Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

A field survey of resistance

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A field survey of resistance was conducted based on the larval packet test technique with synthetic pyrethroids (cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and organophosphates (chlorpyriphos) in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus field populations from six different regions of the State of Sao Paulo (Brazil). 82.6% of the populations showed resistance to cypermethrin, 86.36% to deltamethrin and 65.25% to chlorpyriphos, with 50% presenting resistance to both SP and OP acaricide. According to the questionnaires completed by the producers, OP + SP mixtures followed by SP-only formulations were the products most commonly used for controlling the cattle tick in the surveyed areas. The present study showed high occurrence of resistance to SP and OP in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil and revealed the type of strategy adopted by small dairy farms in this state. This information is fundamental in order to establish the monitoring of resistance on each farm individually, contributing to the rational use of acaricides for the control of R. (B.) microplus. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Acaricide resistance, Synthetic
ISI Document Delivery No.: 781AB

888. Mendonis, M ; Papoutsis, I; Pistos, C; Athanaselis, S; Spiliopoulou, C; Maravelias, C, and Mendonis, M. Determination of Anticholinesterase Insecticides in Biological Fluids Using a Gas Chromatographic Method. Applications in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology. 2008 Jun; 46, (5): 413.

Rec #: 45859
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Objective: Anticholinesterase insecticides are widely used in most countries and as a result they are accused of being responsible for numerous acute and even fatal poisonings. Therefore, they must always be considered when investigating relevant forensic and clinical cases (1). The aim of the study was the development of a rapid, specific, sensitive and accurate method for the determination of eleven anticholinesterase insecticides (aldicarb, methomyl, methamidophos, carbofuran, diazinon, terbufos, chlorpyrifos, malathion, methidathion, azin-phos, dialifos) in blood. Method: A gas-chromatographic method combined with nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD) was developed, optimized and validated for the determination of the above pesticides. Only a small amount of blood (0.5 ml) is needed for the isolation of ana-lytes by liquid-liquid extraction with solvent mixture of toluene: chloroform (4:1). The organic phase was evaporated and the residues were reconstituted by addition of hexane, before of the injection (1 mu l) onto GC-NPD. Mevinphos was used as internal standard. Results: The recoveries were more than 80% for all the analytes. The calibration curves were linear in the corresponding dynamic ranges with correlation coefficient more than 0.996. For all analytes, the limits of detection were found between 1-15 ng/ml with S/N (3:1) and limits of quantitation were 3-50 ng/ml with S/N (10:1). Accuracy and precision were also calculated and were found to be less than 13%. The method was successfully applied to 6 insecticide poisoning cases where the organophosphates were determined. The identification results were confirmed by GC-MS. Conclusion: The method is simple, sensitive and specific and measures the levels of the insecticides in question in blood or other biological fluids. Therefore it could contribute to the investigation of both forensic and clinical toxicological cases of accidental and suicidal poisoning.
Keywords: Organophosphates
Keywords: Toluene
Keywords: Carcinoembryonic antigen
Keywords: methidathion
Keywords: Malathion
Keywords: Chloroform
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Forensic science
Keywords: Quantitation
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: suicide
Keywords: Environment Abstracts; Toxicology Abstracts
Keywords: methamidophos
Keywords: Carbofuran
Keywords: Residues
Keywords: Solvents
Keywords: Poisoning
Keywords: Aldicarb
Keywords: carbofuran
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: ENA 02:Toxicology & Environmental Safety
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Blood
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Diazinon
Keywords: n-Hexane
Date revised - 2008-07-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 413
ProQuest ID - 20255256
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Insecticides; Poisoning; Pesticides; suicide; Toluene; Organophosphates; carbofuran; Chlorpyrifos; Residues; Forensic science; Blood; methamidophos; Diazinon; Solvents; Carbofuran; Carcinoembryonic antigen; Quantitation; methidathion; Aldicarb; Chloroform; n-Hexane; Malathion; organophosphates
Last updated - 2011-12-14
British nursing index edition - Clinical Toxicology [Clin. Toxicol.]. Vol. 46, no. 5, p. 413. Jun 2008.
Corporate institution author - Mendonis, M; Papoutsis, I; Pistos, C; Athanaselis, S; Spiliopoulou, C; Maravelias, C
DOI - MD-0008302738; 8342782; 1556-3650 English

889. Meng, Junwang; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Xinyu, and Shu, Jinian. Heterogeneous ozonation of suspended malathion and chlorpyrifos particles. 2010 Apr; 79, ( 4): 394-400.

