Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos



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Exposure to CPF (1.0-20.0 ÎĽM) or CPO (5.0 nM-20.0 ÎĽM) for 1 or 24 h resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in mitochondrial length, a decrease in mitochondrial number (indicative of increased fusion events), and a decrease in their movement in axons. The changes occurred at concentrations of CPF and CPO that did not inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity (the commonly cited mechanism of acute OP toxicity), and they were not blocked by cholinergic receptor antagonists. Furthermore, the changes did not seem to be associated with direct (OP-related) effects on mitochondrial viability or function (i.e., mitochondrial membrane potential or ATP production). The results suggest that an underlying mechanism of organophosphate-based deficits in cognitive function might involve alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and/or their transport in axons.
Keywords: 2921-88-2
Keywords: Cerebral Cortex -- cytology
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Cerebral Cortex -- drug effects
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Neurons -- drug effects
Keywords: Nicotinic Antagonists
Keywords: Superoxides
Keywords: Receptors, Cholinergic
Keywords: 56-65-5
Keywords: 11062-77-4
Keywords: Rats
Keywords: Cerebral Cortex -- physiology
Keywords: Superoxides -- metabolism
Keywords: Cholinesterase Inhibitors -- toxicity
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Axonal Transport -- drug effects
Keywords: Mitochondria -- drug effects
Keywords: Cell Movement -- drug effects
Keywords: GPI-Linked Proteins -- antagonists & inhibitors
Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate
Keywords: EC 3.1.1.7
Keywords: Insecticides -- pharmacology
Keywords: Insecticides -- toxicity
Keywords: Mitochondria -- physiology
Keywords: Axons -- drug effects
Keywords: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Keywords: Receptors, Cholinergic -- metabolism
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Ache protein, rat
Keywords: Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Keywords: Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial -- drug effects
Keywords: Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- toxicity
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos -- analogs & derivatives
Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate -- metabolism
Keywords: Nicotinic Antagonists -- pharmacology
Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate -- biosynthesis
Keywords: GPI-Linked Proteins
Date completed - 2012-01-16
Date created - 2011-10-20
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 341-349
ProQuest ID - 900628488
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, November 2011, 339(2):341-349
Corporate institution author - Middlemore-Risher, Mary-Louise; Adam, Bao-Ling; Lambert, Nevin A; Terry, Alvin V
DOI - MEDL-21799050; 21799050; PMC3199992; 1521-0103 eng

903. Miles, J. R. W.; Harris, C. R., and Moy, P. Insecticide Residues in Organic Soil of the Holland Marsh, Ontario, Canada, 1972-75. 1978; 71, (1): 97-101.


Rec #: 1870
Keywords: FATE
Call Number: NO FATE (CPY,DZ,ES)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: AND,CPY,DDT,DLD,DZ,EN,EPRN,ES,ETN,FNF,PRN

904. Miller, P. W. Residues of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in or on Peanuts Receiving One or Two Applications of Lorsban Insecticides. SOIL; 1979.


Rec #: 1130
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

905. ---. Residues of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in Peanut Fractions. SOIL; 1979.


Rec #: 1140
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

906. Miller, P. W. and Ervick, D. K. Residues of Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol in or on Peanuts Receiving Multiple Applications of Lorsban Insecticides. SOIL; 1978.


Rec #: 1120
Keywords: NO SOURCE
Call Number: NO SOURCE (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

907. Mineau, P. Estimating the Probability of Bird Mortality from Pesticide Sprays on the Basis of the Field Study Record. 2002; 21, (7): 1497-1506.


Rec #: 1150
Keywords: MODELING,REFS CHECKED
Call Number: NO MODELING (ACP,AZ,CBF,CBL,CPY,DCTP,DMT,DS,DZ,FMP,FNT,MCB,MLN,MOM,MP,MTM,MVP,OML,PPX,TCF), NO REFS CHECKED (ACP,AZ,CBF,CBL,CPY,DCTP,DMT,DS,DZ,FMP,FNT,MCB,MLN,MOM,MP,MTM,MVP,OML,PPX,TCF)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: ACP,AZ,BDC,CBF,CBL,CPY,DCTP,DMT,DS,DZ,EPRN,FMP,FNT,FNTH,IFP,MCB,MLN,MOM,MP,MTM,MVP,OML,PHSL,PIM,PPHP,PPX,PRN,SPS,TCF

908. Mink, P. J.; Kimmel, C. A., and Li, A. A. POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS ON FETAL GROWTH OUTCOMES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT. 2012; 15, (4): 281-316.


Rec #: 65269
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides in the United States. By December 2000, nearly all residential uses were voluntarily canceled, so that today, CPF is only used to control insect pests on a variety of crops. Periodic review of the potential effects of CPF on all developmental outcomes is necessary in the United States because the Food Quality Protection Act mandates special consideration of risk assessments for infants and children. This article reviews epidemiologic studies examining the association of potential CPF exposure with growth indices, including birth weight, birth length, and head circumference, and animal studies focusing on related somatic developmental endpoints. It differs from earlier reviews by including an additional cohort study and providing in-depth systematic evaluation of the patterns of association across different studies with respect to specificity of biomarkers for CPF, consistency, dose response, strength of association, temporality, and biological plausibility (Hill 1965), as well as consideration of the potential role of effect modification and bias. The review did not identify any strong associations exhibiting consistent exposure-response patterns that were observed in more than one of the four cohort studies evaluated. In addition, the animal data indicate that developmental effects occur at doses that produce substantial maternal toxicity and red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Based on consideration of both the epidemiologic and animal data, maternal RBC AChE inhibition is a more sensitive endpoint for risk assessment than somatic developmental effects reviewed in this article.
Keywords: ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE, BIOMONITORING DATA, BIRTH OUTCOMES,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 940UW

909. Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey N, and Mirajkar, Nikita. In Vitro Sensitivity of Cholinesterases and [ Super(3)H]Oxotremorine-M Binding in Heart and Brain of Adult and Aging Rats to Organophosphorus Anticholinesterases . 2008 Oct; 76, (8): 1047-1058.


