Anthropology 0680 Introduction to Physical Anthropology
extant Anthropoids: early fusion of metopic (frontal) suture and mandibular symphysis; nails on all digits; reduction to 3 premolars in each quadrant of the jaw; partial postorbital closure; discoidal, hemochorial placentation; simplex uterus; partial fusion of upper lip; lack of rhinarium.
Platyrrhini: broad-nosed primates; New World monkeys; difficult to unite group on morphology and even genetics
Cebids (Cebidae): larger, most diurnal (Aotus is nocturnal); many with prehensile tail; folivorous, frugivorous
Callithricids (Callitrichidae [note different but correct spellings]; marmosets, tamarins): smaller, diurnal; folivorous, frugivorous, gummivorous; claw-like nails; only 2 molars in each quadrant of the jaw; simple molar morphology; lack muscles for facial expression; typically bear twins; "phyletic dwarfs"
Catarrhini: narrow-nosed primates (narrow internarial region formed by anterior growth of cartilaginous nasal septum): Old World monkeys and hominoids; 2 premolars in each quadrant of the jaw; complete postorbital closure; ischial callosities; tubular ectotympanic (bony auditory tube) and flatter, denser auditory bulla
Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys): diurnal; bilophodonty and sectorial lower first premolar; marked sexual dimorphism; often very structured dominance hierarchies; di- or even polychromatism in some species; two groups:
Cercopithecinae (e.g. baboons, mandrills, macaques; small object feeding [concentrated, high energy food sources]; cheek pouches; fingers not excessively long relative to thumb length; typically more ground dwelling
Colobinae (e.g Colobus); leaf eating; sacculated stomachs; elongate arms and fingers, but short (sometimes barely visible) thumbs; typically tree dwelling
Hominoidea (lesser apes + large-bodied hominoids [= great apes + hominids]): all diurnal; tailless; elongate clavicle; dorsoventrally compressed thoracic cavity; scapula dorsally placed; shoulder joints laterally placed; dissociation of distal ulna from wrist bones; reduction in number of lumbar vertebrae; break up of regular pattern of palatine ridges; reduction in ossification of epiphyses at birth.
Hylobatidae (lesser apes, the gibbons and siamangs); Asian; tropical rain forest; folivorous, frugivorous; only truly monogamous primate (no sexual dimorphism); only true brachiator (ricochetal brachiation); excessively elongate arms and fingers, with markedly reduced thumbs
Large-bodied hominoids: Pan (chimpanzee): P. troglodytes (common chimp) and P. paniscus (pygmy chimp), Gorilla (gorilla) (Pan and Gorilla = the African apes), Pongo (the orangutan, Borneo and Sumatra), and hominids; further reduction in number of lumbar vertebrae; further break up of palatine ridges; deeper and shorter scapula; thickening of palate and truncation of anterior palatine fenestrae into incisive canals; further reduction in ossification of epiphyses at birth; females produce estriol during pregnancy and menstrual cycle; increase in cerebral asymmetries (frontal and occipital lobes as well as Sylvian sulcus).