Rec #: 1230
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The heterogeneous ozonation of suspended malathion and chlorpyrifos particles are studied in real-time with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS). The pesticide particles with the diameter of hundreds of nanometers are generated by the homogeneous nucleation method using azelaic acid as nucleus. The reactions are carried out in an aerosol reaction chamber under ambient pressure (1 atm) and room temperature (298 K), respectively. The time-of-flight mass spectra of the solid-state ozonation products of malathion and chlorpyrifos are obtained. The assignments of the mass spectra reveal that the major ozonation products of malathion particles are s-(1,2-diethoxycarbonyl)ethyl-O,O-dimethylphosphorothioate (malaoxon), 2-mercapto-succinic acid diethylester, 1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl-dimethoxyphosphinyldisulfide and bis(1,2-bis-ethoxycarbonyl-ethyl)disulfide. The experimental results reveal that water vapor can enhance the formation of malaoxon, 2-mercapto-succinic acid diethylester and bis(1,2-bis-ethoxycarbonyl-ethyl)disulfide. In the case of chlorpyrifos, the sole ozonation product observed is 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl-diethylphosphate (chlorpyrifos oxon). The pathways of heterogeneous ozonation of malathion and chlorpyrifos particles are proposed. The atmospheric lifetimes of malathion and chlorpyrifos particles towards ozone reaction are estimated based on the time-dependent mass spectrometric signals obtained. Pesticide/ Ozonation/ Malathion/ Chlorpyrifos/ Aerosol/ AMS

890. Menn, J. J.; King, E. G., and Coleman, R. J. Future Control Strategies for Heliothis in Cotton. 1989; 10, 101-121.

Rec #: 220
Keywords: REVIEW
Notes: EcoReference No.: 153341

891. Menzie, C. M. Metabolism of Pesticides. 1969: 487 p.

Rec #: 230
Keywords: REVIEW
Call Number: NO REVIEW (CPY)
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY

892. Merbl, Y.; Aroch, I.; Klainbart, S.; Aizenberg, Z., and Kelmer, E. INTERMEDIATE SYNDROME OF CHLORPYRIPHOS TOXICITY (POLARIS (R)) IN A CARACAL (CARACAL CARACAL). 2011; 42, (1): 144-148.

Rec #: 65189
Keywords: INCIDENT
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A 5-yr-old spayed female caracal (Caracal caracal) was presented with complaints of acute onset of mental dullness, ataxia, and ventroflexion of 24-hr duration. The animal's garden territory was sprayed a day earlier with an organophosphate (OP) insecticide (chlorpyriphos-methyl). The caracal was treated for OP toxicosis and mildly improved. It was discharged a day later at the owner's request, although clinical signs did not resolve. During the following week, the caracal was confined to prevent further toxin exposure but did not improve and was presented 8 days later with similar clinical signs. Serum butyril-cholinesterase activity was markedly low. The relatively long interval from OP exposure, along with the duration of clinical signs, suggested an intermediate syndrome of OP toxicity. The caracal was treated symptomatically and progressively improved. It was discharged after 8 days of hospitalization and made full recovery 30 days later. This is the first report of OP toxicity in a caracal, suspected to progress to an intermediate syndrome of OP poisoning.
Keywords: Caracal caracal, organophosphates, toxicity, intermediate syndrome
ISI Document Delivery No.: 736EC