Rec #: 45509
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides elicit toxicity via acetylcholinesterase inhibition, allowing acetylcholine accumulation and excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors. Some OP insecticides bind to additional macromolecules including butyrylcholinesterase and cholinergic receptors. While neurotoxicity from OP anticholinesterases has been extensively studied, effects on cardiac function have received less attention. We compared the in vitro sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and [ super(3)H]oxotremorine-M binding to muscarinic receptors in the cortex and heart of adult (3 months) and aging (18 months) rats to chlorpyrifos, methyl parathion and their active metabolites chlorpyrifos oxon and methyl paraoxon. Using selective inhibitors, the great majority of cholinesterase in brain was defined as acetylcholinesterase, while butyrylcholinesterase was the major cholinesterase in heart, regardless of age. In the heart, butyrylcholinesterase was markedly more sensitive than acetylcholinesterase to inhibition by chlorpyrifos oxon, and butyrylcholinesterase in tissues from aging rats was more sensitive than enzyme from adults, possibly due to differences in A-esterase mediated detoxification. Relatively similar differences were noted in brain. In contrast, acetylcholinesterase was more sensitive than butyrylcholinesterase to methyl paraoxon in both heart and brain, but no age-related differences were noted. Both oxons displaced [ super(3)H]oxotremorine-M binding in heart and brain of both age groups in a concentration-dependent manner. Chlorpyrifos had no effect but methyl parathion was a potent displacer of binding in heart and brain of both age groups. Such OP and age-related differences in interactions with cholinergic macromolecules may be important because of potential for environmental exposures to insecticides as well as the use of anticholinesterases in age-related neurological disorders.
Keywords: Heart
Keywords: Detoxification
Keywords: Macromolecules
Keywords: Age
Keywords: Neurological diseases
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: N3 11028:Neuropharmacology & toxicology
Keywords: Acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic)
Keywords: Aging
Keywords: Brain
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; CSA Neurosciences Abstracts
Keywords: Enzymes
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Paraoxon
Keywords: Acetylcholine receptors
Keywords: Cholinesterase
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Cortex
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Neurotoxicity
Keywords: Methyl parathion
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Attention
Date revised - 2009-01-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 1047-1058
ProQuest ID - 19696259
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Heart; Brain; Acetylcholinesterase; Chlorpyrifos; Insecticides; Aging; Age; Cholinesterase; Macromolecules; Neurotoxicity; Acetylcholine receptors; Paraoxon; Methyl parathion; Cortex; Enzymes; Acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic); Metabolites; Neurological diseases; Detoxification; Attention
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Biochemical Pharmacology [Biochem. Pharmacol.]. Vol. 76, no. 8, pp. 1047-1058. Oct 2008.
Corporate institution author - Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey N
DOI - MD-0009030662; 8844438; 0006-2952 English

910. Misevič ; Ienė L; Anusevič Ius, Z.; Sarlauskas, J.; Sevrioukova, I. F.; Cė, and Nas, N. Redox Reactions of the Fad-Containing Apoptosis-Inducing Factor (Aif) With Quinoidal Xenobiotics: a Mechanistic Study.


Rec #: 50159
Keywords: NO TOXICANT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: COMMENTS: Cites: J Med Chem. 1976 Nov;19(11):1302-8 (medline /1003407)
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a FAD-containing protein that under certain conditions translocates to the nucleus and causes a programmed cell death, apoptosis. The apoptogenic action of AIF is redox controlled as the NADH-reduced AIF dimer has lower affinity for DNA than the oxidized monomer. To gain further insights into the mechanism of AIF, we investigated its interaction with a series of quinone oxidants, including a number of anticancer quinones. Our data indicate that the NADH:quinone oxidoreduction catalyzed by AIF follows a "ping-pong" scheme, with the reductive half-reaction being rate-limiting and the FADH(-)-NAD(+) charge-transfer complex serving as an electron donor. AIF is equally reactive toward benzo- and naphthoquinones, but may discriminate structures with a higher number of aromatic rings. The reactivity of quinones is mainly defined by their one-electron reduction potential, whereas the size and nature of the substituents play a minor role. AIF is unlikely to significantly contribute to bioreductive activation of low-potential quinoidal anticancer quinones. However, high-potential quinones, e.g. a toxic natural compound naphthazarin, maintain AIF in the oxidized state when a significant excess of NADH is present. Thus, these compounds may prevent the accumulation of the reduced form of AIF in vivo, and enhance AIF-mediated apoptosis.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Apoptosis/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Apoptosis Inducing Factor/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide/chemistry/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Kinetics
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Biological
MESH HEADINGS: Oxidants/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Oxidation-Reduction
MESH HEADINGS: Quinones/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Recombinant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Xenobiotics/metabolism eng

911. Mishra, Rupesh K; Dominguez, Rocio B; Bhand, Sunil; Muă±Oz, Roberto, and Marty, Jean-Louis. A Novel Automated Flow-Based Biosensor for the Determination of Organophosphate Pesticides in Milk. 2012 Feb 15; 32, (1): 56-61.


