESH HEADINGS: development/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Signal Transduction/genetics/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism/*physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Transcription, Genetic/genetics eng

944. Murphy, J. N. and Saltikov, C. W. The Cyma Gene, Encoding a Tetraheme C-Type Cytochrome, Is Required for Arsenate Respiration in Shewanella Species.


Rec #: 51429
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Cites: J Bacteriol. 2000 Jan;182(1):67-75 (medline /10613864)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28785-90 (medline /9786877)
COMMENTS: Cites: J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 24;275(12):8515-22 (medline /10722689)
COMMENTS: Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Aug 14;98(17):9853-8 (medline /11493693)
COMMENTS: Cites: Eur J Biochem. 2002 Feb;269(4):1086-95 (medline /11856339)
COMMENTS: Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Feb 1;36(3):381-6 (medline /11871552)
COMMENTS: Cites: FEBS Lett. 2002 Jul 3;522(1-3):83-7 (medline /12095623)
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COMMENTS: Cites: Biochem J. 2002 Dec 1;368(Pt 2):425-32 (medline /12186631)
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ABSTRACT: In Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, utilization of arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor is conferred by a two-gene operon, arrAB, which lacks a gene encoding a membrane-anchoring subunit for the soluble ArrAB protein complex. Analysis of the genome sequence of Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN-32 showed that it also contained the same arrAB operon with 100% nucleotide identity. Here, we report that CN-32 respires arsenate and that this metabolism is dependent on arrA and an additional gene encoding a membrane-associated tetraheme c-type cytochrome, cymA. Deletion of cymA in ANA-3 also eliminated growth on and reduction of arsenate. The DeltacymA strains of CN-32 and ANA-3 negatively affected the reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) but not growth on nitrate. Unlike the CN-32 DeltacymA strain, growth on fumarate was absent in the DeltacymA strain of ANA-3. Both homologous and heterologous complementation of cymA in trans restored growth on arsenate in DeltacymA strains of both CN-32 and ANA-3. Transcription patterns of cymA showed that it was induced under anaerobic conditions in the presence of fumarate and arsenate. Nitrate-grown cells exhibited the greatest level of cymA expression in both wild-type strains. Lastly, site-directed mutagenesis of the first Cys to Ser in each of the four CXXCH c-heme binding motifs of the CN-32 CymA nearly eliminated growth on and reduction of arsenate. Together, these results indicate that the biochemical mechanism of arsenate respiration and reduction requires the interactions of ArrAB with a membrane-associated tetraheme cytochrome, which in the non-arsenate-respiring Shewanella species Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, has pleiotropic effects on Fe(III), Mn(IV), dimethyl sulfoxide, nitrate, nitrite, and fumarate respiration.
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acid Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: Arsenate Reductases/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Arsenates/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Culture Media
MESH HEADINGS: Cytochrome c Group/*genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
MESH HEADINGS: Iron-Sulfur Proteins/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Molecular Sequence Data
MESH HEADINGS: Molybdenum/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mutation
MESH HEADINGS: Oxidation-Reduction
MESH HEADINGS: Shewanella/*classification/enzymology/genetics/*metabolism/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Shewanella putrefaciens/enzymology/genetics/physiology eng

945. Musilek, Kamil; Dolezal, Martin; Gunn-Moore, Frank, and Kuca, Kamil. Design, Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of the Ache Reactivators Against Organophosphorus Pesticides. 2011 Jul; 31, (4): 548-575.