893. Mergler, D. Neurotoxic exposures and effects: Gender and sex matter! Hanninen Lecture 2011. 2012; 33, (4): 644-651.

Rec #: 65199
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Although males and females differ both biologically and in their social and power relations throughout their life span, research in environmental and occupational neurotoxicology often ignore sex and/or gender as a characteristic that requires in-depth consideration. The neurotoxicology literature continues to confuse the terms sex (biological attributes) and gender (socially constructed roles and behavior) and the words are still used interchangeably. Throughout the lifespan, sex and gender are in interaction and both may play a role in influencing exposure and effect. Studies that have examined both males and females, provide evidence for sex differences in toxicokinetics and responses to neurotoxic assault as well as gender differences in exposure patterns, biomarkers of exposure, neurobehavioral performance and social consequences. Integrating sex and gender considerations into research in neurotoxicology would not only provide us with a better understanding of the mechanisms and pathways that lead to toxic assault, but also provide a means to improve preventive intervention strategies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Gender, Sex, Neurotoxicology, Environmental exposures, Occupational
ISI Document Delivery No.: 990FU

894. Merli, A.; Reeves, G.; Meregalli, G.; Piccinini, A.; Negri, I.; Carmignano, P.; Balderacchi, M., and Capri, E. Surface-water exposure to quinoxyfen: Assessment in landscape vineyards. 2010; 383, (1-2): 62-72.

Rec #: 65209
Keywords: SURVEY
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Protection of surface- and ground-water quality is critical for economic viability, as well as for human health and the environment. Furthermore, maintenance of the biodiversity of natural aquatic ecosystems is very important. The objective of this paper is to report methodology developed for the assessment of the surface-water exposure to pesticide using as example the fungicide quinoxyfen because persistent, lipophylic and hazard for the aquatic organisms. Exposure monitoring was carried out over two years (2005 and 2006) following historical and subsequent applications in Italian vineyards and to investigate the presence of residue in non-target areas close to the crop receiving repeated applications. After development of the monitoring procedures, surface-water contamination and biota exposure were determined during and after field treatments. Very low concentrations were found in sediments, often in contradiction with model and laboratory results, leading to the conclusion that even the historical use of quinoxyfen in vineyards within the catchment was not contaminating sediment in water bodies, which was regarded as the natural sink for such a pesticide due to its strong sorptive properties. For biota, quinoxyfen residues in benthic macroinvertebrates and fish in the vast majority of the samples were below the corresponding limit of detection (LOD). Thus long-term accumulation of quinoxyfen in sediments and organisms of the aquatic ecosystems would not be expected due main to the environmental conditions of the landscape that mitigate the overall exposure. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pesticide, Quinoxyfen, Aquatic organisms, Surface-water exposure
ISI Document Delivery No.: 574CQ

895. Merrill, Elaine; Ruark, Chris; Gearhart, Jeff, and Robinson, Peter. CHAPTER 62 - Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Countermeasures to Nerve Agents. Ramesh C. Gupta. Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. San Diego: Academic Press; 2009: 951-964.

Rec #: 4540
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ISSN/ISBN: 978-0-12-374484-5 Publisher Summary

896. Merugu, R; Prasad, Msk; Girisham, S; Reddy, S M, and Merugu, R. Tolerance of Certain Pesticides by Two Nitrogen Fixing Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria. 2008 Sep; 7, (3): 467-469.

Rec #: 45639
Keywords: BACTERIA
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The tolerance of some pesticides by two anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, isolated from leather industry effluents, was investigated. Rhodobacterium capsulatus was found to be more resistant than Rhodopseudomonas acidophila to the pesticides tried in the present investigation. The pattern of inhibition of growth for both the organisms show that chlorpyrifos was most potent followed by methyl parathion, endosulfan, rogor and kitazin in a descending order.
Keywords: Leather
Keywords: Pollution Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts
Keywords: Effluents
Keywords: Endosulfan
Keywords: Rhodopseudomonas acidophila
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Phototrophic bacteria
Keywords: Methyl parathion
Keywords: Pollution
Keywords: Nitrogen
Keywords: Parathion
Date revised - 2008-12-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 467-469
ProQuest ID - 290274613
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Rhodopseudomonas acidophila; Pesticides; Parathion; Effluents; Nitrogen; Endosulfan; Chlorpyrifos; Phototrophic bacteria; Pollution; Methyl parathion; Leather
Last updated - 2011-11-03
Corporate institution author - Merugu, R; Prasad, MSK; Girisham, S; Reddy, S M
DOI - OB-MD-0008865178; 8606147; 0972-6268 English

897. Metcalf, R. L. Laboratory Model Ecosystem Evaluation of the Chemical and Biological Behavior of Radiolabeled Micropollutants. SOIL; 1975; 5, 141-151.