Rec #: 46859
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This work describes the development of an automated flow-based biosensor that employs genetically modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes B394, B4 and wild type B131. The biosensor was based on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPE) that was integrated into a flow cell. Enzymes were immobilised on cobalt (II) phthalocyanine (CoPC) modified electrodes by entrapment in a photocrosslinkable polymer (PVA-AWP). The automated flow-based biosensor was successfully used to quantify three organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in milk samples. The OPs used were chlorpyriphos-oxon (CPO), ethyl paraoxon (EPOx) and malaoxon (MOx). The total analysis time for the assay was less than 15 min. Initially, the biosensor performance was tested in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) using B394, B131 and B4 biosensors. The best detection limits were obtained with B394; therefore, this biosensor was used to produce calibration data in milk with three OPs in the concentration range of 5 × 10(-6)M to 5 × 10(-12)M. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained in milk for CPO, EPOx and MOx were 5 × 10(-12)M, 5 × 10(-9)M and 5 × 10(-10)M, respectively, with a correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9910. The automated flow-based biosensor successfully quantified the OPs in different fat-containing milk samples. There were no false positives or false negatives observed for the analytical figures of merit for the constructed biosensors. This method is inexpensive, sensitive, portable, non-invasive and provides real-time results. This analytical system can provide rapid detection of highly toxic OPs in food matrices such as milk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pesticides -- analysis
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds -- analysis
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Enzymes, Immobilized
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Enzymes, Immobilized -- metabolism
Keywords: Biosensing Techniques -- instrumentation
Keywords: Biosensing Techniques -- methods
Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster -- enzymology
Keywords: Flow Injection Analysis -- methods
Keywords: Organophosphorus Compounds
Keywords: Equipment Design
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase -- metabolism
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: EC 3.1.1.7
Keywords: Limit of Detection
Keywords: Milk -- chemistry
Keywords: Flow Injection Analysis -- instrumentation
Date completed - 2012-05-14
Date created - 2012-01-16
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 56-61
ProQuest ID - 916527825
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Biosensors & bioelectronics, February 15, 2012, 32(1):56-61
Corporate institution author - Mishra, Rupesh K; Dominguez, Rocio B; Bhand, Sunil; Muñoz, Roberto; Marty, Jean-Louis
DOI - MEDL-22221795; 22221795; 1873-4235 eng

912. Mishra, Rupesh K.; Istamboulie, George; Bhand, Sunil, and Marty, Jean-Louis. Detoxification of organophosphate residues using phosphotriesterase and their evaluation using flow based biosensor. 2012 Oct 1-; 745, (0): 64-69.


Rec #: 4510
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Among known pesticide groups, organophosphates (OPs) have grasped attention due to their hazardous nature and their applications as pesticides and chemical weapons. This work presents the development of cost-effective column based biosensor for detoxification of OPs in water and milk. Enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) was immobilized on an activated Sepharose 4B via covalent coupling using an Omnifit glass column. Three different OPs, ethyl paraoxon (EPOx), malaoxon (MAO) and chlorpyriphos-oxon (CPO) were spiked in water and milk to test the detoxification of OPs. Mixtures of these pesticides were also tested to check the cumulative detoxification in the real samples. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated using a highly sensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) B394 biosensor based flow system. The column conditions were optimized for the detoxification studied. The method was shown to be promising when we tested real milk samples spiked with OPs. Detoxification obtained in milk was up to 86% whereas in water, 100% detoxification was obtained. Organophosphate/ Detoxification/ Phosphotriesterase/ Water/ Milk/ Flow based biosensor

913. Mitch, Azalea a; Anisfeld, Shimon C, and Mitch, Azalea A. Contaminants in Long Island Sound: Data Synthesis and Analysis. 2010 May; 33, (3): 609-628.


Rec #: 47919
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: We synthesized existing data on chemical contaminants in Long Island Sound (LIS) from published reports and unpublished databases. We found several cases of systematic differences between data sources, which complicated the tasks of understanding the health of LIS and of identifying trends over time. Of the three media examined-water, sediment, and biota-sediment (especially in western LIS) most often exhibited pollutant concentrations that were high relative to guidelines and to other estuaries. These high sediment concentrations did not appear to be efficiently transmitted to biota. With the exception of Cd, median pollutant levels in embayment sediments were not higher than in open-water sediments, but the highest levels found in embayments were much higher than at open-water sites, especially for Ag and Hg. Trends over time in contaminant levels were mixed. We identify the most problematic contaminants in LIS and recommend adding Ag to the LIS Study's List of Contaminants of Concern.
Keywords: Q5 01503:Characteristics, behavior and fate
Keywords: Estuarine sedimentation
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Biota
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: guidelines
Keywords: SW 3020:Sources and fate of pollution
Keywords: Sounds
Keywords: Sediment Contamination
Keywords: Cadmium
Keywords: Chemical pollution
Keywords: Synthesis
Keywords: Sediment Concentration
Keywords: Coasts
Keywords: O 4060:Pollution - Environment
Keywords: Marine
Keywords: Sediment pollution
Keywords: ANW, USA, Long Island Sound
Keywords: Estuaries
Keywords: AQ 00003:Monitoring and Analysis of Water and Wastes
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts; Oceanic Abstracts
Keywords: Coastal zone
Keywords: P 1000:MARINE POLLUTION
Keywords: Standards
Keywords: Contaminants
Date revised - 2010-02-01
Language of summary - English
Location - ANW, USA, Long Island Sound
Pages - 609-628
ProQuest ID - 810371728
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Sediment pollution; Estuarine sedimentation; Coastal zone; Biota; guidelines; Estuaries; Cadmium; Chemical pollution; Contaminants; Pollutants; Sounds; Sediment Contamination; Standards; Synthesis; Sediment Concentration; Coasts; ANW, USA, Long Island Sound; Marine
Last updated - 2011-10-25
Corporate institution author - Mitch, Azalea A; Anisfeld, Shimon C
DOI - OB-433ba05f-f7a6-40a6-bb61mfgefd108; 12665841; 1559-2723; 1559-2731 English