Rec #: 47249
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphate pesticides (OPPs; e.g. chlorpyrifos, diazinon, paraoxon) are a wide and heterogeneous group of organophosphorus compounds. Their biological activity of inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) ranks them as life endangering agents. The necessary treatment after OPP exposure involves the use of parasympatolytics (e.g. atropine), oxime reactivators (e.g. obidoxime), and anticonvulsive drugs (e.g. diazepam). Therefore, the reactivators of AChE are essential compounds in the treatment of OPP intoxications. Commercial AChE reactivators (e.g. pralidoxime, HI-6, obidoxime, trimedoxime, methoxime) were originally developed for other members of the organophosphate family, such as nerve agents (e.g. sarin, soman, tabun, VX). Pralidoxime, HI-6, and methoxime were found to be weak reactivators of OPP-inhibited AChE. Obidoxime and trimedoxime showed satisfactory reactivation against various OPPs with minor toxicity issues. During the last two decades, the treatment of OPP exposure has become more widely discussed because of growing agricultural production, industrialization, and harmful social issues (e.g. suicides). In this review is the summarized design, evaluation, and structure-activity relationship studies of recently produced AChE reactivators. Since pralidoxime, over 300 oximes have been produced or tested against OPP poisoning, and several novel compounds show very promising abilities as comparable (or higher) to commercial oximes. Some of these are highlighted for their further testing of OPP exposure and, additionally, the main structure-activity relationship of AChE reactivators against OPP is discussed. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Cholinesterase Reactivators -- chemistry
Keywords: Cholinesterase Reactivators
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds -- antagonists & inhibitors
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Humans
Keywords: Drug Design
Keywords: Structure-Activity Relationship
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds
Keywords: Pesticides -- antagonists & inhibitors
Keywords: Cholinesterase Reactivators -- pharmacology
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase -- metabolism
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: EC 3.1.1.7
Date completed - 2012-02-02
Date created - 2011-06-28
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 548-575
ProQuest ID - 874186205
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Medicinal research reviews, July 2011, 31(4):548-575
Corporate institution author - Musilek, Kamil; Dolezal, Martin; Gunn-Moore, Frank; Kuca, Kamil
DOI - MEDL-20027669; 20027669; 1098-1128 eng

946. Muă±Oz-Carpena, Rafael; Fox, Garey a, and Sabbagh, George J. Parameter Importance and Uncertainty in Predicting Runoff Pesticide Reduction With Filter Strips. 2010 Mar-2010 Apr 30; 39, (2): 630-641.


Rec #: 48049
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are an environmental management tool used to reduce sediment and pesticide transport from surface runoff. Numerical models of VFS such as the Vegetative Filter Strip Modeling System (VFSMOD-W) are capable of predicting runoff, sediment, and pesticide reduction and can be useful tools to understand the effectiveness of VFS and environmental conditions under which they may be ineffective. However, as part of the modeling process, it is critical to identify input factor importance and quantify uncertainty in predicted runoff, sediment, and pesticide reductions. This research used state-of-the-art global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools, a screening method (Morris) and a variance-based method (extended Fourier Analysis Sensitivity Test), to evaluate VFSMOD-W under a range of field scenarios. The three VFS studies analyzed were conducted on silty clay loam and silt loam soils under uniform, sheet flow conditions and included atrazine, chlorpyrifos, cyanazine, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and terbuthylazine data. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was the most important input factor for predicting infiltration and runoff, explaining >75% of the total output variance for studies with smaller hydraulic loading rates (~100-150 mm equivalent depths) and ~50% for the higher loading rate (~280-mm equivalent depth). Important input factors for predicting sedimentation included hydraulic conductivity, average particle size, and the filter's Manning's roughness coefficient. Input factor importance for pesticide trapping was controlled by infiltration and, therefore, hydraulic conductivity. Global uncertainty analyses suggested a wide range of reductions for runoff (95% confidence intervals of 7-93%), sediment (84-100%), and pesticide (43-100%). Pesticide trapping probability distributions fell between runoff and sediment reduction distributions as a function of the pesticides' sorption. Seemingly equivalent VFS exhibited unique and complex trapping responses dependent on the hydraulic and sediment loading rates, and therefore, process-based modeling of VFS is required. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Copyright - Copyright American Society of Agronomy Mar/Apr 2010
Language of summary - English
Pages - 630-641
ProQuest ID - 347524349
Document feature - Graphs; Equations; References; Tables
Last updated - 2011-05-16
CODEN - JEVQAA
Place of publication - Madison
Corporate institution author - Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Fox, Garey A; Sabbagh, George J
DOI - 2045003021; 52376161; 13216; JEVQAA; STEQ; INNNSTEQ0000439696
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947. Mwila, K.; Burton, M. H.; Van Dyk, J. S., and Pletschke, B. I. The effect of mixtures of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on acetylcholinesterase and application of chemometrics to identify pesticides in mixtures. 2013; 185, (3): 2315-2327.


Rec #: 65749
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CP) pesticides act by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This enables the use of this enzyme for the detection of these pesticides in the environment. While many studies have looked at the effect of single pesticides on AChE, the effect of mixtures of pesticides still requires extensive investigation. This is important to evaluate the cumulative risk in the case of simultaneous exposure to multiple pesticides. Therefore we examined the effect of five different pesticides (c
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