Rec #: 240
Keywords: PUBL AS

898. Mey, A. R.; Craig, S. A., and Payne, S. M. Effects of Amino Acid Supplementation on Porin Expression and Toxr Levels in Vibrio Cholerae.

Rec #: 50069
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Vibrio cholerae responds to environmental changes by altering the protein composition of its outer membrane. In rich medium, V. cholerae expresses almost exclusively the outer membrane porin OmpU, whereas in minimal medium, OmpT is the dominant porin. The supplementation of a minimal medium with a mixture of asparagine, arginine, glutamic acid, and serine (NRES) promotes OmpU production and OmpT repression at levels similar to those seen with rich media. Here we show that the altered Omp profile is not due to an increase in the growth rate in the presence of supplemental amino acids but requires the addition of specific amino acids. The effects of the NRES mix on Omp production were mediated by ToxR, a known regulator of omp gene expression. No changes in the Omp profile were detected in a toxR mutant. Supplementation with the NRES mix resulted in significantly higher levels of ToxR, and the elevated ToxR levels were sufficient to cause a switch in Omp synthesis. The increase in the level of the ToxR protein correlated with an increase in toxR mRNA levels and was observed only when toxR was expressed from its native promoter. ToxS, which is required for ToxR activity, was necessary for NRES-mediated omp gene regulation but not for the increase in ToxR levels. The growth of V. cholerae in the presence of bile acids also resulted in Omp switching, and this required ToxR. However, unlike the NRES mix, bile acids did not increase either ToxR protein or toxR mRNA levels, suggesting a different mechanism of omp gene regulation by bile than that by amino acids.
MESH HEADINGS: Adhesins, Bacterial/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Amino Acids/metabolism/*pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Bacterial Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Bile Acids and Salts/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Culture Media
MESH HEADINGS: DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/*drug effects
MESH HEADINGS: Intestines/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Mucins/metabolism/pharmacology
MESH HEADINGS: Porins/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Promoter Regions, Genetic
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Bacterial/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Temperature
MESH HEADINGS: Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Vibrio cholerae/drug effects/*metabolism eng

899. Meyer, A.; Koifman, S.; Koifman, R. J.; Moreira, J. C.; Chrisman, J. D., and Abreu-Villaca, Y. Mood Disorders Hospitalizations, Suicide Attempts, and Suicide Mortality Among Agricultural Workers and Residents in an Area With Intensive Use of Pesticides in Brazil. 2010; 73, (13-14): 866-877.

Rec #: 65219
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: As suicide rates have increased in rural areas in Brazil, it was postulated that pesticide exposure may play a role in this phenomenon. Our study compared the suicide mortality rates observed among agricultural workers from a pesticide-intensive area in Brazil to the suicide mortality frequency noted in three reference populations. In addition, hospitalization rates attributed to suicide attempts and mood disorders including depression in residents of the same agricultural area were compared to two reference populations. Finally, data on pesticide sales per agricultural worker were obtained for each city of Rio de Janeiro State and suicide mortality risk was then calculated according to the quartiles of pesticide sales per agricultural workers, using the first quartile as reference. Agricultural workers were at greater risk for lethality due to suicide when compared to all three reference populations. In addition, residents of the same study area showed higher hospitalization rates by suicide attempts and mood disorders than observed in comparison populations. Results also showed that the risk of death by suicide was significantly higher among agricultural workers who lived in areas of Rio de Janeiro State displaying higher rates of pesticide expenditure per agricultural worker. These results suggest that pesticide exposure may indeed increase the risk of suicide frequency, especially among agricultural workers.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 612TB

900. Michael, H. A. and Voss, C. I. Evaluation of the Sustainability of Deep Groundwater as an Arsenic-Safe Resource in the Bengal Basin.