914. Miura, P.; Andrews, M.; Holcik, M., and Jasmin, B. J. Ires-Mediated Translation of Utrophin a Is Enhanced by Glucocorticoid Treatment in Skeletal Muscle Cells.


Rec #: 79809
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are currently the only drug treatment recognized to benefit Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. The nature of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remains incompletely understood but may involve an increase in the expression of utrophin. Here, we show that treatment of myotubes with 6alpha-methylprednisolone-21 sodium succinate (PDN) results in enhanced expression of utrophin A without concomitant increases in mRNA levels thereby suggesting that translational regulation contributes to the increase. In agreement with this, we show that PDN treatment of cells transfected with monocistronic reporter constructs harbouring the utrophin A 5'UTR, causes an increase in reporter protein expression while leaving levels of reporter mRNAs unchanged. Using bicistronic reporter assays, we further demonstrate that PDN enhances activity of an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) located within the utrophin A 5'UTR. Analysis of polysomes demonstrate that PDN causes an overall reduction in polysome-associated mRNAs indicating that global translation rates are depressed under these conditions. Importantly, PDN causes an increase in the polysome association of endogenous utrophin A mRNAs and reporter mRNAs harbouring the utrophin A 5'UTR. Additional experiments identified a distinct region within the utrophin A 5'UTR that contains the inducible IRES activity. Together, these studies demonstrate that a translational regulatory mechanism involving increased IRES activation mediates, at least partially, the enhanced expression of utrophin A in muscle cells treated with glucocorticoids. Targeting the utrophin A IRES may thus offer an important and novel therapeutic avenue for developing drugs appropriate for DMD patients.
MESH HEADINGS: Animals
MESH HEADINGS: Base Sequence
MESH HEADINGS: DNA Primers
MESH HEADINGS: Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Mice
MESH HEADINGS: Muscle, Skeletal/*drug effects/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Protein Biosynthesis/*drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Messenger/genetics
MESH HEADINGS: Ribosomes/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Utrophin/*genetics eng

915. Mladenova, R. and Shtereva, D. Pesticide residues in apples grown under a conventional and integrated pest management system. 2009; 26, (6): 854-858.


Rec #: 65309
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: This paper describes method validation for determination of more than 40 pesticides in apples using a GC technique. Target compounds belonged to the organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamates, pyrethroids, triazoles, dicarboximides and strobilurins groups, among others. Sample preparation consisted of acetone extraction and subsequent cleanup/concentration by SPE with a polymer-based sorbent. Single quadrupole GC-MS operating in SIM mode and electron impact ionization was used for identification and quantification of the pesticides. Average recoveries for analytes ranged between 70 and 110% at three fortification levels - 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2 mg kg(-1). Relative standard deviations were lower than 20% for all tested compounds. Calculated limits of detection and limits of quantification were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which were sufficiently low compared to the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by European legislation. The proposed method was applied for determination of pesticide residue in four selected apple varieties after harvesting. Whole and processed fruits (peel and peeled fruits) were analyzed from different treatment systems: two conventional. one based oil integrated pest management (IPM) and two variants based oil organic production (controls). Higher levels of pesticide residues were found in apple fruits under conventional conditions. Fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos residues were detected frequently in apple peel at concentrations up to 0.45 and 0.77 mg kg(-1). respectively. The levels found in the whole fruits of the same samples were much lower than in peel and below the respective MRLs (0.5 mg kg(-1) for both pesticides). Measurable residues of triadimenol only, up to 0.05 mg kg(-1), concentrated in the peel. were Found in the apples from HIM.
Keywords: GC/MS, chromatography, pesticide residues, apple fruit
ISI Document Delivery No.: 473DJ

916. Mohan, S. V.; Sirisha, K.; Rao, R. S., and Sarma, P. N. Bioslurry phase remediation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil: Process evaluation and optimization by Taguchi design of experimental (DOE) methodology. 2007; 68, (2): 252-262.


Rec #: 65319
Keywords: METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was applied to evaluate the influence of eight biotic and abiotic factors (substrate-loading rate, slurry phase pH, slurry phase dissolved oxygen (DO), soil water ratio, temperature, soil microflora load, application of bioaugmentation and humic substance concentration) on the soil bound chlorpyrifos bioremediation in bioslurry phase reactor. The selected eight factors were considered at three levels (18 experiments) in the experimental design. Substrateloading rate showed significant influence on the bioremediation process among the selected factors. Derived optimum operating conditions obtained by the methodology showed enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation from 1479.99 to 2458.33 mu g/g (over all 39.82% enhancement). The proposed method facilitated systematic mathematical approach to understand the complex bioremediation process and the optimization of near optimum design parameters, only with a few well-defined experimental sets. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: bioslurry phase reactor, chloroyrifos, soil, bioremediation, Taguchi
ISI Document Delivery No.: 222TV

917. Molina-Morales, Y; Flores-Garcia, M; Balza-Quintero, a; Benitez-Diaz, P; Miranda-Contreras, L, and Molina-Morales, Y. Pesticide Levels in Superficial Waters of an Agricultural Region in Merida State, Venezuela, Between 2008 and 2010. 2012 Nov; 28, (4): 289-301.


Rec #: 38489
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The strong demand for agricultural production has led to an indiscriminate use of agrochemicals causing the decline in the quality of surface waters. In the agricultural community of Bailadores, Municipality of Rivas Davila, Merida State, Venezuela, the rivers of Las Tapias, Las Playitas and Mocoties were monitored for the presence of pesticide residues during 2008 and 2010. Water samples were subjected to solid phase extraction and analyzed for the presence of pesticide residues by HPLC with diode array detector (SPE-HPLC-DAD) using a validated multiresidual method. The pesticide residues that were detected at higher frequencies and greater concentrations were the following: chlorpyrifos (302.9 plus or minus 0.9 mu g/L), diazinon (459 plus or minus 4.0 mu g/L), dimethoate (55 plus or minus 3.0 mu g/L), mancozeb (108 plus or minus 1.0 mu g/L) and methamidophos (107 plus or minus 8.0 mu g/L), which are all found in the list of highly dangerous pesticides by the International Pesticides Control Network. In all cases, the levels exceeded the limits set by the European Union and the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States. The total concentration of organophosphates also exceeded the limits established by the Venezuelan law. The results of this study demonstrate a high level of pesticide contamination of the principal surface water courses in the Municipality of Rivas Davila. It is recommended to implement a pesticide monitoring program and the need to change the current mode of production to a sustainable agricultural practice, which will allow to reduce the use of agrochemicals and their negative consequences to the environment and the human health.Original Abstract: La fuerte demanda de produccion agricola conlleva al uso indiscriminado de agroquimicos causando el desmejoramiento de la calidad de las aguas superficiales. En la comunidad agricola de Bailadores, municipio Rivas Davila, Estado Merida, Venezuela, fueron monitoreados los rios Las Tapias, Las Playitas y Mocoties por la presencia de residuos de plaguicidas durante 2008 y 2010. Las muestras de agua fueron sometidas a una extraccion en fase solida y se analizo la presencia de residuos de plaguicidas mediante HPLC con detector de arreglo de diodos (SPE-HPLC-DAD). Los residuos de plaguicidas detectados con mayor frecuencia y en mas altas concentraciones fueron los siguientes: clorpirifos (302.9 plus or minus 0.9 mu g/L), diazinon (459 plus or minus 4.0 mu g/L), dimetoato (55 plus or minus 3.0 mu g/L), mancozeb (108 plus or minus 1.0 mu g/L) y metamidofos (107 plus or minus 8.0 mu g/L), los cuales se encuentran en la lista de plaguicidas muy peligrosos de la Red International de Control de Plaguicidas. En todos los casos, los niveles detectados superan los limites establecidos por la Union Europea y la Agencia de Protection Ambiental de los Estados Unidos de America. La concentration total de los organofosforados supera tambien los limites establecidos por la legislation venezolana. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran un alto nivel de contamination por plaguicidas de los principales cursos de aguas superficiales del municipio Rivas Davila. Se recomienda continuar con un programa de monitoreo de plaguicidas y la necesidad de cambiar el modo de produccion actual hacia una practica agricola sostenible, que permita reducir la utilization de agroquimicos y sus consecuencias negativas para el ambiente y la salud humana.
Keywords: Pollution monitoring
Keywords: Water sampling
Keywords: Pesticide residues
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Agricultural production
Keywords: Mexico, Yucatan, Merida
Keywords: Agrochemicals
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: EPA
Keywords: Water Resources Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts
Keywords: USA
Keywords: European Union
Keywords: Venezuela
Date revised - 2013-01-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA; European Union; Mexico, Yucatan, Merida; Venezuela
Pages - 289-301
ProQuest ID - 1272710479
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; EPA; Pollution monitoring; Water sampling; Organophosphates; Surface water; Pesticide residues; Agricultural production; Agrochemicals; USA; European Union; Mexico, Yucatan, Merida; Venezuela
Last updated - 2013-01-25
British nursing index edition - Revista Internacional de Contaminacion Ambiental [Rev. Int. Contam. Ambient.]. Vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 289-301. Nov 2012.
Corporate institution author - Molina-Morales, Y; Flores-Garcia, M; Balza-Quintero, A; Benitez-Diaz, P; Miranda-Contreras, L
DOI - MD-0020288940; 17532310; 0188-4999 English

918. Moliner-Martinez, Y.; Molins-Legua, C.; Verdu-Andres, J.; Herraez-Hernandez, R., and Campins-Falco, P. Advantages of monolithic over particulate columns for multiresidue analysis of organic pollutants by in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to capillary liquid chromatography. 2011; 1218, (37): 6256-6262.