Rec #: 51199
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Tens of millions of people in the Bengal Basin region of Bangladesh and India drink groundwater containing unsafe concentrations of arsenic. This high-arsenic groundwater is produced from shallow ( < 100 m) depths by domestic and irrigation wells in the Bengal Basin aquifer system. The government of Bangladesh has begun to install wells to depths of >150 m where groundwater arsenic concentrations are nearly uniformly low, and many more wells are needed, however, the sustainability of deep, arsenic-safe groundwater has not been previously assessed. Deeper pumping could induce downward migration of dissolved arsenic, permanently destroying the deep resource. Here, it is shown, through quantitative, large-scale hydrogeologic analysis and simulation of the entire basin, that the deeper part of the aquifer system may provide a sustainable source of arsenic-safe water if its utilization is limited to domestic supply. Simulations provide two explanations for this result: deep domestic pumping only slightly perturbs the deep groundwater flow system, and substantial shallow pumping for irrigation forms a hydraulic barrier that protects deeper resources from shallow arsenic sources. Additional analysis indicates that this simple management approach could provide arsenic-safe drinking water to >90% of the arsenic-impacted region over a 1,000-year timescale. This insight may assist water-resources managers in alleviating one of the world's largest groundwater contamination problems.
MESH HEADINGS: Arsenic/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Computer Simulation
MESH HEADINGS: Environmental Monitoring/*methods
MESH HEADINGS: Models, Theoretical
MESH HEADINGS: Reproducibility of Results
MESH HEADINGS: Soil/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Soil Pollutants/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Water Supply/*analysis/standards eng

901. Michiels, J. F.; Perrin, C.; Leccia, N.; Massi, D.; Grimaldi, P., and Wagner, N. Pparbeta Activation Inhibits Melanoma Cell Proliferation Involving Repression of the Wilms' Tumour Suppressor Wt1.

Rec #: 50619
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that strongly influence molecular signalling in normal and cancer cells. Although increasing evidence suggests a role of PPARs in skin carcinogenesis, only expression of PPARgamma has been investigated in human melanoma tissues. Activation of PPARalpha has been shown to inhibit the metastatic potential, whereas stimulation of PPARgamma decreased melanoma cell proliferation. We show here that the third member of the PPAR family, PPARbeta/delta is expressed in human melanoma samples. Specific pharmacological activation of PPARbeta using GW0742 or GW501516 in low concentrations inhibits proliferation of human and murine melanoma cells. Inhibition of proliferation is accompanied by decreased expression of the Wilms' tumour suppressor 1 (WT1), which is implicated in melanoma proliferation. We demonstrate that PPARbeta directly represses WT1 as (1) PPARbeta activation represses WT1 promoter activity; (2) in chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified a binding element for PPARbeta in the WT1 promoter; (3) deletion of this binding element abolishes repression by PPARbeta and (4) the WT1 downstream molecules nestin and zyxin are down-regulated upon PPARbeta activation. Our findings elucidate a novel mechanism of signalling by ligands of PPARbeta, which leads to suppression of melanoma cell growth through direct repression of WT1.
MESH HEADINGS: Aged, 80 and over
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Line, Tumor
MESH HEADINGS: Cell Proliferation
MESH HEADINGS: Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/physiology
MESH HEADINGS: Melanoma/classification/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: PPAR-beta/*metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: Skin/metabolism
MESH HEADINGS: WT1 Proteins/*metabolism eng

902. Middlemore-Risher, Mary-Louise; Adam, Bao-Ling; Lambert, Nevin a, and Terry, Alvin V. Effects of Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos-Oxon on the Dynamics and Movement of Mitochondria in Rat Cortical Neurons. 2011 Nov; 339, (2): 341-349.

Rec #: 39309
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphate (OP)-based pesticides have been used extensively for decades, and as a result, they have become almost ubiquitous in our environment. There is clinical and animal evidence to suggest that chronic exposures to OPs can lead to cognitive dysfunction and other neurological abnormalities, although the mechanism for these effects is unknown. We previously reported that repeated, subthreshold exposures (defined as doses not associated with signs of acute toxicity) to the commonly used OP chlorpyrifos (CPF) resulted in protracted impairments in the performance of attention and memory-related tasks in rodents as well as deficits in axonal transport ex vivo (in the sciatic nerve). Here, we investigated the effects of CPF and its active metabolite CPF oxon (CPO) on the dynamics and movement of mitochondria in rat primary cortical neurons using time-lapse imaging techniques.

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