Rec #: 65329
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The performance of a monolithic C(18) column (150 mm x 0.2 mm i.d.) for multiresidue organic pollutants analysis by in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME)-capillary liquid chromatography has been studied, and the results have been compared with those obtained using a particulate C(18) column (150 mm x 0.5 mm i.d., 5 mu m). Chromatographic separation has been carried out under isocratic elution conditions, and for detection and identification of the analytes a UV-diode array detector has been employed. Several compounds of different chemical structure and hydrophobicity have been used as model compounds: simazine, atrazine and terbutylazine (triazines), chlorfenvinphos and chlorpyrifos (organophosphorous), diuron and isoproturon (phenylureas), trifluralin (dinitroaniline) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. The results obtained revealed that the monolithic column was clearly advantageous in the context of multiresidue organic pollutants analysis for a number of reasons: (i) the selectivity was considerably improved, which is of particular interest for the most polar compounds triazines and phenyl ureas that could not be resolved in the particulate column, (ii) the sensitivity was enhanced, and (iii) the time required for the chromatographic separation was substantially shortened. In this study it is also proved that the mobile-phase flow rates used for separation in the capillary monolithic column are compatible with the in-valve IT-SPME methodology using extractive capillaries of dimensions similar to those used in conventional scale liquid chromatography (LC). On the basis of these results a new method is presented for the assessment of pollutants in waters, which permits the characterization of whole samples (4 mL) in less than 30 min, with limits of detection in the range of 5-50 ng/L. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Monolithic columns, Capillary liquid chromatography, In-tube solid-phase
ISI Document Delivery No.: 823HR

919. Monnet-Tschudi, F.; Zurich, M. G., and Honegger, P. Neurotoxicant-induced inflammatory response in three-dimensional brain cell cultures. 2007; 26, (4): 339-346.


Rec #: 65349
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Brain inflammatory response is triggered by the activation of microglial cells and astrocytes in response to various types of CNS injury, including neurotoxic insults. Its outcome is determined by cellular interactions, inflammatory mediators, as well as trophic and/or cytotoxic signals, and depends on many additional factors such as the intensity and duration of the insult, the extent of both the primary neuronal damage and glial reactivity and the developmental stage of the brain. Depending on particular circumstances, the brain inflammatory response can promote neuroprotection, regeneration or neurodegeneration. Glial reactivity, regarded as the central phenomenon of brain inflammation, has also been used as an early marker of neurotoxicity. To study the mechanisms underlying the glial reactivity, serum-free aggregating brain cell cultures were used as an in vitro model to test the effects of conventional neurotoxicants such as organophosphate pesticides, heavy metals, excitotoxins and mycotoxins. This approach was found to be relevant and justified by the complex cell-cell interactions involved in the brain inflammatory response, the variability of the glial reactions and the multitude of mediators involved. All these variables need to be considered for the elucidation of the specific cellular and molecular reactions and their consequences caused by a given chemical insult.
Keywords: aggregating brain cell cultures, astrocyte, brain inflammation,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 166XG

920. Moore, M T; Denton, Debra L; Cooper, Charles M; Wrysinski, Jeanette; Miller, Jeff L; Werner, Inge; Horner, Gerald; Crane, David; Holcomb, Diane B; Huddleston, George M, and Moore, M T. Use of Vegetated Agricultural Drainage Ditches to Decrease Pesticide Transport From Tomato and Alfalfa Fields in California, Usa. 2011 May 1; 30, (5): 1044-1049.


Rec #: 43389
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Irrigation and storm water runoff from agricultural fields has the potential to cause impairment to downstream aquatic receiving systems. Over the last several years, scientists have discovered the benefit of using edge-of-field practices, such as vegetated agricultural drainage ditches, in the mitigation of pesticides and sediment. After demonstrating this practice's feasibility in California, field trials were initiated to document irrigation runoff pesticide mitigation in California alfalfa and tomato fields. In the alfalfa field, chlorpyrifos concentration was decreased by 20% from the inflow to the ditch outflow. Thirty-two percent of the measured chlorpyrifos mass was associated with ditch plant material. In the tomato field, permethrin concentration was decreased by 67% and there was a 35% reduction in suspended sediment concentration from inflow to the ditch outflow. When surface water was not present in the ditch systems, the sediment was a significant repository for pesticides. Based on the field trials, vegetated agricultural drainage ditches can be successfully used as part of a suite of management practices to reduce pesticide and sediment runoff into aquatic receiving systems.
Keywords: Surface water
Keywords: P 2000:FRESHWATER POLLUTION
Keywords: Risk Abstracts; Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: Drainage
Keywords: Irrigation
Keywords: outflow
Keywords: Permethrin
Keywords: alfalfa
Keywords: Sediments
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Lycopersicon esculentum
Keywords: Resuspended sediments
Keywords: mitigation
Keywords: Storm water
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: inflow
Keywords: USA, California
Keywords: R2 23050:Environment
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Runoff
Date revised - 2011-05-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, California
Pages - 1044-1049
ProQuest ID - 869582133
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Surface water; Storm water; Drainage; Irrigation; Pesticides; Permethrin; Runoff; Sediments; Resuspended sediments; mitigation; inflow; outflow; alfalfa; Lycopersicon esculentum; USA, California
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry [Environ. Toxicol. Chem.]. Vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1044-1049. 1 May 2011.
Corporate institution author - Moore, M T; Denton, Debra L; Cooper, Charles M; Wrysinski, Jeanette; Miller, Jeff L; Werner, Inge; Horner, Gerald; Crane, David; Holcomb, Diane B; Huddleston, George M
DOI - 189984c7-9548-4be4-9cd2csaobj201; 14819802; 1552-8618 English

921. Moore, M. T.; Lizotte, R. E.; Knight, S. S.; Smith, S., and Cooper, C. M. Assessment of pesticide contamination in three Mississippi Delta oxbow lakes using Hyalella azteca. 2007; 67, (11): 2184-2191.


Rec #: 65419
Keywords: EFFLUENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Three oxbow lakes in northwestern Mississippi, USA, an area of intensive agriculture, were assessed for biological impairment from historic and current-use pesticide contamination using the amphipod, Hyalella azteca. Surface water and sediment samples from three sites in each lake were collected from Deep Hollow, Beasley, and Thighman Lakes from September 2000 to February 2001. Samples were analyzed for 17 historic and current-use pesticides and selected metabolites. Ten-day H. azteca survival and growth (as length and dry weight) were measured to determine the degree of biological impairment. Maximum number of detectable pesticides in surface water from Deep Hollow, Beasley and Thighman Lakes was 10, 11, and 17, respectively. Maximum number of detectable pesticides in lake sediments was 17, 17, and 15, respectively. Bioassay results indicated no observable survival effects on H. azteca exposed to surface water or sediment from any lake examined and no growth impairment in animals exposed to lake sediments. However, growth was significantly impaired in surface water exposures from Deep Hollow Lake (2 sites) and Beasley Lake (1 site). Statistically significant relationships between growth impairment (length) and cyanazine, methyl parathion, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorfenapyr, and pp'DDE surface water concentrations in Deep Hollow Lake as well as trifluralin, atrazine, and methyl parathion in Beasley Lake were observed. Although pesticide frequency and concentrations were typically greater in sediment than surface water, bioassay results indicated decreased availability of these pesticides in sediment due to the presence of clay and organic carbon. Growth impairment observed in surface water exposures was likely due to complex interaction of pesticide mixtures that were present. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: growth impairment, DDT, triazine, organophosphate
ISI Document Delivery No.: 165VZ

922. Moore, M. T.; Lizotte, R. E., and Smith, S. Toxicity evaluation of diazinon contaminated leaf litter. 2007; 78, (2): 158-161.


Rec #: 65429
Keywords: EFFLUENT, NO SPECIES
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Keywords: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS, LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN, PLANT DETRITUS, ATRAZINE,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 177LI

923. Morais, S.; Carrascosa, J.; Mira, D.; Puchades, R., and Maquieira, A. Microimmunoanalysis on standard compact discs to determine low abundant compounds. 2007; 79, (20): 7628-7635.


Rec #: 65439
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: High-density competitive indirect microimmunoassays were performed in both sides of compact discs by direct absorption of immunoreagents on polyearbonate surface, using gold- or enzyme-labeled immunoglobulins as tracers for displaying the immunoreaction. The operational principle is based on the use of a low-reflectivity compact disc as analytical platform that allows the reflection/transmission (30/70%) of the CD reader laser beam (lambda 780 nm). The reflected light is used to scan the disc track keeping it in movement. The transmitted light is detected by a planar photodiode integrated on the CD drive. The variation of the optical transmission of the light caused by the immunoreaction products is related to the sample concentration. As a proof of concept, low abundant compounds, commonly used as pesticides, were detected in a 60-min total assay time, with a limit of detection ranging from 0.02 to 0.62 mu g/L for 2,4,5-TP, chlorpyriphos, and metolachlor. The obtained results show the enormous prospective of compact discs in combination with CD players for multiresidue and drug discovery applications.
Keywords: LINKED-IMMUNOSORBENT-ASSAY, IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION, MICROARRAYS, PROTEIN,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 220QW

924. Morais, Sergi; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis a; Arnandis-Chover, Tania; Puchades, Rosa, and Maquieira, Angel. Multiplexed Microimmunoassays on a Digital Versatile Disk. 2009 Jul 15; 81, (14): 5646-5654.


Rec #: 48389
Keywords: CHEM METHODS
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Multiplexed microimmunoassays for five critical compounds were developed using a digital versatile disk (DVD) as an analytical support and detecting technology. To this end, coating conjugates were adsorbed on the polycarbonate face of the disk; a pool of specific antibodies, gold labeled secondary antibodies, and silver amplification were addressed for developing the assays. The detection principle is based on the capture of attenuated analog signals with the disk drive that were proportional to optical density of the immunoreaction product. The multiplexed assay achieved detection limits (IC10) of 0.06, 0.25, 0.37, 0.16, and 0.10 microg/L, sensitivities of (IC50) 0.54, 1.54, 2.62, 2.02, and 5.9 microg/L, and dynamic ranges of 2 orders of magnitude for atrazine, chlorpyrifos, metolachlor, sulfathiazole, and tetracycline, respectively. The features of the methodology were verified by analyzing natural waters and compared with reference chromatographic methods, showing its potential for high-throughput multiplexed screening applications. Analytes of different chemical nature (pesticides and antibiotics) were directly quantified without sample treatment or preconcentration in a total time of 30 min with similar sensitivity and selectivity to the ELISA plate format using the same immunoreagents. The multianalyte capabilities of immunoassaying methods developed with digital disk and drive demonstrated the competitiveness to quantify targets that require different sample treatment and instrumentation by chromatographic methods.
Keywords: Water -- analysis
Keywords: Pesticides -- analysis
Keywords: Animals
Keywords: Laboratories
Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents -- analysis
Keywords: Calibration
Keywords: Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Keywords: Water
Keywords: Immunoassay -- instrumentation
Keywords: 7732-18-5
Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents
Keywords: Cattle
Keywords: Compact Disks
Keywords: Immunoassay -- methods
Keywords: 0
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Chromatography, Liquid
Keywords: Time Factors
Date completed - 2009-10-06
Date created - 2009-07-15
Date revised - 2012-12-20
Language of summary - English
Pages - 5646-5654
ProQuest ID - 67485599
Last updated - 2013-01-19
British nursing index edition - Analytical chemistry, July 15, 2009, 81(14):5646-5654
Corporate institution author - Morais, Sergi; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A; Arnandis-Chover, Tania; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel
DOI - MEDL-19522512; 19522512; 1520-6882 eng

925. Moreno-Gonz+ílez, R.; Campillo, J. A.; Garc+ˇa, V., and Le+¦n, V. M. Seasonal input of regulated and emerging organic pollutants through surface watercourses to a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. (0).


Rec #: 5660
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Seasonal input of organic pollutants through El Albuj+¦n Watercourse to the Mar Menor lagoon was estimated from Spring 2009 to Winter 2010, including regular periods and two flash flood events. 82 semivolatile organic pollutants (persistent organic pollutants, different groups of pesticides and others) were determined by stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption followed by capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry from surface waters with quantification limits of a few ng LęĆ1. Pesticide concentrations varied significantly along the watercourse due to the presence of different sources (groundwaters, wastewater effluent, tributary contributions, brackish waters, etc.) and physicochemical/biological processes that take place simultaneously. The most commonly detected analytes were propyzamide, triazine compounds and chlorpyrifos. A clear seasonal pattern has been detected, with a predominance of insecticides during Summer and of herbicides during Winter. The input of pesticides through this watercourse is particularly relevant during periods of heavy rain, representing more than 70% of total yearly input for many of them. Stir bar sorptive extraction/ Semivolatile organic pollutants/ Pesticides/ Surface water input/ Seasonal variations/ Flash flood event

926. Morgan, Marsha K; Sheldon, Linda S; Jones, Paul a; Croghan, Carry W; Chuang, Jane C; Wilson, Nancy K, and Morgan, Marsha K. The Reliability of Using Urinary Biomarkers to Estimate Children's Exposures to Chlorpyrifos and Diazinon. 2011 May; 21, (3): 280-290.


Rec #: 39819
Keywords: HUMAN HEALTH
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A few studies have reported concurrent levels of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) and their environmentally occurring metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (IMP), in food and in environmental media. This information raises questions regarding the reliability of using these same metabolites, TCP and IMP, as urinary biomarkers to quantitatively assess the everyday exposures of children to CPF and DZN, respectively. In this study, we quantified the distributions of CPF, DZN, TCP, and IMP in several environmental and personal media at the homes and day-care centers of 127 Ohio preschool children and identified the important sources and routes of their exposures. The children were exposed to concurrent levels of these four chemicals from several sources and routes at these locations. DZN and IMP were both detected above 50% in the air and dust samples. CPF and TCP were both detected in greater than 50% of the air, dust (solid), food, and hand wipe samples. TCP was detected in 100% of the urine samples. Results from our regression models showed that creatinine levels (<0.001), and dietary (P<0.001) and inhalation (P<0.10) doses of TCP were each significant predictors of urinary TCP, collectively explaining 27% of the urinary TCP variability. This information suggests that measurement of urinary TCP did not reliably allow quantitative estimation of the children's everyday environmental exposures to CPF.
Keywords: Chemicals
Keywords: Inhalation
Keywords: Bioindicators
Keywords: Inosine monophosphate
Keywords: Food
Keywords: Hand
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Children
Keywords: biomarkers
Keywords: Dust
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Creatinine
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Regression analysis
Keywords: USA, Ohio
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts
Date revised - 2011-07-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, Ohio
Pages - 280-290
ProQuest ID - 876243834
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Inhalation; Inosine monophosphate; Food; Hand; Metabolites; Children; biomarkers; Dust; Models; Chlorpyrifos; Creatinine; Urine; Regression analysis; Diazinon; Chemicals; Bioindicators; Pesticides; USA, Ohio
Last updated - 2012-09-24
British nursing index edition - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 280-290. May 2011.
Corporate institution author - Morgan, Marsha K; Sheldon, Linda S; Jones, Paul A; Croghan, Carry W; Chuang, Jane C; Wilson, Nancy K
DOI - 96bc9976-f866-4a8a-963amfgefd101; 14873876; 1559-0631 English

927. Morisseau, Christophe; Merzlikin, Oleg; Lin, Amy; He, Guochun; Feng, Wei; Padilla, Isela; Denison, Michael S; Pessah, Isaac N, and Hammock, Bruce D. Toxicology in the Fast Lane: Application of High-Throughput Bioassays to Detect Modulation of Key Enzymes and Receptors. 2009 Dec; 117, (12): 1867-72.


Rec #: 48239
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: BACKGROUND: Legislation at state, federal, and international levels is requiring rapid evaluation of the toxicity of numerous chemicals. Whole-animal toxicologic studies cannot yield the necessary throughput in a cost-effective fashion, leading to a critical need for a faster and more cost-effective toxicologic evaluation of xenobiotics. OBJECTIVES:
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